R S Iyer

Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India

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Publications (25)68.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of empirical antibiotic combinations in the treatment of febrile neutropenic patients has decreased complication-related mortality in cancer patients. We have analyzed retrospectively 499 consecutive episodes of fever in 432 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia over a 5-year period. We have compared various antibiotic combinations used empirically in our study. Of the febrile episodes, 92% were neutropenic. The most common site of clinical documentation was the lung. The most common pathogen isolated in our setting was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.27%). The overall response rate to first-line empirical antibiotic combination was seen in 61.92%, the best results being with ceftazidime and amikacin combination (65.69%). A uniform antibiotic policy resulted in a decrease in mortality, with the number of deaths decreasing significantly in the 1989 to 1991 era (P = 0.00000003). The other contributing factors were an improvement in the supportive care with a reduction in length of hospital stay during induction. Our fungal isolates demonstrated 11 patients with documented fungal infection with a positive outcome in 8 patients.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 05/1994; 11(3):271-80. DOI:10.3109/08880019409141670 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be cured with effective modern day therapy. However, more and more long term sequelae including carcinogenic potential of the treatment are being recognised. We report two children who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the age of 4 and 5 years respectively and were successfully treated. They developed meningioma and astrocytoma at 9 and 3 years respectively after completion of therapy. Both were treated surgically and the patient with astrocytoma also received radiotherapy. Both are now free of disease 19 months after diagnosis of second neoplasm.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 04/1994; 13(1-2):183-6. DOI:10.3109/10428199409051670 · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • S H Advani · S R Rao · R S Iyer · S K Pai · P A Kurkure · C N Nair
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    ABSTRACT: Eight patients with advanced/recurrent retinoblastomas were treated with sequential combination chemotherapy incorporating cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, adriamycin, and etoposide. All patients achieved complete clinical response (CR) at the end of the first 75 day cycle. Three patients developed recurrence of which 2 patients had recurrence in the central nervous system and 1 patient had local recurrence. Median time to treatment failure was 30 weeks. Two patients succumbed to chemotherapy related neutropenic sepsis. One patient is alive and disease free for 72 weeks from start of treatment. This combination chemotherapy shows promise in patients with advanced/recurrent retinoblastoma and merits further study.
    Medical and Pediatric Oncology 02/1994; 22(2):125-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Eighty eight patients with myelodysplastic syndromes were studied to determine the clinical and pathological features and the prognosis. All the patients had anemia. Neutropenia was seen in 44% and thrombocytopenia in 78% patients. The subtypes included refractory anemia in six, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts in three, refractory anemia with excess blasts in 30, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation in 32 and chronic myelomonocytic anemia in 17 patients. Forty four patients who received chemotherapy were evaluable for response. Three of the 15 patients treated with hydroxyurea achieved partial remission. Eighteen patients were treated with low dose cytosine arabinoside and complete remission was achieved in five and partial response in six patients. Aggressive chemotherapy was given to 11 patients at the onset of the illness resulting in complete remission in six and partial response in two patients. Nineteen of the 88 patients transformed to acute myeloid leukemia. The crude survival of all the patients ranged from 15 days to 22.5 months. The mortality was due to hemorrhage in 15% and septicemia in 85%. Our data reveals ineffectiveness of the current therapy and emphasizes on the need to develop newer therapeutic approaches.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 01/1994; 30(4):169-75. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have screened the entire coding region of c-myc in a panel of Burkitt's lymphomas (BLs) and mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs). Contrary to the belief that c-myc is wild type in these tumours, we found that 65% of 57 BLs and 30% of 10 PCTs tested exhibit at least one amino acid (aa) substitution. These mutations were apparently homozygous in all BL cell lines tested and two tumour biopsies, implying that the mutations often occur before Myc/Ig translocation in BL. In PCTs, only the mutant c-myc allele was expressed indicating a functional homozygosity, but occurrence of mutations after the translocation. Many of the observed mutations are clustered in regions associated with transcriptional activation and apoptosis, and in BLs, they frequently occur at sites of phosphorylation, suggesting that the mutations have a pathogenetic role.
    Nature Genetics 10/1993; 5(1):56-61. DOI:10.1038/ng0993-56 · 29.65 Impact Factor
  • S R Rao · R S Iyer · C N Nair · P A Kurkure · S K Pai · S H Advani
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    ABSTRACT: The results of 19 children with neuroblastoma under one year of age treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1981-1990 were analysed. Biologically, neuroblastomas in children under the age of 12 months have an entirely different prognosis as compared to older children. There were four children less than six months of age and 15 children between six and 12 months. All patients with stage II (2/2) disease are alive; 3/4 patients with stage IV-S disease are disease free; 3/5 stage III patients are disease free and 2/8 patients with stage IV disease are disease free. The survival of infants with stage II and IV-S is better than for those with stage III and IV disease.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 07/1993; 30(2):85-7. · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • R S Iyer · S R Rao · S Pai · S H Advani · I T Magrath
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    ABSTRACT: L-asparaginase is a valuable chemotherapeutic agent used in the induction of remission and improvement of long term survival in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hyperglycemia is a well known side effect of L-asparaginase. Fourteen patients developed hyperglycemia during induction therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with L-asparaginase, prednisolone, vincristine and daunorubicin. Hyperglycemia was observed after a mean of five doses of L-asparaginase (range 2-10). Seven of fourteen patients had neutropenic related infective episodes. Hyperglycemia resolved in all patients within 12 days (range 4-25) and two patients died of neutropenic septicemia. During reinduction therapy with the same drugs, only one out of ten patients developed hyperglycemia E-coli-L-asparaginase was replaced by Erwinia asparaginase in two patients one of who had recrudescence on further therapy. Close monitoring during L-asparaginase therapy for hyperglycemia will enable prompt recognition and early correction and prevent delay in therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 07/1993; 30(2):72-6. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifteen patients with lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (LyBC-CML) and five patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia converting to Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (ALL Ph + CML) were followed. Seven of 15 (46.7%) LyBC-CML patients developed meningeal leukemia within a median period of 6 months (range 2-11 months), while there was no medullary relapse. Five of these responded well to triple intrathecal therapy. In the ALL Ph + CML patients, in spite of central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis with IT MTX and 18 Gy cranial radiation, two of five patients (40%) experienced meningeal leukemia, one isolated and the other with medullary relapse. The data confirm that LyBC-CML patients experience a high incidence of meningeal leukemia. The role of CNS prophylaxis is not very clear, but its use may delay development and reduce morbidity due to CNS disease.
    American Journal of Hematology 05/1993; 43(1):10-3. DOI:10.1002/ajh.2830430104 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SCL gene rearrangement is the most common molecular lesion (25%) identified so far in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Since the frequency of T-ALL appears to be relatively higher in developing countries, we wished to determine as to what fraction of T-ALL from this population harbor SCL rearrangements. We show in this study that although the overall frequency of SCL/SIL rearrangements in T-ALL is similar to the Western countries this is at the expense of increased type A rearrangements. Whether the paucity of type B rearrangements reflects a difference in disease etiology in this part of the world is to be determined.
    International Journal of Oncology 05/1993; 2(5):725-30. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2.5.725 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between 1984-1987, 50 patients with Ewing's sarcoma of the bone were entered on combined modality protocol at Tata Memorial Hospital. Protocol treatment involved induction therapy consisting of 6-week therapy with vincristine, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), and cyclophosphamide (VDC) followed by local radiotherapy 50 Gy to the involved bone. This was followed for six more cycles of VDC. Five patients had metastatic disease at presentation. Seventy-six percent (38/50) of patients had disease either at axial or proximal site. With a median follow-up of 48 months (range 14-87) 21 patients remained alive with disease-free survival of 38.0% +/- 2.5% at 5 years and overall survival of 36.0% +/- 2.6% at 5 years. Twenty-five patients relapsed with five patients developing local failure and four local and distant metastasis. Using Lee-Desu statistical methods, only response to therapy was a significant factor for survival. We conclude that more aggressive therapy with proper selection of local treatment modality including surgery and/or radiotherapy is required to produce more long-term survival in high-risk Ewing's sarcoma.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/1993; 52(3):188-92. DOI:10.1002/jso.2930520315 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine patients with high-grade nonmetastatic osteogenic sarcoma of the extremities were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy following definitive surgery. Chemotherapy consisted of systemic intravenous Adriamycin and cisplatin in a sequential fashion given for six courses. Nineteen out of 29 patients are alive and continuously disease free over a follow-up period ranging from 9+ to 30+ months. The relapse-free survival was 72%, and overall survival for the entire group was 69%. Median survival is not reached yet. Six out of 29 patients relapsed, of which 1 patient is alive for 6+ months after relapse. Three patients died of chemotherapy toxicity. The results were superior to historical controls treated with surgery alone. The need for more aggressive treatment approaches is discussed.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/1993; 52(3):181-4. DOI:10.1002/jso.2930520313 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • S R Rao · R S Iyer · B Gladstone · S H Advani
    Indian pediatrics 03/1993; 30(2):257-61. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty three newly diagnosed patients of de novo acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) received treatment consisting of remission induction with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on day one and continuous infusion of cytosine arabinoside 200 mg/m2/day over 24 h from day one to 7. Thereafter patients in complete remission received consolidation chemotherapy with two identical courses. Complete remission (CR) could be achieved in 40 patients (75.5%). Seven patients (13.2%) died with complications during aplasia phase following remission induction therapy while six patients (11.3%) had resistant disease. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) developed relapse while eight patients (15.1%) continue to remain in complete remission ranging from 51 to 68 months (median 62.5). The projected event free survival and disease free survival at 60 months is 15 per cent (SE + 11.9%) and 21 per cent (+6%) respectively. Evaluation of the prognostic significance of pretherapy characteristics showed that infection at presentation and low number of myeloperoxidase (MPO) containing blasts affected the achievement of complete remission adversely on univariate analysis. Similarly age at diagnosis, of more than 45 yr, total leucocyte count of 50,000/cumm or more and low number of MPO containing blasts affected the remission duration (disease free survival) adversely on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, MPO positivity of blast cells, remained the only significant independent characteristic. High MPO positivity affected the remission duration favourably (P < 0.01). Patients with high MPO positivity also achieved CR with one induction cycle in 32 out of 40 instances while only 2 out of 5 patients with low MPO positivity, achieved CR with one chemotherapy cycle (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 02/1993; 98:8-14. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ninety-eight single lumen and two double lumen silicone right atrial Hickman/Broviac catheters inserted in 91 patients with various malignancies over a period of 36 months were prospectively studied. The average duration of use for all Hickman/Broviac catheters was 7,460 days with an average of 74.6 days. A total of 41 episodes of catheter-related infections were documented in all patients (0.5 per 100 access days). Catheter related bacteremia was the most frequent type of infection (31 out of 41, 75%). Majority of the bacteremias could be controlled with routine antimicrobial therapy. Exit site infections were seen in 5 Hickman/Broviac catheters. Two catheters had to be removed because of catheter tunnel infections. Gram negative bacteremic infections were the most common, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the major pathogen. Silicone rubber Hickman/Broviac catheters proved to be convenient, reliable, and easily manageable devices in our experience.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/1992; 51(3):183-7. DOI:10.1002/jso.2930510312 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pure red cell aplasia associated with lymphoproliferative malignancies other than thymoma is an uncommon occurrence. In the present paper we report a rare case of nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with pure red cell aplasia who presented with symptoms related to anemia rather than the lymphoma and responded well to combination chemotherapy.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 10/1992; 29(3):159-63. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen children with myelodysplastic syndrome as defined by the French-American-British co-operative group are presented. The mean age was 10.5 (2.5 to 16) years, with a male predominance. All patients belonged to the more aggressive subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes. Seven patients presented with refractory anaemia with excess blasts, six had refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and three had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis done in 7 of the 16 patients, revealed karyotype abnormalities involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 17. One patient with Down's syndrome had karyotype of 47, XY, +21 (major clone) and 46, XY (minor clone). Five of these patients evolved to acute leukemia. The mean duration of survival was 5.5 months. Aggressive chemotherapy as a primary line of treatment induced remission in five out of six patients. Predominance of aggressive types of myelodysplastic syndromes in children and their good but short-lived response to aggressive chemotherapy suggests the need for early bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy.
    The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 07/1992; 59(4):443-8. DOI:10.1007/BF02751559 · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • S R Rao · R S Iyer · S H Advani
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 04/1992; 40(3):206-7.
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    ABSTRACT: During 1984-1986, a total of 128 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated with an induction-consolidation regimen consisting of doxorubicin, vincristine, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisolone. One hundred two (80%) patients belonged to high-risk group. The complete remission rate for all the patients was 91%. The event-free survival at 5 years was 32.0% +/- 23%. On multivariate analysis the event-free survival and disease-free survival was not altered by age, sex, WBC count, platelet count, LDH level, and surface phenotype. Infection due to prolonged marrow aplasia was a common complication, leading to mortality of 8 patients during induction and 33 patients during first remission. The relapse rate has been 36% (42 patients). The predominance of high-risk ALL in the Indian population underscores the need for intensive therapy. Improved supportive care during induction and remission seems essential to decrease therapy-related mortality, leading to improved survival.
    American Journal of Hematology 04/1992; 39(4):242-8. DOI:10.1002/ajh.2830390403 · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • P M Parikh · R S Iyer · T K Saikia · R Gopal · S H Advani
    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 03/1992; 40(2):98-100.
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-five patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia undergoing 41 cycles of chemotherapy with daunorubicin/cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) or with etoposide/ara-C received metoclopramide (MCP; 0.5 mg/kg 6 hourly i.v.) or MCP (same dose) plus oral lorazepam (1 mg/d) during and 24 hours following the chemotherapy as antiemetic medication. Control of vomiting was achieved is 55% (complete 5%, partial 50%) of the patients receiving MCP alone and in 100 percent (complete 76.1%; partial 23.8%) of those receiving MCP plus lorazepam (p less than 0.001). Eighteen of the 21 patients (85.7%) receiving MCP plus lorazepam opted for the same antiemetic regimen as compared to six of the 20 (30%) receiving MCP alone (p less than 0.01). One patient in each group developed mild sedation during the treatment. It is concluded that oral lorazepam is an effective and safe adjuvant to MCP for the control of vomiting during cancer chemotherapy.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 07/1991; 28(2):108-13. · 1.13 Impact Factor