[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce the limit of detection (LOD) and allow the accurate determination of Ge, a dry ashing method was performed to enrich the Ge in plant samples. A method for the determination.of trace Ge in plant samples by HG-AFS was established. Study of the effect of temperature on the ashing of plant samples showed that no volatile loss of Ge occurred even at 900 °C. Additional experiments indicated that a 4 h burning process at 600 °C would be sufficient to fully ash the plant samples. Various digestion methods (involving nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sulfuric acid digestion methods) for ashed samples were investigated. High-temperature ashing with large sample weights was used, which could reduce the reagent doses and the method's LOD effectively and simultaneously, the precision of the method was improved. The method's LOD was 0.27 ng · g(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 3.99%-6.81%. Verified with national biological reference materials (grade I), the proposed method was accurate and reliable.
Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu 04/2015; 35(4):1048-51. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The China Geochemical Baselines (CGB) project provides nation-wide catchment sediment/alluvial soil geochemical baseline data for 76 elements including Hg from 3382 top (0-25 cm) and 3380 deep sediment/alluvial soil samples (under a depth of 100 cm) at 3382 sampling sites, corresponding to a sampling density of about 1 site per 3000 km2. Mercury was determined by cold vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) under strict quality control using field duplicates, standard reference materials and analytical replicate samples. The 25th percentile is at 13 and 11 ug/kg in top and deep sediment/alluvial soil samples, respectively; these concentrations are close to the crustal abundance in China. The median Hg value is at 26 and 18 μg/kg in top and deep sediment/alluvial soil samples, respectively; the 75th percentile is 56 μg/kg in top and 36 μg/kg in deep sediment/alluvial soil samples. Mercury concentrations at the 50th (26 μg Hg/kg) and 75th (56 μg Hg/kg) percentiles exhibit systematic enrichment in the near-surface material. The Hg distribution maps show distinct increasing trends from northern to southern and from western to eastern China, which are primarily related to the distribution of parent rocks, including rocks associated with mineral resources of Hg, Sb, Au, As, Pb-Zn, and climate, resulting in different soil types, as well as to population density with accompanying industrial development. Anomalous Hg concentrations in top sediment/alluvial soil samples above the 85th percentile (87 μg/kg) occur mainly in south and south-west and sparsely in north and east China; they most likely have a dual origin, natural and human-induced, with the latter having a greater contribution because of the intense industrial activities, and particularly mercury emissions from Hg, Sb, As, Au, Pb-Zn mining, coal combustion, and production of batteries, fluorescent lamps, thermometers and cement. The spatial distribution map of Hg ratios of top to deep sediment/alluvial soil samples displays higher values, suggesting that top samples are most likely polluted from human activities in the highly populated urban areas of eastern China. About 6.86% and 3.52% of top and deep sediment/alluvial soil samples, respectively, have Hg concentrations higher than the soil contamination limit of 150 μg/kg set by the National Environmental Standards for Heavy Metals of the People's Republic of China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for the accurate determination of mercury content in gas condensates is of significance in the application of condensates. In this paper, a simple and rapid method for the determination of mercury in gas condensates using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry was established. The effects of experimental conditions including extraction reagent, sample mass, extraction time in water bath, and membrane filtration treatment were investigated. A sample mass of 1.00 g, 10 mL of aqua regia as pretreatment reagent, and boiling water bath time of 60 min were selected as the optimized pretreatment conditions. After hydrophilic membrane filtering, the obtained solution was diluted 10 times using 3 % (v/v) nitric acid and the inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry determination was conducted. The method detection limit was 0.4 ng/g, and the relative standard deviation range was from 2.8 % to 5.4 % for the samples of different natures. Both standard addition recovery experiments and comparison results with microwave-assisted digestion method indicated that the proposed method was reliable for the determination of mercury in the gas condensates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hafnium content and its change are of significance in geochemistry and cosmochemistry, however, the determination of hafnium has always been problematic in analytical chemistry. In this paper, a new idea is proposed for the determination of hafnium in geochemical samples, including rocks, soils, and stream sediments. Through the comparison of two conventional open-type acid digestion methods (HF-HNO3-HClO4 and HF-HNO3-H2SO4), it was found that although neither of these methods could fully digest the zirconium and hafnium in a sample, the zirconium and hafnium digestion behaviors in one sample were consistent in the 60 experimental geochemical reference materials with different properties, so the experimentally determined Zr/Hf ratio in solution could be used to calculate the hafnium content in a sample. In addition, possible mass spectral interferences during the determination of zirconium and hafnium by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) were studied, and it was found that the mass spectral interferences of the selected isotopes 90Zr and 178Hf could be neglected. The mass spectral behaviors of 90Zr and 178Hf were also very consistent during the determination by HR-ICP-MS. Since the hafnium content was calculated using the ratio value, all of the errors of Zr/Hf ratio in weighing, the accidental errors during operation, and the instrument fluctuation in the determination could be effectively reduced or even eliminated. The relative standard deviation of actual samples was lower than 3.2%, and the detection limit of the method (considering the dilution effect and matrix effect during measurement of Zr/Hf ratio and zirconium content) was 0.04 μg/g. The proposed method could satisfy the requirement for the determination of hafnium in geochemical samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the distribution characteristics of pathogens, the drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and the use of antibiotics against Gram negative bacilli (GNB) in burn wards, so as to provide a guide for future treatment.
A total of 2 758 strains of pathogens were isolated from specimens of wound excretion, venous catheter attachment, blood, stool, urine, and sputum from 7 441 patients hospitalized in our burn wards from January 2007 to December 2012. After being identified by API strips and automatic microorganism identification and drug sensitivity analyzer, drug resistance of all the pathogens to 13 antibiotics commonly used in clinic, including amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, ceftazidime, etc., was tested by K-B paper disk diffusion method. The defined daily doses per 1 000 patient-day of 5 antibiotics including amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, ceftazidime, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin each year was set as use intensity. The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the distribution of pathogens and the drug resistance of PA to 13 antibiotics. The SPSS 19.0 software was used to analyze the relation between changes in drug-resistant rates of PA to 13 antibiotics and year, the relation between the proportion of PA in all the pathogens and the use intensity of 5 antibiotics commonly used against GNB, and the relation between the use intensity of ciprofloxacin and the change in drug-resistant rates of PA to amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and imipenem with Pearson correlation analysis.
(1) In 6 years, Staphylococcus aureus ranked the first with the highest proportion (31%, 865/2 758). The proportion of PA increased to tie in with Acinetobacter baumannii (both accounting for 17%, 458/2 758), both taking the second place. (2) Drug-resistant rates of PA to amikacin, gentamicin, aztreonam, piperacillin, cefoperazone, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem were significantly increased and positively correlated with year (with r values from 0.844 to 0.988, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while the drug-resistant rate of PA to ciprofloxacin was decreased and negatively correlated with year (r = -0.836, P < 0.05). (3) In 6 years, the use intensity of amikacin (from 8.65 to 91.44), cefoperazone/sulbactam (from 9.62 to 63.56), imipenem (from 7.63 to 157.25), ceftazidime (from 18.39 to 86.11), and ciprofloxacin (from 0 to 19.77) was increased. (4) The proportion of PA in all the pathogens was positively correlated with the use intensity of imipenem and ciprofloxacin (with r values respectively 0.849, 0.933, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while it was not significantly correlated with the use intensity of amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, or ceftazidime (with r values respectively 0.672, 0.668, 0.794, P values all above 0.05). (5) The use intensity of ciprofloxacin was positively correlated with the drug-resistant rates of PA to amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and imipenem (with r values respectively 0.878, 0.934, 0.928, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
In our burn wards, drug-resistant PA was prevalent, with positive correlation with the use intensity of antibiotics. The sensitive rate can be increased by a decrease in the use of amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and imipenem periodically.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 02/2014; 30(1):9-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a traditional Chinese medicine, Fufang Xuelian Burn Ointment (FXBO), to treat superficial and deep second-degree burn wounds. A four-center, randomized, controlled, and prospective study was conducted. Overall, 240 patients with either superficial or deep second-degree burn wounds were enrolled consecutively in this study. Patients who were randomly assigned to the control group (superficial: 72, deep: 48) underwent common burn wound therapy, whereas those randomized to the treatment group (superficial: 72, deep: 48) received common burn wound therapy plus topical FXBO. The healing rate, healing time, effective rate, and safety data were compared between the two groups. The baseline characteristics were comparable for the two groups. The healing rate was 94.79(±7.50) in the control group and 98.60(±5.69) in the FXBO group after 14 days for patients with superficial second-degree burn wounds (P = 0.000), and 95.17(±9.68) versus 97.44(±9.81) at 28 for deep second-degree burn wounds (P = 0.025). The median healing time in the FXBO group were 9 and 21 days for superficial and deep second-degree burns, respectively, compared to 10.5 and 22.5 days, respectively, in control group (P
superficial = 0.000 and P
deep = 0.009). The results of the effective rate showed that comprehensive efficacy of the FXBO group was improved compared to the control group for either superficial or deep second-degree burns (P
superficial = 0.035 and P
deep = 0.003). There were no reported drug-related adverse events in both groups. Therefore, FXBO was well tolerated and more effective than control group for treating superficial and deep second-degree burn wounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the independently designed high pressure sample preparation mold and high pressure sample preparation technology (patent number: 201310125772. 5), studies on the high pressure pressed various geological samples such as rocks, soils and stream sediments were first described in the present paper. It is the first experiment conducted in this field with significant achievements obtained. Without any binder, various types of geological powder samples can be pelleted well using 1600KN high pressure method. Such pellet has the characteristics of dense, flat, smooth and shiny surface, no cracks, no delamination, and no powder dropping. The study provides a new and contamination-free approach to sample preparation of X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis. The comparison study conducted between the same samples pelleted under the low pressure (400 kN) and high pressure (1 600 kN) showed that using the high pressure the element peak to background ratios, and sensitivities are significantly improved, the detection limits are lowed, and the accuracies, the precisions and sample preparation repeatability are greatly improved. The Si FWHM became wider for the high pressure (1 600 kN) pellet than the same sample pelleted under the lower pressure (400 kN). The further SEM observation revealed that variation of Si spectrum shape may be caused by that the silica crystal lattices are destroyed and the particle size becomes smaller by using the high pressure pelleting techniques. So the particle size and mineral effects are also effectively reduced and the precisions and accuracies of the analytical method are improved.
Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu 12/2013; 33(12):3402-7. DOI:10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2013)12-3402-06 · 0.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed in China to compare the efficacy and safety of an advanced wound dressing made of crystalline cellulose (Veloderm) to a conventional treatment three of Vaseline gauze in the management of skin donor sites of burns or reconstructive plastic surgery. In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, randomized clinical trial performed in three Chinese burn centers in China, 96 patients who required autologous split skin graft were randomized into either the test (Veloderm) group or the control (Vaseline gauze) group. Average healing times in the test group and in the control group were 8.40 ± 2.90 and 8.92 ± 2.58 days, respectively, with median values of 7.00 and 8.00 days, respectively: the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P = .045). Scores for exudates, pain intensity, and peripheral erythema showed no difference between the groups; however, composite scores of three variables on day 10 postoperatively was significantly lower in the test group (0.00 ± 0.00 vs 0.13 ± 0.49; P = .043). The need for a dressing change was also significantly lower in the test group (12.5 vs 31.25%; P = .036). Veloderm is a safe and effective dressing that may offer some advantages over the traditional application of Vaseline gauze in the management of donor sites in burn or reconstructive plastic surgery patients.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 11/2012; 34(3). DOI:10.1097/BCR.0b013e31825d5d8d · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study changes in the drug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and the use of antibiotics in burn wards so as to optimize the use of antibiotic in the future.
Bacteria were isolated from specimens of blood, venous catheter, stool, sputum, urine, wound tissue from 5717 patients hospitalized in our burn wards within the duration of January 2005 to December 2009. The number of specimens examined and positive rates of bacteria were calculated. Changes in constituent ratio of cocci and bacilli, spectrum of bacteria, the drug-resistance rate of PA, and the usage of antibiotics were analyzed. The number of specimens examined, constituent ratio of cocci and bacilli, drug-resistance rate were processed with chi-square test. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed between the usage of antibiotics and the drug-resistance rate.
(1) The number of specimens examined showed no statistical difference during the five years (with rates from 73.2% to 76.1%, χ(2) = 5.583, P > 0.05), while constituent ratio of cocci and bacilli showed statistical difference (with ratios from 105:134 to 169:126, χ(2) = 14.806, P < 0.01). The positive rates of bacteria were increasing in the five years. (2) One thousand six hundred and seventy-five strains were identified during the five years from different kinds of specimens, with 29 from blood, 39 from venous catheter, 3 from stool, 157 from sputum, 13 from urine, and 1434 from wound tissue. Among them, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 28% to 42%, PA accounted for 10% to 25%, Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 10% to 19%, and they were the predominant strains. (3) The difference among drug-resistance rates of PA to each kind of 12 antibiotics during the five years were statistically significant (with χ(2) values from 47.911 to 308.095, P values all below 0.01). The drug-resistance rates of PA to some antibiotics showed downward trend in the former four years, including amikacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem/cilastatin, but it rebounded in the fifth year. (4) There was descending trend in usage of cefoperazone/sulbactam and levofloxacin, but vancomycin was always used widely. (5) Drug-resistance rates of PA to 7 antibiotics, including amikacin, imipenem/cilastatin, and ciprofloxacin, etc., were positively correlated with usage of various antibiotics (with r values from 0.879 to 0.978, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
In our burn wards, drug-resistant PA was prevalent. Disinfection and isolation measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, etc. can reduce PA infection.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 04/2011; 27(2):109-13.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the use of autologous split-thickness skin taken from scars on the backs of patients with extensive burns, without sufficient normal donor skin. Between 1998 and 2008, a total of 15 patients underwent 47 operations using split-thickness skin grafts from scar tissue. Split-thickness skin was harvested from scars on the patient's back. In each operation, two thirds of donor skin was used at the recipient site and the remaining part was used to cover the donor site. All skin grafts survived. The skin function and appearance at the reconstruction site was improved in all cases, and reconstruction had therapeutic effects similar to those achieved by graft procedures using normal autologous split skin. Moreover, 6 months later, the skin graft procedure could be repeated at the donor site. Therefore, we concluded that split-thickness skin from scars on patients' backs is a valuable source of skin graft material that can be used repeatedly for plastic reconstruction in extensively burned patients.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 12/2010; 36(8):1296-9. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2010.05.004 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate effects of systemic red light therapy on wound repair of burned patients and discuss its possible mechanisms of wound healing promotion.
138 burned patients were randomly divided into systemic red light treatment group (n = 69) and control group (n = 69). Patients in control group received routine therapy, while those in test group were given systemic red light therapy once a day, 30 minutes at a time until the wounds were recovered. The clinical findings and variables indicating wound repair were assessed on the 7th, 10th, 14th day, 21st day post-burn and the day when the wounds were healed.
Mean time of wound recovery were 19.86 +/- 2.43 days and 21.02 +/- 2.97 days respectively of those deep-thickness wounds in test group and control group, with statistically significance (P < 0.05). For the severity of the pain, VAS during time of dressing change on the 10th, 14th day post burn was lower in test group than that in control group which indicated less painful in test group (P < 0.05), suggesting pain relief effect of systemic red light therapy.
Systemic red light therapy was effective to promote wound healing of deep-thickness burn wounds and other similar acute wounds. Simultaneously, it is efficacious in pain relief and safe for those patients.
Zhongguo yi liao qi xie za zhi = Chinese journal of medical instrumentation 07/2010; 34(4):293-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the protective effect of early application of lytic cocktail on small intestine of severely scalded rats.
Sixty-six male SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI, n=6), scald group (S, n=30) and scald+lytic cocktail group (SL, n=30) according to the random number table. After anesthesia, rats in the latter 2 groups were inflicted with 30% full-thickness scald, while rats in S group were sham scalded with 37 degrees C water. Resuscitation was carried out by intraperitoneal injection with 2 mLxkg(-1)x%TBSA(-1) lactated Ringer's solution in all rats; meanwhile 12 mL/kg lytic cocktail [1 mL pethidine (50 mg/mL)+1 mL chlorpromazine (25 mg/mL)+1 mL promethazine (25 mg/mL)+125 mL saline] was hypodermically injected to rats in SL group, while 12 mL/kg saline was injected into rats in the other 2 groups. Samples of blood and small intestine were harvested from S and SL groups at post scald hour (PSH) 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and from SI group at PSH 3, with 6 rats in each group at each time point. Pathological changes in intestine were observed, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and CD68 were determined with immunohistochemistry at PSH 24 for S and SL groups and at PSH 3 for SI group. Plasma levels of D-lactate, diamine oxidase (DAO), IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-10 were determined with ELISA. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance.
(1) At PSH 24, mild hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and epithelial cell shedding were observed in small intestinal mucosa of rats in S group. Compared with S group, the intestinal villi of SL group were arranged regularly without obvious hyperemia and edema. (2) Expression levels of ICAM-1 and CD68 [(1.69+/-0.27)%, (0.80+/-0.09)%] in S group were significantly higher than those in SI group [(0.77+/-0.10)%, (0.30+/-0.05)%, with F value respectively 77.303 and 66.933, P<0.05 or P < 0.01] and SL group [(0.53+/-0.09)%, (0.32+/-0.06)%, with F value respectively 77.303 and 66.933, P values all below 0.01]. (3) D-lactate levels of rats in SL group were significantly lower than those of rats in S group at PSH 12, 24 (with F value respectively 20.936 and 19.854, P values all below 0.01), while DAO levels of rats in SL group were significantly lower than those of rats in S group at PSH 3, 12 (with F value respectively 21.930 and 11.342, P values all below 0.05). (4) The levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in S group were significantly higher than those of SI group at each time point (P values all below 0.01). The levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in SL group were significantly higher than those of S group at PSH 6, 12 and 24 (with F value respectively 96.517, 17.365, 79.715 and 21.328, 17.682, 28.424, P<0.05 or P<0.01). IL-10 level in SL group was higher than that in S group at each time point, and the differences were statistically significant at PSH 6 and 24 (with F value respectively 8.668, 19.634, P < 0.05 or P<0.01).
Early administration of lytic cocktail can attenuate edema and injury of intestinal mucosa in severely scalded rats. The mechanism may lie in that it can reduce the expression of ICAM-1 in intestinal mucosa, decrease the number of intestinal inflammatory cells and regulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 06/2010; 26(3):180-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study difference in curative effect between intermingled skin transplantation (IT) and microskin grafting (MG) in repairing massive deep burn.
Clinical materials of 101 patients with massive deep burn hospitalized from 1992 to 2008 were retrospectively summarized. Patients were divided into IT group (n = 52) and MG group (n = 49). The size of initial donor site for autologous skin, the wound size initially covered with autologous skin, the survival rate of initial autologous skin grafting, the theoretical expansion multiple of the autologous skin, the actual expansion multiple of the autologous skin, the total size of donated autologous skin, the remained wound condition, and the function of large joint of patients in two groups were compared.
In IT group and MG group, the size of initial donor site for autologous skin was respectively (3.25 +/- 0.48)%TBSA and (3.01 +/- 0.21)%TBSA, the wound size initially covered by autologous skin was respectively (30.4 +/- 3.6)%TBSA and (41.4 +/- 1.3)%TBSA, the survival rate of autologous skin grafting was respectively (99.9 +/- 1.9)% and (87.5 +/- 6.8)%, the theoretical expansion multiple of the autologous skin was respectively 9.5 +/- 1.3 and 13.9 +/- 1.4, the actual expansion multiple of the autologous skin was respectively 9.5 +/- 1.3 and 12.0 +/- 1.5, the difference between two figures of each index was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no statistical significant difference between IT and MG group in respect of the total size of donated autologous skin [respectively (14.2 +/- 1.9) and (14.0 +/- 2.1)%TBSA, P > 0.05]. There were 23 patients (44.2%) with residual wounds over 0.5%TBSA in IT group, and 37 cases (75.5%) in MG group. There were 34 patients (65.4%) with good function of large joints in IT group, and 18 cases (36.7%) in MG group.
Expansion multiple of autologous skin after MG is obviously larger than that after IT, thus limited skin source can be fully used. The wound healing quality and the restoration of large joint function of patients treated with IT are better than those of patients treated with MG.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 12/2009; 25(6):448-50.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of Thymosin and growth hormone(GH) on inflammatory response in burn rats or burn rats with sepsis.
Sixty-four SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC, without treatment), sepsis group (S, with injection of LPS), sepsis + Thymosin group (ST, with successive injection of Thymosin and LPS), sepsis + GH group [SGH, with successive injection of recombinant human GH (rhGH) and LPS], burn group, burn + sepsis group (BS, with injection of LPS after burn), burn + sepsis + Thymosin group (BST, with successive injection of Thymosin and LPS after burn), burn + sepsis + GH (BSGH, with successive injection of rhGH and LPS after burn), with 8 rats in each group. Specimens of spleen tissues were harvested to determine HLA-DR in lymphocyte and evaluate inflammatory cell infiltration (score). Specimens of peripheral blood were collected to determine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) level in monocyte and serum level of TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10.
Compared with those in NC group, serum level of IL-10 in S group decreased obviously, while other indices increased obviously (P < 0.01). The levels of HLA-DR and TLR4 and serum level of TNF-alpha were similar between SGH and ST groups (P > 0.05). Compared with those in SGH group [(2.87 +/- 0.04) score, and IL-6 (0.0083 +/- 0.0018) microg/mg, IL-4 (0.0102 +/- 0.0021) microg/mg, IL-10 (0.0310 +/- 0.0027) microg/mg, respectively], degree of inflammatory cell infiltration (1.50 +/- 0.76) score and serum levels of IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 of rats in ST group decreased obviously (0.0064 +/- 0.0012, 0.0058 +/- 0.0024, 0.0230 +/- 0.0021 microg/mg, respectively, P < 0.01). The levels of HLA-DR, TLR4 and inflammatory cell infiltration degree of spleen in B group were respectively higher than those in NC group and lower than those in BS group. Compared with those in NC group, serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 in B group increased significantly, while IL-4, IL-10 showed an opposite tendency. There was no obvious difference between BST and BSGH groups in serum levels of HLA-DR and IL-6 (P > 0.05). Compared with those in BST group, inflammatory cell infiltration degree in spleen and the levels of TLR, TNF-alpha obviously decreased (P < 0.01), while IL-4 and IL-10 levels increased in BSGH group (P < 0.01).
Inhibitive effects between Thymosin and GH on extensive inflammatory reaction were similar with or without trauma, and GH has better effect as compared with Thymosin when with trauma.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 08/2009; 25(4):275-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays, it is necessary to emphasize the three basic inseparable elements in the treatment of severe burn infection, which are systemic care, burn wound care, and rational use of antimicrobials topically or systematically. Systemic care has been shifted from simple nutritional support to maintaining the systemic homeostasis, including balancing immune-inflammatory response, and protecting organs from dysfunction. Some work focused on regulating systemic immune response in the initial phase and the balance of inflammatory response after occurrence of severe burn infection have been reported. These results at least broaden our thinking to recognize that treatment should not only destroy microbes, but also balance the response of the body. Escharectomy in earlier phase has been a consensus. Currently, we turn our vision into how to use "damage control surgery (DCS)" concept in management of severe burn. DCS in burn care includes the evaluation of perioperative situation more accurate to make a more appropriate surgical decision. Meanwhile, an overall strategy should be established to confront the rapidly increasing drug resistance of the pathogens. The release of endotoxin after use of antimicrobials, which has been studied widely, should be explored further.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 04/2009; 25(2):81-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regional-, national- and global-scale geochemical mapping projects have been carried out in China since the late 1970s. These geochemical mapping projects have provided high-quality data for both mineral resource investigations and environmental assessments. Four national-scale geochemical mapping projects in China are described here. (1) The Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) project is China's largest national-scale geochemical mapping project and has covered more than 6 million km(2) of the country's hilly and mountainous regions since 1978. Generally, stream-sediment samples were collected at a density of 1 sample per km(2) and four samples were composited into one analytical sample for analysis of 39 elements. (2) The Deep-penetrating Geochemical Mapping (DEEP-MAP) project has been conducted in covered terrains, including basins, at a density of 1 sample per 100 km(2) with analysis of 30-70 elements since 1994. In the past ten years, an area of approximately 800 000 km(2) has been covered. (3) The 76 Geochemical Element Mapping (76 GEM l project has been carried out since 1999. Approximately 1 million km2 has been completed at present. (4) Multi-purpose eco-geochemical mapping projects have been conducted in the Quaternary plains of eastern China to provide data for environmental regulation and for improvement of agricultural practices since 1999. The data generated continue to play an important role in finding mineralization targets and ore deposits. China is also playing a leadership role in international geochemical mapping projects by transferring its expertise in sampling, chemical analysis and map generation to the developing countries through bilateral and multilateral collaboration. China is a leader in two large projects on a global scale: (1) the Environmental Geochemical Monitoring Network (EGMON) Project aims not only to have a quick overview of the geochemistry in China, but also to provide a pilot study for choosing the optimum sampling medium for geochemical mapping projects at a global scale; (2) the Geochemical Mapping Project uses delta and floodplain sediments of large rivers at a global scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) hydrogel in wound healing in patients with deep partial thickness burn.
The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial. Three hundred and twenty-one patients (302 cases finally fulfilled the protocol) with deep partial thickness burn were divided into A group (n = 200, with treatment of rhGM-CSF hydrogel, 100 microg/10 g/100 cm2/d), C group (n = 102,with treatment of placebo). Side-effect, systemic condition, wound healing time, wound healing rate, and total effective rate at different time points were observed.
There were no obvious differences in vital signs, wound secretion, wound edge reaction, blood and urine routine, liver and kidney function between two groups (P > 0.05). No side-effect was observed. The median wound healing time was 17 days in A group, which was obviously shorter than that in C group (20 days, P < 0.01). The mean wound healing rate in A group was 24.5%, 70.5%, 95.3%, 99.6% respectively on 8th, 14th, 20th, 28th day after treatment, which were obviously higher than that in C group (15.1%, 51.4%, 84.6%, 97.1%, respectively, P < 0.01). The total effective rates in A group on 8th, 14th, 20th day after treatment were also higher than that in C group (P < 0.01).
rhGM-CSF hydrogel can significantly accelerate wound healing in patients with deep partial thickness burn with certain safety.
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 05/2008; 24(2):107-10.