J Corden

University of Leeds, Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)6.97 Total impact

  • M J King, J Corden, T David, J Fisher
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    ABSTRACT: The flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve during the first half of systole was predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A three-dimensional model of the geometry of the ventricle, valve, sinus and aorta was developed. Flow through the valve was assumed to be Newtonian and laminar. The peak systolic Reynolds number was 1500 based on the aortic radius and the mean aortic velocity. Flow visualisation and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) experiments were performed and the results were compared to the CFD model. Good agreement between the LDA measurements and CFD predictions was found in the jets through the major orifices of the valve. The global flow fields predicted by the CFD showed reasonable agreement with the flow visualisation. A starting vortex was shed from the valve leaflets of the CarboMedics valve and the prototype valve. As systole progressed the two major orifice jets were directed towards the aortic wall and a weaker central jet was seen in both the experimental and CFD models. Large vortices were present on either side of the central orifice jet in the sinus area of both models. The three-dimensional time-dependent CFD model was considered to give a reasonable indication of the dominant flow patterns downstream of the bileaflet heart valve and has the potential to be an extremely useful tool to analyse the different designs of existing and future bileaflet valves.
    Journal of Biomechanics 06/1996; 29(5):609-18. · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • J Corden, T David, J Fisher
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro velocity data were obtained downstream of two versions of the Leeds polyurethane trileaflet heart valve in a simulated pulsatile flow regime using laser Doppler velocimetry. The main difference between the two valves studied was the manufacturing method used to create the valves. The film-fabricated valve was constructed from solvent-cast sheets of polyurethane, thermally formed into the correct leaflet geometry. The dip-cast valve used a stainless steel mould which was dipped into a polyurethane solution to produce the valve leaflets. Significant differences were visible between the fully open leaflet shape of each valve. The distribution of mean axial velocity and Reynolds normal stress (RNS) was shown to be dependent on the shape of the fully open valve orifice. For the film-fabricated valves, flow recirculation and high values of RNS were present downstream of the frame posts. The maximum value of RNS obtained downstream of the film-fabricated valve at peak systole was 147 N/m2. Results for the dip-cast valve showed a more uniform distribution of mean axial velocity and RNS resulting from the more circular central orifice produced by the dip-cast leaflets. The maximum value of RNS obtained downstream of the dip-cast valve at peak systole was 109 N/m2. These results demonstrate the effect of the open valve geometry on the flow characteristics downstream of trileaflet valves and that minor changes to the open leaflet geometry can significantly affect the flow characteristics and the possibility of flow-related blood damage occurring in vivo.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 02/1996; 210(4):273-87. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    J Corden, T David, J Fisher
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    ABSTRACT: The leaflets of trileaflet artificial heart valves manufactured from polyurethane, gluteraldehyde-treated porcine aortic valves and pericardial tissue are subject to cyclic stresses and strains which can reduce the lifetime of the implanted valves through leaflet calcification and fatigue failure. A detailed knowledge of the stress state within a valve leaflet throughout a cardiac cycle is desirable in order to improve the geometry of the valve leaflets and ultimately improve the valve performance. An experimental method to evaluate the radius of curvature at the free edge of the open valve leaflet is presented. The technique has been applied to polyurethane trileaflet heart valves manufactured within the authors' laboratory and to commercially available bioprosthetic valves in the fully open position under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. Simple bending theory has been applied to the polyurethane valves to calculate bending stresses and strains at the free leaflet edge based on the measured curvature. The results showed that in the fully open position the highest curvatures occurred at the commissural regions for all the valves analysed. Additional areas of high curvature were present along the free leaflet edge. Average curvatures as high as 0.85 mm-1 were observed at the leaflet commissures for the polyurethane valves with a resultant bending stress of 0.72 MPa. The porcine bioprosthetic valves showed average curvatures as high as 2.5 mm-1 which also occurred at the leaflet commissures. The results of the study have been compared to values of stress obtained from numerical analysis of closed polyurethane valve leaflets reported in the literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 02/1995; 209(2):121-8. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • J Corden, T David, J Fisher
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    ABSTRACT: Leaflet tears originating from the free leaflet edge and calcification around the commissural region are common modes of failure exhibited by explanted bioprosthetic trileaflet heart valves. These may be a result of the cyclic bending and high levels of curvature that affect the leaflets within these areas during normal valve operation. These high levels of curvature occur in a short time period (approximately 20 ms) during rapid leaflet opening and to a lesser degree during leaflet closure. The curvatures that occur at the free leaflet edge of two designs of polyurethane trileaflet heart valve were determined in vitro at various stages during a cardiac cycle using a high-speed video camera (1000 frames/s). Significant deformations at the free leaflet edge were observed and bending radii as low as 0.55 +/- 0.125 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) were present during leaflet opening, 0.76 +/- 0.24 mm during leaflet closure and 1.01 +/- 0.27 mm while the valve was fully open during peak systole. The values of curvature were used to determine the values of bending strain and bending stress acting at the free leaflet edge using thin shell bending theory. The calculated values of bending strain were a maximum during the leaflet flexure associated with valve opening. These high levels of bending strain, which occur for short periods of time, are likely to be an important determinant of the valve's durability. It has been shown that the method of manufacture significantly influenced the level of bending strain in the valve leaflets. Valves manufactured using a dip-casting technique resulted in open leaflet bending strains up to 31 per cent lower than valves manufactured from solvent-cast sheets of polyurethane.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 02/1995; 209(4):243-53. · 1.42 Impact Factor