[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999-2000) and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006). Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G) and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D). This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0135124. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135124 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Army implemented a comprehensive HIV characterization program in 2012 following repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) policy banning openly homosexual individuals from serving in the United States military. Program staff administered a standardized case report form (CRF) to soldiers newly-diagnosed with HIV from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with new program requirements. The CRF documented socio-demographic, sexual and other risk behavior information elicited from Army regulation-mandated epidemiologic interviews at initial HIV notification. A majority of HIV-infected soldiers were male and of black/African American racial origin. In the HIV risk period, male soldiers commonly reported male-male sexual contact, civilian partners, online partner-seeking, unprotected anal sex, and expressed surprise at having a positive HIV result. DADT repeal allows for risk screening and reduction interventions targeting a newly-identifiable risk category in the Army. At risk populations need to be identified and assessed for possible unmet health needs.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivatives 3.0 License, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of HIV in the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1996 through 2011 and to assess whether socio-demographic characteristics and service-related mobility, including military deployments, were associated with HIV infection.
We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of USAF personnel who were HIV-infected during the study period January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2011 and a matched case-control study. Cases were USAF personnel newly-diagnosed with HIV during the study period. Five randomly-selected HIV-uninfected controls were matched to each case by age, length of service, sex, race, service, component, and HIV test collection date. Socio-demographic and service-related mobility factors and HIV diagnosis were assessed using conditional logistic regression.
During the study period, the USAF had 541 newly diagnosed HIV-infected cases. HIV incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) among 473 active duty members was highest in 2007 (16.78), among black/ African-American USAF members (26.60) and those aged 25 to 29 years (10.84). In unadjusted analysis restricted to personnel on active duty, 10 characteristics were identified and considered for final multivariate analysis. Of these single (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.71-11.6) or other marital status (aOR 4.60, 95% CI 2.72-7.75), communications/ intelligence (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.84-3.60) or healthcare (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28-3.35) occupations, and having no deployment in the past 2 years before diagnosis (aOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.47-2.78) conferred higher odds of HIV infection in adjusted analysis.
The highest risk of HIV infection in the USAF was among young unmarried deployment-naïve males, especially those in higher risk occupation groups. In an era when worldwide military operations have increased, these analyses identified potential areas where targeted HIV prevention efforts may be beneficial in reducing HIV incidence in the USAF military population.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0126700. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126700 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to conduct a biobehavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three cities in the Republic of Panama. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors. Among 603 MSM recruited, RDS-adjusted seroprevalences (95 % confidence intervals) were: HIV-David 6.6 % (2.2-11.4 %), Panama 29.4 % (19.7-39.7 %), and Colon 32.6 % (18.0-47.8 %); active syphilis-David 16.0 % (8.9-24.2 %), Panama 24.7 % (16.7-32.9 %), Colon 31.6 % (14.8-47.5 %); resolved HBV infection-David 10.0 % (4.8-16.8 %), Panama 29.4 % (20.0-38.3 %), and Colon 40.6 % (21.9-54.4 %); herpes simplex virus type 2-David 38.4 % (27.9-48.9 %), Panama 62.6 % (52.8-71.0 %), and Colon 72.9 % (57.4-85.8 %). At least a third of MSM in each city self-identified as heterosexual or bisexual. HIV prevalence is concentrated among MSM. Preventive interventions should focus on increasing HIV and syphilis testing, and increasing promotion of condom awareness and use.
Journal of Urban Health 06/2014; 91(4). DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9885-4 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation's active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates.
A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data. Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection.
Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school.
This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations.
BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):181. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-181 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emergency whole blood transfusions may increase the risk of transmitting bloodborne pathogens, including human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). U.S. military personnel with any medical encounter for HTLV infection during 2000-2013;2008 were identified from surveillance data. Using both inclusive and restrictive case definitions, the incidence of diagnoses of HTLV infection was analyzed in relation to demographic factors and prior deployment. There were 247 "possible" cases of HTLV infection identified, or 1.88 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs) (95% CI 1.66, 2.13). Seventy of these met the restrictive definition, translating to a rate of 0.53 per 100,000 p-yrs (95% CI 0.42, 0.67). Under the restrictive definition, a higher rate was noted among females versus males (RR 2.37; 95% CI 1.41, 3.98), service members with a healthcare occupation versus those who are primarily trained to engage in combat (RR 2.54; 95% CI 1.06, 6.10), and service members with any deployment experience (RR 8.98; 95% CI 5.61, 14.37). These findings, and a prior military case report of transfusion-transmitted HTLV-I, suggest a need to better define the epidemiology of HTLV in U.S. military personnel to further ensure emergency transfusion safety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The United States (U.S.) military represents a unique population within the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pandemic. The last comprehensive study of HIV-1 in members of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps (Sea Services) was completed in 2000, before large-scale combat operations were taking place. Here, we present molecular characterization of HIV-1 from 40 Sea Services personnel who were identified during their seroconversion window and initially classified as HIV-1 negative during screening. Protease/reverse transcriptase (pro/rt) and envelope (env) sequences were obtained from each member of the cohort. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on these regions to determine relatedness within the cohort and calculate the most recent common ancestor for the related sequences. We identified 39 individuals infected with subtype B and 1 infected with CRF01_AE. Comparison of the pairwise genetic distance of Sea Service sequences and reference sequences in the env and pro/rt regions showed that 5 samples were part of molecular clusters, a group of two and a group of three, confirmed by single genome amplification. Real-time molecular monitoring of new HIV-1 acquisitions in the Sea Services may have a role in facilitating public health interventions at sites where related HIV-1 infections are identified.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2013; 29(10). DOI:10.1089/AID.2013.0087 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The United States introduced human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I) screening of blood donors in 1988. The US military uses freshly collected blood products for life-threatening injuries when available stored blood components in theater have been exhausted or when these components are unsuccessful for resuscitation. These donors are screened after donation by the Department of Defense (DoD) retrospective testing program. All recipients of blood collected in combat are tested according to policy soon after and at 3, 6, and 12 months after transfusion. Case ReportA 31-year-old US Army soldier tested positive for HTLV-I 44 days after receipt of emergency blood transfusions for severe improvised explosive device blast injuries. One donor's unit tested HTLV-I positive on the DoD-mandated retrospective testing. Both the donor and the recipient tested reactive with enzyme immunoassay and supplemental confirmation by HTLV-I Western blot. The donor and recipient reported no major risk factors for HTLV-I. Phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-I sequences indicated Cosmopolitan subtype, Subgroup B infections. Comparison of long terminal repeat and env sequences revealed molecular genetic linkage of the viruses from the donor and recipient. Conclusion
This case is the first report of transfusion transmission of HTLV-I in the US military during combat operations. The emergency fresh whole blood policy enabled both the donor and the recipient to be notified of their HTLV-I infection. While difficult in combat, predonation screening of potential emergency blood donors with Food and Drug Administration-mandated infectious disease testing as stated by the DoD Health Affairs policy should be the goal of every facility engaged with emergency blood collection in theater.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Little information is available regarding blood supply safety in Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was to assess blood safety through serologic and observational measures in Afghanistan.
Study design and methods:
This cross-sectional assessment included the 40 highest-volume facilities collecting and transfusing blood nationally identified in a previous survey. At each facility, study representatives completed a standardized instrument assessing staff performance of transfusion-related activities and performed rapid testing for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C with rapid diagnostic tests on clinically discarded specimens. Reactive samples received confirmatory testing. Descriptive statistics were generated, with differences analyzed using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests.
Between November 2010 and May 2011, a total of 332 blood donor collection procedures were observed. Only 52.4% of observed encounters correctly screened and deferred donors by international criteria. Public and private facilities demonstrated glove use, proper sharps disposal, and patient counseling and relayed screening test results in less than 75% of observed events, significantly less likely than military facilities (p < 0.01). Of 1612 specimens assessed, confirmed cases of hepatitis B (n = 6), hepatitis C (n = 1), and syphilis (n = 3) were detected among units already prescreened and accepted for transfusion.
Lapses in proper donor screening contributed to the presence of confirmed-positive units available for transfusion, as detected in this study. Steps must be taken to ensure standardization of testing kits requirements, documentation, and mandatory training and continuing education for blood bank staff with regard to counseling, drawing, processing, and transfusion of blood products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection continues at a steady rate among U.S. Sailors and Marines. This study provides the first service-specific description of HIV infection demographics. All Sailors and Marines identified as HIV infected between January 2005 and August 2010 were included. The project compared personnel and epidemiologic data, and tested reposed sera in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. This group comprised 410 Sailors and 86 Marines, predominantly men. HIV infected Marines were more likely to be foreign born than their Navy counterparts, 42% versus 10%, p < 0.001. Approximately half of the patients had deployed including to the wars in Iraq or Afghanistan. Nearly half of each group was infected by the age of 25. Similar to the U.S. epidemic, Black race was over-represented. Unlike national rates, Hispanic Sailors and Marines were not over-represented. Demographics were distinct for those of specific occupational specialties. Certain ship classes carried lower incidences. Clustering of HIV infection risk occurred around deployment. The Navy and Marine Corps have different patterns of HIV infection, which may merit distinct approaches to prevention. The Navy may have unique targets for prevention efforts to include pipeline training and first assignment as well as particular occupational environments.
Military medicine 11/2012; 177(11):1328-34. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00299 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits.
A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates.
Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N = 2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05).
Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On January 30, 2009, nursing staff at a military hospital in Texas reported that single-patient use insulin pens were used on multiple patients. An investigation was initiated to determine if patient-to-patient bloodbome transmission occurred from the practice. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing was offered to patients hospitalized from August 2007 to January 2009 and prescribed insulin pen injections. Virus from HCV-infected patients' sera was sequenced and compared for relatedness. An anonymous survey was administered to nurses. Of 2,113 patients prescribed insulin pen injections, 1,501 (71%) underwent testing; 6 (0.4%) were HIV positive, 6 (0.4%) were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, and 56 (3.7%) had HCV antibody. No viral sequences from 10 of 28 patients with newly diagnosed and 12 of 28 patients with preexisting HCV infection were closely related. Of 54 nurses surveyed, 74% reported being trained on insulin pen use, but 24% believed nurses used insulin pens on more than one patient. We found no clear evidence of bloodborne pathogen transmission. Training of hospital staff on correct use of insulin pens should be prioritized and their practices evaluated. Insulin pens should be more clearly labeled for single-patient use.
Military medicine 08/2012; 177(8):930-8. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-11-00458 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Department of Defense policy Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) ended in September, 2011. The Navy Bloodborne Infection Management Center conducted a post-DADT pilot survey of HIV seroconverters identified when the DADT policy was in effect. Sailors and Marines newly-diagnosed as HIV positive from 2005 to 2010 were invited to participate in an online survey. A structured questionnaire elicited risk information about the three-year period prior to HIV diagnosis. Respondents reported engaging commonly in same sex sexual activity, having concurrent partners, and poor condom use for anal sex. In this first post-DADT repeal report of self-reported behaviors, male-to-male sexual contact was a much more common mode of infection than previously reported. Several opportunities for primary prevention messaging now possible after DADT repeal are evident.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess functionality and resources of facilities providing blood collection and transfusion services in Afghanistan. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This national cross-sectional assessment included facilities collecting or transfusing blood identified through official data sources and private key informants. At each facility, study representatives completed a standardized instrument assessing presence of records logbook, electricity, refrigeration, and required transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI; human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C) test kits. Descriptive statistics were generated, with differences analyzed using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Between August and November 2010, a total of 243 facilities were surveyed with public (52.3%, n = 127) and private (43.2%, n = 105) sector comprising the majority. Most (63%) facilities were urban, with 23.5% located in Kabul province. Of 92,682 units collected nationally in the 12 months before evaluation, 7.5% (n = 6952) had no disposition record. Many (62%, n = 151) facilities had an established recordkeeping system; the remainder provided estimates. Half of surveyed facilities had regular power supply (57.8%), refrigerators for storing blood (52.3%), or all necessary TTI test kits (62.1%). Military (83.3%) and public (74.8%) facilities were more likely to have all TTI test kits present compared to private (46.7%, p < 0.01) but not nongovernmental organization (40.0%, p = 0.37) facilities. CONCLUSION: In Afghanistan, blood donation and transfusion occur with substantial differences in data recording and TTI test availability, with private facilities less likely to have these resources. Efforts are needed to improve available resources and ensure that facilities are in compliance with national standards for donor screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody screening alone may fail to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in recently infected individuals. By U.S. Army regulation, HIV-infected soldiers are not permitted to deploy to areas of conflict, including Iraq and Afghanistan. We report here the first case of acute HIV infection (AHI) in a soldier in a combat area of operation detected by an enhanced U.S. Army HIV testing algorithm and discuss features of the tests which aided in clinical diagnosis. We tested the sample from the AHI case with a third generation HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O enzyme immunoassay, HIV-1 Western Blot, and a qualitative HIV-1 ribonucleic acid molecular diagnostic assay. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were elicited in an epidemiologic interview. Evaluation of the blood sample for AHI indicated an inconclusive serologic profile and a reactive HIV-1 ribonucleic acid result. The main risk factor for acquisition reported was unprotected sexual intercourse with casual strangers in the U.S. while on leave during deployment. The clinical diagnosis of AHI in a combat area of operation is important. Diagnosis of HIV is key to preventing adverse effects to the infected soldier from deployment stressors of deployment and further transmission via parenteral or sexual exposures.
Military medicine 05/2012; 177(5):609-13. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-11-00386 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The U.S. Army initiated an investigation in response to observations of a possible increase in HIV incidence among soldiers deployed to combat. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected U.S. Army soldiers are not eligible to deploy. Combat presents a health hazard to HIV-infected soldiers and they pose a threat to the safety of the battlefield blood supply and their contacts. All soldiers are routinely screened for HIV every 2 years and those who deploy are also screened both prior to and after deployment. Seroconversion rates were estimated for all soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq in the period 2001-2007 and all active duty soldiers who did not. Seroconverters with an estimated date of infection, based on calculation of the midpoint between the last seronegative and first seropositive test date, that was either before or during deployment were eligible for inclusion. Confidential interviews and medical record reviews were conducted to determine the most likely time, geographic location, and mode of infection. Reposed predeployment samples were tested for HIV ribonucleic acid. The HIV seroconversion rate among all soldiers who deployed was less than the rate among those who did not deploy: 1.04 and 1.42 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. Among 48 cases, most were determined to have been infected in the United States or Germany and prior to deployment (n=20, 42%) or during rest and relaxation leave (n=13, 27%). Seven seronegative acute infections were identified in the predeployment period. Subtype was determined for 40 individuals; all were subtype B infections. All were acquired through sexual contact. These findings can inform development of preventive interventions and refinement of existing screening policy to further reduce HIV-infected deployed soldier person time.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2012; 28(10):1308-12. DOI:10.1089/AID.2011.0363 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little information about HIV awareness or condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess HIV awareness, knowledge, and condom use among FSWs in three Afghan cities. FSWs residing in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited through outreach programs and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and rapid tests for hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV awareness, comprehensive HIV knowledge (knowledge that HIV cannot be detected by sight, that condoms prevent HIV, and rejection of local misconceptions about HIV transmission), and consistent condom use (use with every sex act) with clients in the last six months. Of 520 participants, 76.9% had no formal education and 37.7% lived outside Afghanistan in the last five years. Nearly half (44.2%) were aware of HIV but, of these, only 17.4% (N = 40) had comprehensive HIV knowledge. There were significant differences by site; FSWs in Jalalabad were more likely to be aware of HIV but FSWs in Kabul were more likely to have correct HIV knowledge and use condoms consistently with clients. Consistent client condom use was reported by 11.5% (N = 60) and was independently associated with having more clients per month (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.04-3.81). In conclusion, comprehensive HIV knowledge and consistent condom use with clients are low among Afghan FSWs in these cities. Efforts to reach this population should focus on relaying accurate information and expanding condom use with clients.
AIDS Care 03/2011; 23(3):348-56. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2010.507744 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active duty US Army and Air Force military personnel undergo mandatory biennial HIV antibody screening. We compared pre- and post-HIV seroconversion health status by conducting a case-control study, which evaluated all medical encounters and sociodemographic factors among incident HIV seroconverters and HIV-negative controls from June 2000 through February 2004.
A total of 274 HIV seroconverters and 6205 HIV-negative personnel were included. In multivariate analysis restricted to male personnel (cases = 261, controls = 5801), single marital status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 14.37), clinical indicators or symptoms within four years of HIV diagnosis (AOR = 6.22), black race (AOR = 5.88), nonindicator clinical syndromes within 2 years of HIV diagnosis (AOR = 3.31), any mental disorder within 4 years of HIV diagnosis (AOR = 3.04), increasing service-connected time (AOR = 1.69), and older age (AOR = 1.12) were associated with HIV diagnosis among males. A prior history of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) was associated with post-HIV seroconversion STI (OR(M-H) = 4.10). Similarly, a prior history of mental disorder was associated with post-HIV seroconversion mental disorder (OR(M-H) = 4.98). Forty-seven (18%) male cases were hospitalized at least once after HIV diagnosis; infectious diseases, and mental disorders made up 53% of initial admissions.
HIV seroconversion was associated with increased health care-seeking behavior, STIs, and mental disorders, some of which may be amenable to screening. The higher STI rate after HIV diagnosis may partially be a consequence of monitoring, but secondary transmission of STI and possibly HIV require further definition and subsequent tailored preventive interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) has been described in Kabul but little data exists for other Afghan cities. We assessed HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and C virus (HCV) prevalence and associated risk behaviours amongst IDUs in Hirat, Jalalabad, and Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan.
Consented participants reporting injecting drugs within the previous 6 months completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and testing for HIV, hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Logistic regression was used to determine characteristics associated with each infection.
Of 623 participants, most (98.7%) were male. Prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.88-3.2), 36.0% (95% CI: 33-41), and 5.8% (95% CI: 3.9-7.6), respectively. All HIV cases and highest HCV prevalence were detected in Hirat; HBV prevalence was highest in Jalalabad. Amongst male IDUs, 62.9% had been imprisoned, of whom 17.2% (n=66) injected in prison. High risk behaviours were common; 30.2% reported needle sharing in the last 6 months, 23.1% reported sex with another male, and 50.4% reported paying females for sex. Behaviours varied significantly by site; generally, Hirat participants reported fewer sexual risk behaviours. Sex with other males was negatively associated with both HBV and HCV in multivariate logistic regression analysis; no injecting behaviours were associated with both HBV and HCV.
Whilst HIV prevalence is low, HCV prevalence and high risk behaviours were common in these populations. Regional variations should be considered in programming to prevent transmission of HIV and viral hepatitis amongst IDUs in Afghanistan.
The International journal on drug policy 12/2010; 22(2):145-52. DOI:10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.10.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor