Peng Sun

New York Medical College, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (18)106.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We used the perforated whole-cell recording technique to examine the effect of With-No-Lysine Kinase 4 (WNK4) on the Ca(2+) activated big-conductance K channels (BK) in HEK293T cells transfected with BK-α subunit (BK-α). Expression of WNK4 inhibited BK channels and decreased the outward K currents. Coexpression of SGK1 abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels and restored the outward K currents. Expression of WNK4(S1169D//1196D) , in which both SGK1-phosphorylation sites (serine 1169 and 1196) were mutated to aspartate, had no effect on BK channels. Moreover, coexpression of SGK1 had no additional effect on K currents in the cells transfected with BKα+WNK4 (S1169D//1196D), suggesting that SGK1 reversed WNK4-induced inhibition of BK channels by stimulating WNK4 phosphorylation. Expression of WNK4 but not WNK4 (S1169D//1196D) increased the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); an effect was abolished by coexpression of SGK1. The role of ERK and p38 MAPK in mediating the effect of WNK4 on BK channels was further suggested by the finding that inhibition of ERK and P38 MAPK completely abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels. In contrast, inhibition of MAPK failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on ROMK channels in both HEK cells and Xenopus oocytes. Expression of dominant negative dynaminK44A (Dyn(K44A)) or treatment of the cells with dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, not only increased K currents but also largely abolished the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on BK channels. However, inhibition of MAPK still increased the outward K currents in the cells transfected with BKα+WNK4 and treated with dynasore. Similar results were obtained in experiments performed in the native tissue in which inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK increased BK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) treated with dynasore. We concluded that WNK4 inhibited BK channels by stimulating ERK and p38 MAPK and that activation of MAPK by WNK4 may inhibit BK channels partially via a mechanism other than stimulating endocytosis.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With-no-Lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) inhibited ROMK (Kir1.1) channels and the inhibitory effect of WNK4 was abolished by serum-glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) but restored by c-Src. The aim of the present study is to explore the mechanism by which Src-family tyrosine kinase (SFK) modulates the effect of SGK1 on WNK4 and to test the role of SFK-WNK4-SGK1 interaction in regulating ROMK channels in the kidney. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binds to WNK4 at amino acid (aa) residues 695-699 (PP1(#1)) and at aa 1211-1215 (PP1(#2)). WNK4(-PP1#1) and WNK4(-PP1#2), in which the PP1(#1) or PP1(#2) binding site was deleted or mutated, inhibited ROMK channels as potently as WNK4. However, c-Src restored the inhibitory effect of WNK4 but not WNK4(-PP1#1) on ROMK channels in the presence of SGK1. Moreover, expression of c-Src inhibited SGK1-induced phosphorylation of WNK4 but not WNK4(-PP1#1) at serine residue 1196 (Ser(1196)). In contrast, coexpression of c-Src restored the inhibitory effect of WNK4(-PP1#2) on ROMK in the presence of SGK1 and diminished SGK1-induced WNK4 phosphorylation at Ser(1196) in cells transfected with WNK4(-PP1#2). This suggests the possibility that c-Src regulates the interaction between WNK4 and SGK1 through activating PP1 binding to aa 695-9 thereby decreasing WNK4 phosphorylation and restoring the inhibitory effect of WNK4. This mechanism plays a role in suppressing ROMK channel activity during the volume depletion because inhibition of SFK or serine/threonine phosphatases increases ROMK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct of rats on a low-Na diet. We conclude that regulation of phosphatase activity by SFK plays a role in determining the effect of aldosterone on ROMK channels and on renal K secretion.
    AJP Renal Physiology 04/2012; 303(1):F110-9. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to test whether the Cyp2c44 epoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid prevents the hypertensive effect of a high K (HK) intake by inhibiting the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A HK intake elevated Cyp2c44 mRNA expression and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels in the cortical collecting duct in Cyp2c44(+/+) mice (wild-type [wt]). However, an HK intake failed to increase 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation in the cortical collecting ducts of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. Moreover, increasing K intake enhanced arachidonic acid-induced inhibition of ENaC in the wt but not in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. In contrast, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, a Cyp2c44 metabolite, inhibited ENaC in the wt and Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. The notion that Cyp2c44 is the epoxygenase responsible for mediating the inhibitory effects of arachidonic acid on ENaC is further suggested by the observation that inhibiting Cyp-epoxygenase increased the whole-cell Na currents in principal cells of wt but not in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. Feeding mice with an HK diet raised the systemic blood pressures of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice but was without an effect on wt mice. Moreover, application of amiloride abolished the HK-induced hypertension in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. The HK-induced hypertension of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice was accompanied by decreasing 24-hour urinary Na excretion and increasing the plasma Na concentration, and the effects were absent in wt mice. In contrast, disruption of the Cyp2c44 gene did not alter K excretion. We conclude that Cyp2c44 epoxygenase mediates the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on ENaC and that Cyp2c44 functions as an HK-inducible antihypertensive enzyme responsible for inhibiting ENaC activity and Na absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron.
    Hypertension 12/2011; 59(2):339-47. · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Peng Sun, Peng Yue, Wen-Hui Wang
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in the rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) with single-channel and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp recording. Application of 50 nM ANG II increased ENaC activity, defined by NP(o) (a product of channel numbers and open probability), and the amiloride-sensitive whole cell Na currents by twofold. The stimulatory effect of ANG II on ENaC was absent in the presence of losartan, suggesting that the effect of ANG II on ENaC was mediated by ANG II type 1 receptor. Moreover, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-AM failed to abolish the stimulatory effect of ANG II on ENaC but inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC) abolished the effect of ANG II, suggesting that the effect of ANG II was the result of stimulating Ca(2+)-independent PKC. This notion was also suggested by the experiments in which stimulation of PKC with phorbol ester derivative mimicked the effect of ANG II and increased amiloride-sensitive Na currents in the principal cell, an effect that was not abolished by treatment of the CCD with BAPTA-AM. Also, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) with diphenyleneiodonium chloride abolished the stimulatory effect of ANG II on ENaC and application of superoxide donors, pyrogallol or xanthine and xanthine oxidase, significantly increased ENaC activity. Moreover, addition of ANG II or H(2)O(2) diminished the arachidonic acid (AA)-induced inhibition of ENaC in the CCD. We conclude that ANG II stimulates ENaC in the CCD through a Ca(2+)-independent PKC pathway that activates NOX thereby increasing superoxide generation. The stimulatory effect of ANG II on ENaC may be partially the result of blocking AA-induced inhibition of ENaC.
    AJP Renal Physiology 12/2011; 302(6):F679-87. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary potassium stimulates the surface expression of ROMK channels in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, but the mechanism by which this occurs is incompletely understood. Here, a high-potassium diet increased the transcription of microRNA (miR) 802 in the cortical collecting duct in mice. In addition, high-potassium intake decreased the expression of caveolin-1, whose 3' untranslated region contains the seed sequence of miR-802. In vitro, expression of miR-802 suppressed the expression of caveolin-1, and conversely, downregulation of endogenous miR-802 increased the expression of caveolin-1. Sucrose-gradient centrifugation suggested that caveolin-1 closely associated with ROMK channels, and immunoprecipitation showed that caveolin-1 interacted with the N terminus of ROMK. Expression of caveolin-1 varied inversely with the expression of ROMK1 in the plasma membrane, and caveolin-1 inhibited ROMK1 channel activity. Removal of the clathrin-dependent endocytosis motif from ROMK1 failed to abolish the effect of caveolin-1 on ROMK1 channel activity. Last, expression of miR-802 increased ROMK1 channel activity, an effect blocked by coexpression of caveolin-1. Taken together, miR-802 mediates the stimulatory effect of a high-potassium diet on ROMK channel activity by suppressing caveolin-1 expression, which leads to increased surface expression of ROMK channels in the distal nephron.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2011; 22(6):1087-98. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High dietary potassium stimulates the renal expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase 2C23, which metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA). Because the AA metabolite 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) can inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct, we tested whether dietary potassium modulates ENaC function. High dietary potassium increased 11,12-EET in the isolated cortical collecting duct, an effect mimicked by inhibiting the angiotensin II type I receptor with valsartan. In patch-clamp experiments, a high potassium intake or treatment with valsartan enhanced AA-induced inhibition of ENaC, an effect mediated by a CYP-epoxygenase-dependent pathway. Moreover, high dietary potassium and valsartan each augmented the inhibitory effect of 11,12-EET on ENaC. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the rate of EET conversion to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET) was lower in renal tissue obtained from rats on a high-potassium diet than from those on a control diet, but this was not a result of altered expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Instead, suppression of sEH activity seemed to be responsible for the 11,12-EET-mediated enhanced inhibition of ENaC in animals on a high-potassium diet. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that 11,12-DHET was a weak inhibitor of ENaC compared with 11,12-EET, whereas 8,9- and 14,15-DHET were not. Furthermore, inhibition of sEH enhanced the 11,12-EET-induced inhibition of ENaC similar to high dietary potassium. In conclusion, high dietary potassium enhances the inhibitory effect of AA and 11,12-EET on ENaC by increasing CYP epoxygenase activity and decreasing sEH activity, respectively.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2010; 21(10):1667-77. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ROMK1 channels are located in the apical membrane of the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct and mediate the potassium secretion during normal dietary intake. We used a perforated whole-cell patch clamp to explore the effect of angiotensin II on these channels in HEK293 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ROMK1. Angiotensin II inhibited ROMK1 channels in a dose-dependent manner, an effect abolished by losartan or by inhibition of protein kinase C. Furthermore, angiotensin II stimulated a protein kinase C-sensitive phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 within c-Src. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase attenuated the effect of angiotensin II. Western blot studies suggested that angiotensin II inhibited ROMK1 channels by enhancing its tyrosine phosphorylation, a notion supported by angiotensin II's failure to inhibit potassium channels in cells transfected with the ROMK1 tyrosine mutant (R1Y337A). However, angiotensin II restored the with-no-lysine kinase-4 (WNK4)-induced inhibition of R1Y337A in the presence of serum-glucocorticoids-induced kinase 1 (SGK1), which reversed the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on ROMK1. Moreover, protein tyrosine kinase inhibition abolished the angiotensin II-induced restoration of WNK4-mediated inhibition of ROMK1. Angiotensin II inhibited ROMK channels in the cortical collecting duct of rats on a low sodium diet, an effect blocked by protein tyrosine kinase inhibition. Thus, angiotensin II inhibits ROMK channels by two mechanisms: increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of the channel and synergizing the WNK4-induced inhibition. Hence, angiotensin II may have an important role in suppressing potassium secretion during volume depletion.
    Kidney International 10/2010; 79(4):423-31. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: K channels in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) participate in generating cell membrane potential and in mediating K secretion. The aim of the review is to provide an overview of the recent development regarding physiological function of the K channels and the novel factors which modulate the K channels of the ASDN. Genetic studies and transgenic mouse models have revealed the physiological function of basolateral K channels including inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir) and Ca-activated big-conductance K channels in mediating salt transport in the ASDN. A recent study shows that intersectin is required for mediating with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-induced endocytosis. Moreover, a clathrin adaptor, autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), and an aging-suppression protein, Klothe, have been shown to regulate the endocytosis of renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel. Also, serum-glucocorticoids-induced kinase I (SGK1) reversed the inhibitory effect of WNK4 on ROMK through the phosphorylation of WNK4. However, Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (SFK) abolished the effect of SGK1 on WNK4 and restored the WNK4-induced inhibition of ROMK. Basolateral K channels including big-conductance K channel and Kir4.1/5.1 play an important role in regulating Na and Mg transport in the ASDN. Apical K channels are not only responsible for mediating K excretion but they are also involved in regulating transepithelial Mg absorption. New factors and mechanisms by which hormones and dietary K intake regulate apical K secretory channels expand the current knowledge regarding renal K handling.
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 09/2010; 19(5):463-70. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that K depletion inhibited ROMK-like small-conductance K channels (SK) in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and that the effect was mediated by superoxide anions that stimulated Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (51). However, because animals on a K-deficient diet had a severe hypokalemia, superoxide-dependent signaling may not regulate ROMK channels under physiological conditions with a normal plasma K concentration. In the present study, we used the patch-clamp technique and Western blot to examine the effect of a moderate K restriction on ROMK-like SK channels and the role of PTK and MAPK in regulating apical K channels in the CCD of animals on a low-K diet (LK; 0.1% K). Rats and mice fed a LK diet for 7 days had a normal plasma K concentration. However, a LK intake increased the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the kidney. Moreover, patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that LK intake decreased the probability finding SK channels and channel activity defined by NP(o) (a product of channel number and open probability) in the CCD of both rat and mouse kidneys. Also, LK intake significantly stimulated the production of superoxide anions in the renal cortex and outer medulla in both rats and mice and increased superoxide level in the rat CCD. Moreover, LK intake augments the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPK, the expression of c-Src and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK channels. However, treatment of animals with tempol abolished the effect of LK intake on MAPK and c-Src and increased ROMK channel activity in comparing with those of nontreated rats on a LK diet. Inhibiting p38 and ERK with SB202190 and PD98059 significantly stimulated SK in the CCD in rats on a LK diet. In addition, inhibition of PTK with herbimycin A activated SK channels in the CCD from rats on a LK diet. We conclude that LK intake stimulates the generation of superoxide anion and related products and that MAPK and Src family PTK play a physiological role in inhibiting apical K channels in the principal cells in response to LK intake.
    AJP Renal Physiology 03/2010; 298(6):F1515-22. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: POSH (plenty of SH3) is a scaffold protein that has been shown to act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we report that POSH stimulates the ubiquitination of Kir1.1 (ROMK) and enhances the internalization of this potassium channel. Immunostaining reveals the expression of POSH in the renal cortical collecting duct. Immunoprecipitation of renal tissue lysate with ROMK antibody and glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments demonstrated the association between ROMK and POSH. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of lysates of HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 or with constructs encoding the ROMK-N terminus or ROMK1-C-Terminus demonstrated that POSH binds to ROMK1 on its N terminus. To study the effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels, we measured potassium currents with electrophysiological methods in HEK293T cells and in oocytes transfected or injected with ROMK1 and POSH. POSH decreased potassium currents, and the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was dose-dependent. Biotinylation assay further showed that POSH decreased surface expression of ROMK channels in HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 and POSH. The effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels was specific because POSH did not inhibit sodium current in oocytes injected with ENaC-α, β, and γ subunits. Moreover, POSH still decreased the potassium current in oocytes injected with a ROMK1 mutant (R1Δ373–378), in which a clathrin-dependent tyrosine-based internalization signal residing between amino acid residues 373 and 378 is deleted. However, the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was absent in cells expressing with dominant negative dynamin and POSHΔRING, in which the RING domain was deleted. Expression of POSH also increased the ubiquitination of ROMK1, whereas expression of POSHΔRING diminished its ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. The notion that POSH may serve as an E3 ubiquitin ligase is also supported by in vitro ubiquitination assays in which adding POSH increased the ROMK ubiquitination. We conclude that POSH inhibits ROMK channels by enhancing dynamin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis and by stimulating ubiquitination of ROMK channels.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(43):29614-29624. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: POSH (plenty of SH3) is a scaffold protein that has been shown to act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we report that POSH stimulates the ubiquitination of Kir1.1 (ROMK) and enhances the internalization of this potassium channel. Immunostaining reveals the expression of POSH in the renal cortical collecting duct. Immunoprecipitation of renal tissue lysate with ROMK antibody and glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments demonstrated the association between ROMK and POSH. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of lysates of HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 or with constructs encoding the ROMK-N terminus or ROMK1-C-Terminus demonstrated that POSH binds to ROMK1 on its N terminus. To study the effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels, we measured potassium currents with electrophysiological methods in HEK293T cells and in oocytes transfected or injected with ROMK1 and POSH. POSH decreased potassium currents, and the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was dose-dependent. Biotinylation assay further showed that POSH decreased surface expression of ROMK channels in HEK293T cells transfected with ROMK1 and POSH. The effect of POSH on ROMK1 channels was specific because POSH did not inhibit sodium current in oocytes injected with ENaC-alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. Moreover, POSH still decreased the potassium current in oocytes injected with a ROMK1 mutant (R1Delta373-378), in which a clathrin-dependent tyrosine-based internalization signal residing between amino acid residues 373 and 378 is deleted. However, the inhibitory effect of POSH on ROMK channels was absent in cells expressing with dominant negative dynamin and POSHDeltaRING, in which the RING domain was deleted. Expression of POSH also increased the ubiquitination of ROMK1, whereas expression of POSHDeltaRING diminished its ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. The notion that POSH may serve as an E3 ubiquitin ligase is also supported by in vitro ubiquitination assays in which adding POSH increased the ROMK ubiquitination. We conclude that POSH inhibits ROMK channels by enhancing dynamin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis and by stimulating ubiquitination of ROMK channels.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(43):29614-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flow-stimulated net K secretion (J(K)) in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) is mediated by an iberiotoxin (IBX)-sensitive BK channel, and requires an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)). The alpha-subunit of the reconstituted BK channel is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. To test whether the BK channel in the native CCD is regulated by these kinases, J(K) and net Na absorption (J(Na)) were measured at slow (approximately 1) and fast (approximately 5 nl x min(-1) x mm(-1)) flow rates in rabbit CCDs microperfused in the presence of mPKI, an inhibitor of PKA; calphostin C, which inhibits diacylglycerol binding proteins, including PKC; or bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) and Gö6976, inhibitors of classic and novel PKC isoforms, added to luminal (L) and/or basolateral (B) solutions. L but not B mPKI increased J(K) in CCDs perfused at a slow flow rate; a subsequent increase in flow rate augmented J(K) modestly. B mPKI alone or with L inhibitor abolished flow stimulation of J(K). Similarly, L calphostin C increased J(K) in CCDs perfused at slow flow rates, as did calphostin C in both L and B solutions. The observation that IBX inhibited the L mPKI- and calphostin C-mediated increases in J(K) at slow flow rates implicated the BK channel in this K flux, a notion suggested by patch-clamp analysis of principal cells. The kinase inhibited by calphostin C was not PKC as L and/or B BIM and Gö6976 failed to enhance J(K) at the slow flow rate. However, addition of these PKC inhibitors to the B solution alone or with L inhibitor blocked flow stimulation of J(K). Interpretation of these results in light of the effects of these inhibitors on the flow-induced elevation of [Ca2+](i) suggests that the principal cell apical BK channel is tonically inhibited by PKA and that flow stimulation of J(K) in the CCD is PKA and PKC dependent. The specific targets of the kinases remain to be identified.
    AJP Renal Physiology 09/2009; 297(4):F904-15. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cortical collecting duct (CCD), which is involved in renal potassium (K) excretion, expresses cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenase. Here, we examined the effect of high dietary K on renal expression of CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 in the rat, as well as the role of CYP-epoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid in the regulation of Ca(2+)-activated big-conductance K (BK) channels. By Western blot analysis, high dietary K stimulated the expression of CYP2C23 but not CYP2J2 and increased 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) levels in isolated rat CCD tubules. Application of arachidonic acid increased BK channel activity, and this occurred to a greater extent in rats on a high-K diet compared with a normal-K diet. This effect was unlikely due to arachidonic acid-induced changes in membrane fluidity, because 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid did not alter BK channel activity. Inhibiting CYP-epoxygenase but not cyclooxygenase- or CYP-omega-hydroxylase-dependent pathways completely abolished the stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid on BK channel activity. In addition, application of 11,12-EET mimicked the effect of arachidonic acid on BK channel activity, even in the presence of CYP-epoxygenase inhibition. This effect seemed specific to 11,12-EET, because both 8,9- and 14,15-EET failed to stimulate BK channels. Finally, inhibition of CYP-epoxygenase abolished iberiotoxin-sensitive and flow-stimulated but not basal net K secretion in isolated microperfused CCD. In conclusion, high dietary K stimulates the renal CYP-epoxygenase pathway, which plays an important role in activating BK channels and flow-stimulated K secretion in the CCD.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2009; 20(3):513-23. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of H(2)O(2) on the apical ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channel in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). The addition of H(2)O(2) decreased the activity of the SK channels and the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) was larger in the CCD from rats on a K-deficient diet than that from rats on a normal-K or a high-K diet. However, application of H(2)O(2) did not inhibit the SK channels in inside-out patches. This suggests that the H(2)O(2)-mediated inhibition of SK channels was not due to direct oxidation of the SK channel protein. Because a previous study showed that H(2)O(2) stimulated the expression of Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) which inhibited SK channels (3), we explored the role of PTK in mediating the effect of H(2)O(2) on SK channels. The application of H(2)O(2) stimulated the activity of endogenous PTK in M-1 cells and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in HEK293 cells transfected with GFP-ROMK1 and c-Src. However, blockade of PTK only attenuated but did not completely abolish the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) on SK channels. Since H(2)O(2) has also been demonstrated to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase, P38, and ERK (3), we examined the role of P38 and ERK in mediating the effect of H(2)O(2) on SK channels. Similar to blockade of PTK, suppression of P38 and ERK did not completely abolish the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of SK channels. However, combined use of ERK, P38, and PTK inhibitors completely abolished the effect of H(2)O(2) on SK channels. Also, treatment of the CCDs with concanavalin A, an agent which has been shown to inhibit endocytosis (19), abolished the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2). We conclude that addition of H(2)O(2) inhibited SK channels by stimulating PTK activity, P38, and ERK in the CCD and that H(2)O(2) enhances the internalization of the SK channels.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2007; 292(4):F1151-6. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The kidney plays a key role in maintaining potassium (K) homeostasis. K excretion is determined by the balance between K secretion and absorption in distal tubule segments such as the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct. K secretion takes place by K entering principal cells (PC) from blood side through Na+, K+ -ATPase and being secreted into the lumen via both ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels and Ca2+ -activated big-conductance K (BK) channels. K reabsorption occurs by stimulation of apical K/H-ATPase and inhibition of K recycling across the apical membrane in intercalated cells (IC). The role of ROMK channels in K secretion is well documented. However, the importance of BK channels in mediating K secretion is incompletely understood. It has been shown that their activity increases with high tubule flow rate and augmented K intake. However, BK channels have a low open probability and are mainly located in IC, which lack appropriate transporters for effective K secretion. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of ERK and P38 MAPKs stimulates BK channels in both PC and IC in the cortical collecting duct and that changes in K intake modulate their activity. Under control conditions, BK channel activity in PC was low but increased significantly by inhibition of both ERK and P38. Blocking MAPKs also increased channel open probability of BK in IC and thereby it may affect K backflux and net K absorption Thus, modulation of ERK and P38 MAPK activity is involved in controlling net K secretion in the distal nephron.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 103(51):19569-74. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that arachidonic acid (AA) inhibits epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase-dependent pathway (34). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low Na intake suppresses the expression of CYP2C23, which is mainly responsible for converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) in the kidney (11) and attenuates the AA-induced inhibition of ENaC. Immunostaining showed that CYP2C23 is expressed in the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-positive and aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-positive tubules. This suggests that CYP2C23 is expressed in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and collecting duct (CD). Na restriction significantly suppressed the expression of CYP2C23 in the TAL and CD. Western blot also demonstrated that the expression of CYP2C23 in renal cortex and outer medulla diminished in rats on Na-deficient diet (Na-D) but increased in those on high-Na diet (4%). Moreover, the content of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) decreased in the isolated cortical CD from rats on Na-D compared with those on a normal-Na diet (0.5%). Patch-clamp study showed that application of 15 microM AA inhibited the activity of ENaC by 77% in the CCD of rats on a Na-D for 3 days. However, the inhibitory effect of AA on ENaC was significantly attenuated in rats on Na-D for 14 days. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP epoxygenase with MS-PPOH increased the ENaC activity in the CCD of rats on a control Na diet. We also used microperfusion technique to examine the effect of MS-PPOH on Na transport in the distal nephron. Application of MS-PPOH significantly increased Na absorption in the distal nephron of control rats but had no significant effect on Na absorption in rats on Na-D for 14 days. We conclude that low Na intake downregulates the activity and expression of CYP2C23 and attenuates the inhibitory effect of AA on Na transport.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 01/2007; 291(6):F1192-200. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was demonstrated previously that low dietary potassium (K) intake stimulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) expression via a superoxide-dependent signaling. This study explored the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating the effect of superoxide anions on PTK expression and ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated that low K intake significantly increased the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK (P38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but had no effect on phosphorylation of c-JUN N-terminus kinase in renal cortex and outer medulla. The stimulatory effect of low K intake on P38 and ERK was abolished by treatment of rats with tempol. The possibility that increases in superoxide and related products that are induced by low K intake were responsible for stimulating phosphorylation of P38 and ERK also was supported by the finding that application of H(2)O(2) increased the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 in the cultured mouse collecting duct cells. Simultaneous blocking of ERK and P38 completely abolished the effect of H(2)O(2) on c-Src expression in mouse collecting duct cells. For determination of the role of P38 and ERK in the regulation of ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels, the patch-clamp technique was used to study the effect of inhibiting P38 and ERK on SK channels in the cortical collecting duct from rats that were on a control K diet (1.1%) and on a K-deficient diet for 1 d. Inhibition of ERK, c-JUN N-terminus kinase, or P38 alone had no effect on SK channels. In contrast, simultaneous inhibition of P38 and ERK significantly increased channel activity. The effect of inhibiting MAPK on SK channels was not affected in the presence of herbimycin A, a PTK inhibitor, and was larger in rats that were on a K-deficient diet than in rats that were on a normal-K diet. However, the stimulatory effect of inhibiting ERK and P38 on SK was absent in the cortical collecting duct that was treated with colchicine. It is concluded that low K intake-induced increases in superoxide levels are responsible for stimulation of P38 and ERK and that MAPK inhibit the SK channels by stimulating PTK expression and via a PTK-independent mechanism.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2006; 17(10):2687-96. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of adenosine on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity in rat cortical collecting duct (CCD). Application of adenosine inhibits ENaC activity, and the effect of adenosine was mimicked by cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), an A(1) adenosine-receptor agonist that reduced channel activity from 1.32 to 0.64. The inhibitory effect of CHA on ENaC was mimicked by cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which reduced channel activity from 1.1 to 0.55. In contrast, application of CGS-21680, an A(2a) adenosine-receptor agonist, had no effect on ENaC and increased channel activity from 0.96 to 1.22. This suggests that the inhibitory effect of adenosine analogs resulted from stimulation of the A(1) adenosine receptor. Inhibition of PLC with U-73122 failed to abolish the effect of CHA on ENaC. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of CHA on ENaC was absent in the presence of the PLA(2) inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)). This suggests a role of arachidonic acid (AA) in mediating the effect of adenosine on ENaC. To determine the metabolic pathway of AA responsible for the effect of adenosine, we examined the effect of CHA in the presence of indomethacin or N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH). Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase with MS-PPOH blocked the effect of CHA on ENaC. In contrast, CHA reduced ENaC activity in the presence of indomethacin. This suggests that CYP epoxygenase-dependent metabolites of AA mediate the effect of adenosine. Because 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) inhibits ENaC activity in the CCD (Wei Y, Lin DH, Kemp R, Yaddanapudi GSS, Nasjletti A, Falck JR, and Wang WH. J Gen Physiol 124: 719-727, 2004), we examined the role of 11,12-EET in mediating the effect of adenosine on ENaC. Addition of 11,12-EET inhibited ENaC channels in the CCD in which adenosine-induced inhibition was blocked by AACOCF3. We conclude that adenosine inhibits ENaC activity by stimulation of the A(1) adenosine receptor in the CCD and that the effect of adenosine is mediated by 11,12-EET.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 06/2006; 290(5):F1163-8. · 3.61 Impact Factor