[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several recipient, donor and operation factors as well as postoperative complications related to patient survival after liver transplantation (LT) in children were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. In a 13-year period, 103 patients under 15 years of age underwent 120 LT; the mean age was 63 months and 36% were under 2 years of age. Indications for LT were cholestatic disease in 68 (56%), metabolic diseases in 18 (14%), fulminant hepatic failure in 8 (7.5%), cirrhosis in 7 (5.8%), and retransplants in 17 (14%). Whole liver was transplanted in 79% of cases and partial liver in 21%. Actuarial survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 70%, 61%, and 57%, respectively. United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) I recipients (RR = 2.7), primary non-function (PNF) (RR = 13.9), and hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) (RR = 3.8) were independent factors for lower patient survival in multivariate analysis. Thus, in our experience, postoperative mortality as a consequence of the patient's condition before transplantation, or complications such as PNF or HAT, are the major causes of decreased survival in pediatric LT.