[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Die Rekonstruktion einer insuffizienten bikuspiden Aortenklappe ist eine neue Alternative zum Klappenersatz. Bei gleichzeitiger
Dilatation der Aortenwurzel ist durch klappenerhaltenden Aortenersatz auch eine hämodynamisch adäquate Rekonstruktion möglich.
Im Zeitraum von 10/95 bis 02/00 wurde bei 30 Patienten eine Rekonstruktion einer insuffizienten bikuspiden Aortenklappe
vorgenommen. Ein zusätzlicher Ersatz der Aorta ascendens wurde in 23 Fällen durchgeführt. Die Klappenrekonstruktion erfolgte
in allen Fällen durch Raffen eines prolabierenden Segels. Keiner der Patienten verstarb peri- oder postoperativ. Die postoperative
Freiheit von Aortenklappeninsuffizienz ≥II sowie Freiheit von einer Reoperation betrugen jeweils 100% nach 48 Monaten. Die
Rekonstruktion einer insuffizienten bikuspiden Aortenklappe ist mit guten mittelfristigen Ergebnissen durchführbar. Bei begleitender
Dilatation der Aorta ascendens ist durch eine Kombination von Aortenersatz und Klappenrekonstruktion auch bei bikuspider Anatomie
ein stabiles Ergebnis zu erzielen.
Reconstruction of a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve is a new alternative to aortic valve replacement. With concomitant aortic
root dilatation adequate reconstruction is feasible by valve-sparing aortic replacement. Between 10/95 and 02/00, 30 patients
underwent reconstruction of a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve. Additional aortic replacement was performed in 23 cases.
Valve reconstruction was performed by plication of the prolapsing leaflet. No patient died peri- or postoperatively. Freedom
from aortic valve regurgitation ≥II as well as freedom from reoperation were 100% after 48 months. Reconstruction of a
regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve is feasible with encouraging mid-term results. With concomitant dilatation of the ascending
aorta, a combination of aortic replacement and valve reconstruction can achieve stable results even in bicuspid valve anatomy.
Schlüsselwörter Bikuspide–Aortenklappe–Aortenklappenrekonstruktion–Klappenerhaltender Ersatz der Aorta ascendensKey words Bicuspid aortic valve–aortic valve reconstruction–valve-sparing aortic surgery
Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 04/2012; 89(10):932-938. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic valve repair is a more recent approach for the treatment of aortic regurgitation. Limited data exist for reconstruction in specific pathologies with isolated cusp pathology. We analyzed the results of aortic valve repair in patients with aortic regurgitation caused by myxomatous cusp prolapse in the presence of tricuspid valve anatomy and normal root size.
Over a 12-year period, 111 patients underwent aortic valve reconstruction for regurgitant tricuspid aortic valves without concomitant root dilatation. Cusp prolapse was caused by myxomatous degeneration in 72 subjects (group I) and associated with fenestrations in 39 subjects (group II). Prolapse was corrected by means of plication of the free margin in the presence of normal cusp tissue only (n = 62) or combined with triangular resection of cusp tissue (n = 10). It was treated with additional closure of the fenestration with autologous pericardium in 39 instances (group II). Follow-up was complete in 98.5% (cumulative 385 years).
Hospital mortality was 1.8%, and during follow-up, there was 1 thromboembolic event and no endocarditis. Freedom from reoperation at 5 and 8 years was 96%.
Isolated cusp prolapse is a relevant cause of aortic regurgitation in tricuspid aortic valves without concomitant root dilatation. In myxomatous stretching of cusp tissue, plication of the free margin suffices to restore cusp geometry and aortic valve function. In the presence of fenestrations, reconstruction of normal cusp configuration can be achieved by means of closure of the fenestration with a pericardial patch. The midterm stability of both approaches is good.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 09/2009; 139(3):660-4. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic valve replacement for aortic regurgitation (AR) has been established as a standard treatment but implies prosthesis-related complications. Aortic valve repair is an alternative approach, but its mid- to long-term results still need to be defined.
Over a 12-year period, 640 patients underwent aortic valve repair for regurgitation of a unicuspid (n=21), bicuspid (n=205), tricuspid (n=411) or quadricuspid (n=3) aortic valve. The mechanism of regurgitation involved prolapse (n=469) or retraction (n=20) of the cusps, and dilatation of the root (n=323) or combined pathologies. Treatment consisted of cusp repair (n=529), root repair (n=323) or a combination of both (n=208). The patients were followed clinically and echocardiographically; follow-up was complete in 98.5% (cumulative follow-up: 3035 patient years).
Hospital mortality was 3.4% in the total patient cohort and 0.8% for isolated aortic valve repair. The incidences of thrombo-embolism (0.2% per patient per year) and endocarditis (0.16%per patient per year) were low. Freedom from re-operation at 5 and 10 years was 88% and 81% in bicuspid and 97% and 93% in tricuspid aortic valves (p=0.0013). At re-operation, 13 out of 36 valves could be re-repaired. Freedom from valve replacement was 95% and 90% in bicuspid and 97% and 94% in tricuspid aortic valves (p=0.36). Freedom from all valve-related complications at 10 years was 88%.
Reconstructive surgery of the aortic valve is feasible with low mortality in many individuals with aortic regurgitation. Freedom from valve-related complications after valve repair seems superior compared to available data on standard aortic valve replacement.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 08/2009; 37(1):127-32. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews advances in cardiovascular medicine published last year. The following issues are reported in detail: (1) risk factors and lifestyle, (2) computed tomography in coronary artery disease, (3) revascularization in cardiogenic shock, (4) long-term anticoagulation in venous thrombosis, (5) anemia in heart failure, (6) optimism and cardiovascular death, (7) mortality after drug-eluting stents, (8) diabetes and cardiovascular disease, (9) new guidelines atrial fibrillation, (10) dopamine agonists and cardiac valve regurgitation, (11) beta-blockers and hypertension, (12) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and aortic rupture, (13) statin therapy, (14) adherence to pharmacotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In aortic valve regurgitation and aortic dilatation, preservation of the aortic valve is possible by means of root remodeling (Yacoub procedure) or valve reimplantation (David procedure). In vivo studies suggest that reimplantation might substantially influence aortic valve-motion characteristics. Evaluation of aortic valve movement in vivo, however, is technically limited and is difficult to standardize. We evaluated the aortic valve-motion pattern echocardiographically in vitro after reimplantation and remodeling.
By using aortic roots of house pigs (aortoventricular diameter, 22 mm) a Yacoub procedure (22-mm graft; group Y, n = 5) or a David I procedure (24-mm graft; group D, n = 5) was performed. Roots after supracommissural replacement (22-mm graft; group C, n = 5) served as control valves. In an electrohydraulic, computer-controlled pulse duplicator the valves were tested at flows of 2, 4, 7, and 9 L/min. Echocardiographically assessed parameters were rapid valve-opening velocity, slow valve-closing velocity, rapid valve-closing velocity, rapid valve-opening time, rapid valve-closing time, ejection time, maximum valve opening, slow valve-closing displacement, and maximum flow velocity.
Mean rapid valve-opening velocity and mean rapid valve-closing velocity at a cardiac output of 2 to 9 L/min were fastest in group D (rapid valve-opening velocity: 69 +/- 10 cm/s [group D] vs 39 +/- 4 cm/s [group Y] vs 42 +/- 4 cm/s [group C], P = .0041; rapid valve-closing velocity: 22 +/- 2 cm/s [group D] vs 16 +/- 2 cm/s [group Y] vs 17 +/- 1 cm/s [group C], P = .0272), and slow valve-closing velocity was slowest in group D (0.2 +/- 0.1 cm/s [group D] vs 1.0 +/- 0.3 cm/s [group Y] vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 cm/s [group C], P = .0063). With increasing cardiac output, the difference in rapid valve-opening velocity between the groups increased, the difference in slow valve-closing velocity remained unchanged, and the difference in rapid valve-closing velocity decreased.
In this standardized experimental setting remodeling of the aortic valve provides significantly smoother valve movements. This might contribute to preservation of a better valve performance during long-term follow-up.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2006; 132(1):32-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valve-preserving aortic replacement has become an accepted option for patients with aortic valve regurgitation and aortic dilatation. The relative role of root remodeling versus valve reimplantation inside a vascular graft has been discussed, albeit controversially. In the present study, an in-vitro model was used to investigate the aortic valve hemodynamics of root remodeling and valve reimplantation; roots with supracommissural aortic replacement served as controls.
Aortic roots with aortoventricular diameter 21 mm were obtained from pigs. Root remodeling was performed using a 22-mm graft (group I, n = 6), or valve reimplantation with a 24-mm graft (group II, n = 7). Control roots were treated by supracommissural aortic replacement (22-mm graft; group III, n = 7). Using an electrohydraulic, computer-controlled pulse duplicator, the valves were tested at flows of 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9 I/min at a heart rate of 70 /min and a mean arterial pressure of 100 mmHg. Parameters assessed included: mean pressure gradient, effective orifice area, valve closure and regurgitant volume, and energy loss due to ejection, valve closure and regurgitation. Data were compared using ANOVA.
There were no differences between the three groups in terms of regurgitant volume, energy loss due to valve regurgitation, or valve closure. The aortic valve orifice area was largest and systolic gradient lowest in group I at all flow rates (p < 0.001). Ejection energy loss was lowest in group I at all flow rates (9 l/min: group I, 128 +/- 21 mJ; group II, 399 +/- 46 mJ; group III, 312 +/- 27 mJ; p < 0.001). Valve closure volumes were similar in groups I and III, but significantly lower in group II at all flow rates (p = 0.047).
In this standardized experimental setting, root remodeling--but not valve reimplantation--resulted in physiologic hemodynamic performance of the aortic valve with regard to orifice area, pressure gradient, and systolic energy loss.
The Journal of heart valve disease 05/2006; 15(3):329-35. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic valve repair was established in the context of aortic root remodeling. Variable results have been reported for isolated valve repair. We analyzed our experience with isolated valve repair and compared the results with those of aortic root remodeling.
Between October 1995 and August 2003, isolated repair of the aortic valve was performed in 83 patients (REP), remodeling of the aortic valve in 175 patients (REMO). The demographics of the two groups were comparable (REP: mean age 54.4 +/- 20.7 yrs, male-female ratio 2.1 : 1; REMO: mean age 60.8 +/- 13.6 yrs, male-female ratio 2.4 : 1; p = ns). In both groups the number of bicuspid valves was comparable (REP: 41 %, REMO: 32 %; p = ns). All patients were followed by echocardiography for a cumulative follow-up of 8204 patient months (mean 32 +/- 23 months).
Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.4 % in REP and 4.6 % in REMO ( p = 0.62). Systolic gradients were comparable in both groups (REP: 5.8 +/- 2.2, REMO: 6.5 +/- 3.1 mm Hg, p = 0.09). The mean degree of aortic regurgitation 12 months postoperatively was 0.8 +/- 0.7 after REP and 0.7 +/- 0.7 after REMO ( p = 0.29). Freedom from significant regurgitation (> or = II degrees ) after 5 years was 86 % in REP and 89 % in REMO ( p = 0.17). Freedom from re-operation after 5 years was 94.4 % in REP and 98.2 % in REMO ( p = 0.33).
Aortic regurgitation without concomitant root dilatation can be treated effectively by aortic valve repair. The functional results are equivalent to those obtained with valve-preserving root replacement. Aortic valve repair appears to be an alternative to valve replacement in aortic regurgitation.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 02/2006; 54(1):15-20. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasodilatory therapy of Raynaud's phenomenon represents a difficult clinical problem because treatment often remains inefficient and may be not tolerated because of side effects.
To investigate the effects of sildenafil on symptoms and capillary perfusion in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, crossover study in 16 patients with symptomatic secondary Raynaud's phenomenon resistant to vasodilatory therapy. Patients were treated with 50 mg sildenafil or placebo twice daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed by diary cards including a 10-point Raynaud's Condition Score. Capillary flow velocity was measured in digital nailfold capillaries by means of a laser Doppler anemometer. While taking sildenafil, the mean frequency of Raynaud attacks was significantly lower (35+/-14 versus 52+/-18, P=0.0064), the cumulative attack duration was significantly shorter (581+/-133 versus 1046+/-245 minutes, P=0.0038), and the mean Raynaud's Condition Score was significantly lower (2.2+/-0.4 versus 3.0+/-0.5, P=0.0386). Capillary blood flow velocity increased in each individual patient, and the mean capillary flow velocity of all patients more than quadrupled after treatment with sildenafil (0.53+/-0.09 versus 0.13+/-0.02 mm/s, P=0.0004). Two patients reported side effects leading to discontinuation of the study drug.
Sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic dilatation occurs in many patients with bicuspid aortic valves. We have added root replacement using the remodeling technique originally designed for tricuspid aortic valves to bicuspid aortic valve repair for treatment of the dilated root. We compared the results of remodeling in bicuspid aortic valves with those in tricuspid aortic valves.
From October 1995 through January 2004, 60 patients underwent root remodeling for bicuspid aortic valves (group A), and 130 patients underwent root remodeling for tricuspid aortic valves (group B). Correction of cusp prolapse was more often performed in group A (group A, 50/60; group B, 47/130; P < .0001). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at 1 week, 6 and 12 months, and every year thereafter. Cumulative follow-up was 527 patient-years (mean, 2.9 +/- 2 years).
No patient died in group A. Hospital mortality in group B was 5% (5/100; 95% confidence interval,1.6%-11.3%) after elective operations and 10% (3/30; 95% confidence interval, 2.1%-26.5%) after emergency operations. Mean systolic gradients were identical at 1 year (group A, 4.8 +/- 2.1 mm Hg; group B, 4.0 +/- 2 mm Hg) and 5 years (group A, 4.5 +/- 2.3 mm Hg; group B, 3.9 +/- 2.2 mm Hg). Freedom from aortic regurgitation of grade 2 or higher at 5 years was 96% in group A and 83% in group B ( P = .07), and freedom from reoperation at 5 years was 98% in group A and 98% in group B ( P = .73).
Valve-sparing aortic replacement with root remodeling can be applied to aortic dilatation and a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve. Hemodynamic function and valve stability of a repaired bicuspid aortic valve are comparable with those seen in cases of tricuspid anatomy.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/2004; 128(5):662-8. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research indicates that discharges of implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) are triggered by psychosocial stress. This study examined the presence of patterns of psychophysiological stress reactivity in ICD-patients. Further more potential relationship between factors of stress reactivity and the frequency of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators discharges was investigated.
In 46 consecutive patients (38 male, 8 female; age: 26-80 years) with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators the following parameters of physiological reactivity were measured in a standardised experimental stress test: Heart rate, skin conductance, muscle tension and respiratory activity. In a standardised interview anxiety sensitivity, depression, desire for control, stress load, and attitude towards the defibrillator were evaluated and quantified. The relationship between the mentioned parameters were examined with factor analysis to reveal patterns of psychophysiological reactivity. Potential relationship between psychophysiological factors and frequency of shock delivery was verified with linear regression analysis.
Factor analysis revealed four independent psychophysiological traits. The factors were named "Play Dead Reflex", "Heart Phobia", "Negativism" and "Irritability". Linear regression model showed significant correlation between "Play Dead Reflex" and discharge frequency.
Results confirm the presence of specific psychophysiological stress reaction patterns in ICD-patients. The stress reaction pattern "Play Dead Reflex" could be discussed as a potential risk factor in developing life-threatening tachyarrhythmias leading to an increase in defibrillator discharges in patients with ICD. This hypothesis should be considered in prospective studies and psychosomatic treatment of concerned patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of the aortic valve for aortic regurgitation (AR) remains challenging, in part because of not only cusp or root pathology but also a combination of both can be responsible for this valve dysfunction. We have systematically tailored the repair to the individual pathology of cusps and root.
Between October 1995 and August 2003, aortic valve repair was performed in 282 of 493 patients undergoing surgery for AR and concomitant disease. Root dilatation was corrected by subcommissural plication (n=59), supracommissural aortic replacement (n=27), root remodeling (n=175), or valve reimplantation within a graft (n=24). Cusp prolapse was corrected by plication of the free margin (n=157) or triangular resection (n =36), cusp defects were closed with a pericardial patch (n=16). Additional procedures were arch replacement (n=114), coronary artery bypass graft (n=60) or mitral repair (n=24). All patients were followed-up (follow-up 99.6% complete), and cumulative follow-up was 8425 patient-months (mean, 33+/-27 months).Results- Eleven patients died in hospital (3.9%). Nine patients underwent reoperation for recurrent AR (3.3%). Actuarial freedom from AR grade > or =II at 5 years was 81% for isolated valve repair, 84% for isolated root replacement, and 94% for combination of both; actuarial freedom from reoperation at 5 years was 93%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. No thromboembolic events occurred, and there was 1 episode of endocarditis 4.5 years postoperatively.
Aortic valve repair is feasible even for complex mechanisms of AR with a systematic and individually tailored approach. Operative mortality is low and mid-term durability is encouraging. The incidence of valve-related morbidity is low compared with valve replacement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular continuum describes the way from risk factors to atherosclerosis, acute cardiovascular events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), and development of terminal heart failure and its complications. Following this way, advances are reported in the therapy of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. The following issues are reported in detail: (1) significance of statins and statin withdrawal, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker, acute coronary interventions, aspirin and clopidogrel in unstable coronary syndromes, (2) pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension, (3) cardiac regeneration capability after transplantation and myocardial infarction, (4) beta-blocker therapy, efficacy of additional angiotensin receptor blocker therapy and multisite biventricular pacing in symptomatic (advanced) heart failure, (5) prognosis after ablation of the atrioventricular node in patients with atrial fibrillation, (6) primary prevention with an implantable defibrillator and resumption of driving after implantation, and (7) therapeutic options after cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular continuum describes the way from risk factors to atherosclerosis, acute cardiovascular events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), and development of terminal heart failure and its complications. Following this way, advances are reported in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, in noninvasive diagnostics and revascularization of coronary artery disease, and in new therapeutic options of acute myocardial infarction. The following issues are reported in detail: (1) significance of statins, inhibition of platelet aggregation and vitamins in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, (2) comparison of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and the beta-blocker atenolol in hypertension (LIFE study), (3) magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of coronary stenoses, (4) advantages and disadvantages of operative and interventional coronary revascularization considering elderly patients and sirolimus-eluting stents, and (5) efficacy of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and low molecular weight heparin in acute myocardial infarction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung. q Das kardiovaskulre Kontinuum beschreibt den Weg vom Risikofaktor ber die Entwicklung einer Atherosklerose weiter zu akuten kardiovaskulren Krankheitsereignissen (instabile Angina pectoris, Myokardinfarkt) bis hin zum Endpunkt der terminalen Herzinsuffizienz und deren Komplikationen. Diesem Ductus folgend, werden Fortschritte im Bereich der Prvention von kardiovaskulren Krankheitsereignissen, der nichtinvasiven Diagnostik der koronaren Herzkrankheit, der Revaskularisationsoptionen bei stabiler Koronarkrankheit und Neuigkeiten zur Therapie des akuten Myokardinfarkts dargelegt. Im Einzelnen wird auf folgende Themen eingegangen: 1. Bedeutung von Statinen, Thrombozytenaggregationshemmern und Vitaminen in der Primr- und Sekundrprophylaxe kardiovaskulrer Erkrankungen, 2. Wirksamkeit des AT1-Rezeptor-Antagonisten Losartan und des b-Blockers Atenolol zur Einstellung der arteriellen Hypertonie (LIFE-Studie), 3. Mglichkeiten der kernspintomographischen Diagnostik der koronaren Herzkrankheit, 4. Vor- und Nachteile der koronaren Revaskularisation mittels Bypassoperation oder Katheterintervention unter Bercksichtigung hochbetagter Patienten und zytostatikabeschichteter Stents und 5. Wirksamkeit von Glykoprotein-IIb/IIIa-Rezeptor-Antagonisten und niedermolekularem Heparin in der Therapie des akuten Myokardinfarkts. Abstract. q The cardiovascular continuum describes the way from risk factors to atherosclerosis, acute cardiovascular events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), and development of terminal heart failure and its complications. Following this way, advances are reported in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, in noninvasive diagnostics and revascularization of coronary artery disease, and in new therapeutic options of acute myocardial infarction. The following issues are reported in detail: (1) significance of statins, inhibition of platelet aggregation and vitamins in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, (2) comparison of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and the b-blocker atenolol in hypertension (LIFE study), (3) magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of coronary stenoses, (4) advantages and disadvantages of operative and interventional coronary revascularization considering elderly patients and sirolimus-eluting stents, and (5) efficacy of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and low molecular weight heparin in acute myocardial infarction.