E. Martínez-González

Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Santander, Cantabria, Spain

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Publications (299)701.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from $10^{20}$ to $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are preferentially aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. We interpret the increase of alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projections effects. The decrease of alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the structures and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which cannot be accounted for by projection effects. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which describe the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\ell$ with exponents $\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of the Galactic $B$- and $E$-modes of 0.5. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows where primordial CMB $B$-mode polarization could be measured without subtraction of dust emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the BICEP2 experiment field. Extrapolation of the Planck 353GHz data to 150GHz gives a dust power $\ell(\ell+1)C_\ell^{BB}/(2\pi)$ of $1.32\times10^{-2}\mu$K$_{CMB}^2$ over the $40<\ell<120$ range; the statistical uncertainty is $\pm0.29$ and there is an additional uncertainty (+0.28,-0.24) from the extrapolation, both in the same units. This is the same magnitude as reported by BICEP2 over this $\ell$ range, which highlights the need for assessment of the polarized dust signal. The present uncertainties will be reduced through an ongoing, joint analysis of the Planck and BICEP2 data sets.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shortened abstract: Observations of the nearby Chamaeleon clouds in gamma rays with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and in thermal dust emission with Planck and IRAS have been used with the HI and CO radio data to (i) map the gas column densities in the different phases and at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the HI-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-$H_2$ conversion factor, $X_{CO}$; (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each gas phase and spatially across the clouds. We have separated clouds in velocity in HI and CO emission and modelled the 0.4-100 GeV intensity, the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, the thermal radiance of the large grains, and an estimate of the dust extinction empirically corrected for the starlight intensity, $A_{VQ}$. The gamma-ray emissivity spectra confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the HI-DNM-CO transitions and CO-dark $H_2$ fractions for separate clouds. The corrected extinction provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the gamma rays, but we find evidence for a rise in $A_{VQ}/N_H$ and a steep rise in opacity, with increasing $N_H$ and $H_2$ fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. We observe less variations for the specific power of the grains, except for a decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. The gamma rays and dust radiance yield consistent $X_{CO}$ estimates near $0.7\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ (K km/s)$^{-1}$. The other dust tracers yield biased values because of the grain opacity rise in the CO clouds. These results also confirm a factor of 2 difference between $X_{CO}$ estimates at pc and kpc scales.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical estimates from approximately 200,000 QSOs observed in the Sloan digital sky survey. The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined from the QSOs, and this discrepancy depends on Umin. We propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found here. This renormalization, bringing into agreement the AV estimates on QSOs, also brings into agreement the AV estimates on molecular clouds. In the diffuse ISM, the DL fitting parameter Umin, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains. Therefore, some of the physical assumptions of the DL model need to be revised. We provide a family of SEDs normalized by optical reddening, parameterized by Umin; these will be the constraints for a next generation of dust models.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diffuse emission components of the inner Galaxy. The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside the solar radius and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is l=300-0-60deg where star-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longitude range lie between 1deg and 2deg, which correspond to FWHM z-widths of 100-200pc at a typical distance of 6kpc. The four emission components studied here are synchrotron, free-free, anomalous microwave emission (AME), and thermal (vibrational) dust emission. These components are identified by constructing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at positions along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck (28.4-857GHz) in combination with low-frequency radio data at 0.408-2.3GHz plus WMAP data at 23-94GHz, along with far-infrared (FIR) data from DIRBE and IRAS. The free-free component is determined from radio recombination line (RRL) data. AME is found to be comparable in brightness to the free-free emission on the Galactic plane in the frequency range 20-40GHz with a width in latitude similar to that of the thermal dust; it comprises 45+/-1% of the total 28.4GHz emission in the longitude range l=300-0-60deg. The free-free component is the narrowest, reflecting the fact that it is produced by current star-formation as traced by the narrow distribution of OB stars. It is the dominant emission on the plane between 60 and 100GHz. RRLs from this ionized gas are used to assess its distance, leading to a free-free z-width of FWHM ~100pc...(abridged)
    06/2014;
  • A. Curto, M. Tucci, M. Kunz, E. Martinez-Gonzalez
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    ABSTRACT: We characterize the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB)-lensing bispectrum which is one of the contributions to the three-point functions of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) maps in harmonic space. We show that the CIB-lensing bispectrum has a considerable strength and that it can be detected with high significance in the Planck high-frequency maps. We also present forecasts of the contamination on different shapes of the primordial non-Gaussianity fnl parameter produced by the CIB-lensing bispectrum and by the point sources bispectrum in the Planck high-resolution CMB anisotropy maps. The local, equilateral and orthogonal shapes are considered for 'raw' single-frequency (i.e., without applying any component separation technique) and foreground-reduced Planck temperature maps. The CIB-lensing correlation seems to mainly affect orthogonal shapes of bispectrum, while point sources mainly equilateral shapes. However, the results indicate that these contaminants do not induce any relevant bias on Planck fnl estimates when foreground-reduced maps are considered (using SEVEM for component separation). The component separation technique is, in fact, able to partially clean the extragalactic sources contamination and the bias is reduced for all the shapes. We have further developed single -and multiple- frequency estimators based on the Komatsu, Spergel & Wandelt (2005) formalism that can be implemented to efficiently detect this signal.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the large-scale polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse large-scale maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization direction, while taking account of noise bias and possible systematic effects. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax > 18%), in particular in some of the intermediate dust column density (AV < 1mag) regions. There is a systematic decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing dust column density, and we interpret the features of this correlation in light of both radiative grain alignment predictions and fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation. We also characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function and find that, in nearby fields at intermediate latitudes, the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas that are separated by filamentary structures, which appear as interfaces where the magnetic field sky projection rotates abruptly without apparent variations in the dust column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of the polarization angle, implying that the variations are likely due to fluctuations in the 3D magnetic field orientation along the line of sight sampling the diffuse interstellar medium.We also compare the dust emission with the polarized synchrotron emission measured with the Planck LFI, with low-frequency radio data, and with Faraday rotation measurements of extragalactic sources. The two polarized components are globally similar in structure along the plane and notably in the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. A detailed comparison of these three tracers shows, however, that dust and cosmic rays generally sample different parts of the line of sight and confirms that much of the variation observed in the Planck data is due to the 3D structure of the magnetic field.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polarized emission observed by Planck HFI at 353 GHz towards a sample of nearby fields is presented, focusing on the statistics of polarization fractions $p$ and angles $\psi$. The polarization fractions and column densities in these nearby fields are representative of the range of values obtained over the whole sky. We find that: (i) the largest polarization fractions are reached in the most diffuse fields; (ii) the maximum polarization fraction $p_\mathrm{max}$ decreases with column density $N_\mathrm{H}$ in the more opaque fields with $N_\mathrm{H} > 10^{21}\,\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$; and (iii) the polarization fraction along a given line of sight is correlated with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate of this parameter may be recovered from the maximum polarization fraction $p_\mathrm{max}$ in diffuse regions where the magnetic field is ordered on large scales and perpendicular to the line of sight. This emphasizes the impact of anisotropies of the magnetic field on the emerging polarization signal. The decrease of the polarization fraction with column density in nearby molecular clouds is well reproduced in the simulations, indicating that it is essentially due to the turbulent structure of the magnetic field: an accumulation of variously polarized structures along the line of sight leads to such an anti-correlation. In the simulations, polarization fractions are also found to anti-correlate with the angle dispersion function $\Delta\psi$. [abridged]
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them with the Planck and WMAP data at 12 frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz, over circular patches with 10 degree radius. The cross-correlation analysis is performed for both intensity and polarization data in a consistent manner. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky-patch. The mean values, $1.63\pm0.03$ for polarization and $1.52\pm0.02$ for intensity, for a mean dust temperature of 18.7 K, are close, but significantly different. We determine the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of the microwave emission, correlated with the 353 GHz dust templates, by averaging the results of the correlation over all sky-patches. We find that the mean SED increases for decreasing frequencies at $\nu < 60$ GHz, for both intensity and polarization. The rise of the polarization SED towards low frequencies may be accounted for by a synchrotron component correlated with dust, with no need for any polarization of the anomalous microwave emission. We use a spectral model to separate the synchrotron and dust polarization and to characterize the spectral dependence of the dust polarization fraction. The polarization fraction ($p$) of the dust emission decreases by $(34\pm10)$ % from 353 to 70 GHz. The decrease of $p$ could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains), or, alternatively, it could be a signature of magnetic dipole emission from ferromagnetic inclusions within interstellar grains.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Planck survey provides unprecedented full-sky coverage of the submillimetre polarized emission from Galactic dust, bringing new constraints on the properties of dust. The dust grains that emit the radiation seen by Planck in the submillimetre also extinguish and polarize starlight in the optical. Using ancillary catalogues of interstellar polarization and extinction of starlight, we obtain the degree of polarization, $p_V$, and the optical depth in the $V$ band to the star, $\tau_V$. We extract the submillimetre polarized intensity, $P_S$, and total intensity, $I_S$, measured toward these stars in the Planck 353 GHz channel. We compare the position angle measured in the optical with that measured at 353 GHz, and the column density measure $E(B - V)$ with that inferred from the Planck product map of the submillimetre dust optical depth. For those lines of sight suitable for this comparison, we measure the polarization ratios $R_{S/V} = (P_S/I_S)/(p_V/\tau_V)$ and $R_{P/p} = P_S / p_V$ through a correlation analysis. We find $R_{S/V} = 4.3$ with statistical and systematic uncertainties 0.2 and 0.4, respectively, and $R_{P/p} = 5.6$ MJy sr$^{-1}$, with statistical and systematic uncertainties 0.2 and 0.4 MJy sr$^{-1}$, respectively. Our estimate of $R_{S/V}$ is reasonably compatible with current dust models, not yet very discriminating among them. However, the observed $R_{P/p}$ is a more discriminating diagnostic for the polarizing grain population and is not compatible with predictions of dust models, the observations being higher by a factor of about 2.5. These new diagnostics from Planck, including the spectral dependence in the submillimetre, will be important for constraining and understanding the full complexity of the grain models, and for further interpretation of the Planck thermal dust polarization.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC) with quasi-simultaneous ground-based observations as well as archival data at frequencies below or overlapping Planck frequency bands, to validate the astrometry and photometry of the ERCSC radio sources and study the spectral features shown in this new frequency window opened by Planck. The ERCSC source positions and flux density scales are found to be consistent with the ground-based observations. We present and discuss the spectral energy distributions of a sample of "extreme" radio sources, to illustrate the richness of the ERCSC for the study of extragalactic radio sources. Variability is found to play a role in the unusual spectral features of some of these sources.
  • jcap. 02/2014; 2:6.
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    ABSTRACT: We present initial results from the Jubilee Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) project, which models the expected Λ cold dark matter ISW effect in the Jubilee simulation. The simulation volume is (6 h-1 Gpc)3, allowing power on very large scales to be incorporated into the calculation. Haloes are resolved down to a mass of 1.5 × 1012 h-1 M☉, which allows us to derive a catalogue of mock Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) for cross-correlation analysis with the ISW signal. We find the ISW effect observed on a projected sky to grow stronger at late times with the evolution of the ISW power spectrum matching expectations from linear theory. Maps of the gravitational-lensing effect are calculated using the same potential as for the ISW. We calculate the redshift dependence of the ISW-LRG cross-correlation signal for a full-sky survey with no noise considerations. For ℓ < 30, the signal is strongest for lower redshift bins (z ̃ 0.2-0.5), whereas for ℓ > 30, the signal is best observed with surveys covering z ̃ 0.6-1.0.
    01/2014; 438(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) CMB Experiment is designed to observe the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. The first of the two QUIJOTE telescopes and the multi-frequency (10-20 GHz) instrument have been in operation since November 2012. In 2014 a second telescope and a new instrument at 30GHz will be ready for commissioning, and an additional instrument at 40 GHz is in its final design stages. After three years of effective observations, the data obtained by these telescopes and instruments will have the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05. At the moment, we have completed half of the wide Galactic survey with the multi-frequency instrument covering 18 000 square degrees of the Northern hemisphere. When we finish this survey in early 2014, we shall have reached approximately 14{\mu}K per one degree beam at 11, 13, 17 and 19 GHz, in both Q and U.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 857, 545 and 353 GHz, and IRAS 100 micron data. Using a modified black-body fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a tight representation of the data at 5 arcmin. It shows variations of the order of 30 % compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, tau_353/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_obs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at HI column densities lower than 10^20 cm^-2 that could be the signature of dust in the warm ionized medium. In the diffuse ISM at high Galactic latitude, we report an anti-correlation between tau_353/N_H and T_obs while the dust specific luminosity, i.e., the total dust emission integrated over frequency (the radiance) per hydrogen atom, stays about constant. The implication is that in the diffuse high-latitude ISM tau_353 is not as reliable a tracer of dust column density as we conclude it is in molecular clouds where the correlation of tau_353 with dust extinction estimated using colour excess measurements on stars is strong. To estimate Galactic E(B-V) in extragalactic fields at high latitude we develop a new method based on the thermal dust radiance, instead of the dust optical depth, calibrated to E(B-V) using reddening measurements of quasars deduced from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper we study the radio sources in the NRAO VLA SKY Survey (NVSS) analysing its power spectrum and galaxy distribution. There is a discrepancy between the theoretical models in the literature and the data at large scales. A new model for NVSS is proposed combining the power spectrum data from NVSS and the galaxy distribution from the Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources (CENSORS). Taken into account these two data sets the differences in the power spectrum at large scales are reduced, but there is still some tension between the two data sets. Different models are compared using Bayesian evidence. A model for the galaxy distribution based on a gamma function provides a higher evidence against other models proposed in the literature. In addition, the effect of primordial non-Gaussianity has been also considered. The 2-sigma constraints on the local non-Gaussian f_NL parameter are -43 < f_NL < 142.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Several statistical anomalies in the CMB temperature anisotropies seem to defy the assumption of a homogeneous and isotropic universe. In particular, a dipole modulation has been detected both in WMAP and Planck data. We adapt the methodology proposed by Eriksen et al. (2007) on CMB data to galaxy surveys, tracing the large-scale structure. We analyse the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) data at a resolution of ~2 degrees for three different flux thresholds: 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mJy respectively. No evidence of a dipole modulation is found. This result suggests that the origin of the dipole asymmetry found in the CMB cannot be assigned to secondary anisotropies produced at redshifts around z = 1. However, it could still have been generated at redshifts higher or lower, such as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect produced by the local structures. Other all-sky surveys, like the infrared WISE catalogue, could help to explore with a high sensitivity a redshift interval closer than the one probed with NVSS.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4K and 0.1K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope baffle operates at 42.3K and the telescope primary mirror operates at 35.9K. The temperatures of key parts of the instruments are stabilized by both active and passive methods. Temperature fluctuations are driven by changes in the distance from the Sun, sorption cooler cycling and fluctuations in gas-liquid flow, and fluctuations in cosmic ray flux on the dilution and bolometer plates. These fluctuations do not compromise the science data.
    11/2013;

Publication Stats

3k Citations
701.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2014
    • Instituto de Física de Cantabria
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain
  • 1988–2012
    • Universidad de Cantabria
      • • Department of Modern Physics
      • • Faculty of Sciences
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain
  • 2006
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • Institute of Electrical Engineering
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Collège de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2004
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2003
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Physics
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
  • 1990
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1987
    • Universidad de Santander
      Santander, Norte de Santander, Colombia