Peter Langhorne

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Are you Peter Langhorne?

Claim your profile

Publications (258)1579.26 Total impact

  • Stroke Society of Australasia, Melbourne; 09/2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One recommended use of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach is supporting quality assessment of evidence of comparisons included within a Cochrane overview of reviews. Within our overview reviewers found that current GRADE guidance was insufficient to make reliable and consistent judgements. To support our ratings we developed an algorithm to grade quality of evidence using concrete rules. Using a pragmatic, exploratory approach we explored the challenges of applying GRADE levels of evidence, and developed an algorithm to applying GRADE levels of evidence in a consistent and transparent approach. Our methods involved application of algorithms and formulae to samples of reviews, expert panel discussion, and iterative refinement and revision. The developed algorithm incorporated four key criteria: number of participants; risk of bias of trials; heterogeneity; and methodological quality of the review. A formula for applying GRADE level of evidence from the number of downgrades assigned by the algorithm was agreed. Our algorithm which assigns GRADE levels of evidence using a set of concrete rules was successfully applied within our Cochrane overview. We propose that this methodological approach has implications for assessment of quality of evidence within future evidence syntheses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of clinical epidemiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.08.013 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: sec> Objective The purpose of this paper is to examine potential threats to generalisability of the results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial using data from A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT). Design AVERT is a prospective, parallel group, assessor-blinded randomised clinical trial. This paper presents data assessing the generalisability of AVERT. Setting Acute stroke units at 44 hospitals in 8 countries. Participants The first 20&emsp14;000 patients screened for AVERT, of whom 1158 were recruited and randomised. Model We use the Proximal Similarity Model, which considers the person, place, and setting and practice, as a framework for considering generalisability. As well as comparing the recruited patients with the target population, we also performed an exploratory analysis of the demographic, clinical, site and process factors associated with recruitment. Results The demographics and stroke characteristics of the included patients in the trial were broadly similar to population-based norms, with the exception that AVERT had a greater proportion of men. The most common reason for non-recruitment was late arrival to hospital (ie, >24&emsp14;h). Overall, being older and female reduced the odds of recruitment to the trial. More women than men were excluded for most of the reasons, including refusal. The odds of exclusion due to early deterioration were particularly high for those with severe stroke (OR=10.4, p<0.001, 95% CI 9.27 to 11.65). Conclusions A model which explores person, place, and setting and practice factors can provide important information about the external validity of a trial, and could be applied to other clinical trials. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12606000185561) and (NCT01846247). </sec
    BMJ Open 08/2015; 5(8). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008378 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The presence of a ‘weekend’ effect has been shown across a range of medical conditions, but has not been consistently observed for patients with stroke. Aims We investigated the impact of admission time on a range of process and outcome measures after stroke. Methods Using routine data from National Scottish data sets (2005–2013), time of admission was categorised into weekday, weeknight and weekend/public holidays. The main process measures were swallow screen on day of admission (day 0), brain scan (day 0 or 1), aspirin (day 0 or 1), admission to stroke unit (day 0 or 1), and thrombolysis administration. After case-mix adjustment, multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR for mortality and discharge to home/usual place of residence. Results There were 52 276 index stroke events. Compared to weekday, the adjusted OR (95%CI) for early stroke unit admission was 0.81 (0.77 to 0.85) for weeknight admissions and 0.64 (0.61 to 0.67) for weekend/holiday admissions; early brain scan 1.30 (0.87 to 1.94) and 1.43 (0.95 to 2.18); same day swallow screen 0.86 (0.81 to 0.91) and 0.85 (0.81 to 0.90); thrombolysis 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97) and 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97), respectively. Seven-day mortality, 30-day mortality and 30-day discharge for weekend admission compared to weekday was 1.17 (1.05 to 1.30); 1.08 (1.00 to 1.17); and 0.90 (0.85 to 0.95), respectively. Conclusions Patients with stroke admitted out of hours and at weekends or public holidays are less likely to be managed according to current guidelines. They experience poorer short-term outcomes than those admitted during normal working hours, after correcting for known independent predictors of outcome and early mortality.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2015-311273 · 6.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are no agreed measures of stroke care quality that enable the standardized comparison of stroke care between countries. We aimed to develop a set of measures of quality of acute stroke care involving stroke quality registers in Western Europe. A multinational working group identified 6 regional or national stroke quality registers in Europe and reviewed their data sets, performance measures, and the method by which these had been developed. Measures used in the registers were presented for discussion to a consensus group of representatives from the quality registers identified, as well as other stroke experts, and the final set of common performance measures was agreed through majority consensus. Thirty final performance measures were agreed by the European consensus group, encompassing the domains of coordination of care (stroke unit-based care), diagnosis (brain imaging, vascular imaging, cardiac arrhythmia detection, and therapy assessment), preservation of neural tissue (thrombolytic therapy and door-to-needle time), prevention of complications (dysphagia screening), initiation of secondary prevention (antiplatelet, anticoagulation, lipid lowering, blood pressure lowering, carotid surgery, time from vascular imaging to carotid surgery, and smoking cessation), survival (90-day poststroke mortality), and functional outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale). On the basis of experience of quality registers in Europe, we have proposed a common set of performance measures that will facilitate the international comparison of acute stroke care quality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 08/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.008811 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lower respiratory tract infections frequently complicate stroke and adversely affect outcome. There is currently no agreed terminology or gold-standard diagnostic criteria for the spectrum of lower respiratory tract infections complicating stroke, which has implications for clinical practice and research. The aim of this consensus was to propose standardized terminology and operational diagnostic criteria for lower respiratory tract infections complicating acute stroke. Systematic literature searches of multiple electronic databases were undertaken. An evidence review and 2 rounds of consensus consultation were completed before a final consensus meeting in September 2014, held in Manchester, United Kingdom. Consensus was defined a priori as ≥75% agreement between the consensus group members. Consensus was reached for the following: (1) stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is the recommended terminology for the spectrum of lower respiratory tract infections within the first 7 days after stroke onset; (2) modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria are proposed for SAP as follows-probable SAP: CDC criteria met, but typical chest x-ray changes absent even after repeat or serial chest x-ray; definite SAP: CDC criteria met, including typical chest x-ray changes; (3) there is limited evidence for a diagnostic role of white blood cell count or C-reactive protein in SAP; and (4) there is insufficient evidence for the use of other biomarkers (eg, procalcitonin). Consensus operational criteria for the terminology and diagnosis of SAP are proposed based on the CDC criteria. These require prospective evaluation in patients with stroke to determine their reliability, validity, impact on clinician behaviors (including antibiotic prescribing), and clinical outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 06/2015; 46(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009617 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proportion of the world's population aged over 60 years is increasing. Therefore, there is a need to examine different methods of healthcare provision for this population. Medical day hospitals provide multidisciplinary health services to older people in one location. To examine the effectiveness of medical day hospitals for older people in preventing death, disability, institutionalisation and improving subjective health status. Our search included the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Register of Studies, CENTRAL (2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE via Ovid (1950-2013 ), EMBASE via Ovid (1947-2013) and CINAHL via EbscoHost (1980-2013). We also conducted cited reference searches, searched conference proceedings and trial registries, hand searched select journals, and contacted relevant authors and researchers to inquire about additional data. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing medical day hospitals with alternative care for older people (mean/median > 60 years of age). Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data from included trials. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Trials were sub-categorised as comprehensive care, domiciliary care or no comprehensive care. Sixteen trials (3689 participants) compared day hospitals with comprehensive care (five trials), domiciliary care (seven trials) or no comprehensive care (four trials). Overall there was low quality evidence from these trials for the following results.For the outcome of death, there was no strong evidence for or against day hospitals compared to other treatments overall (odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.28; P = 0.66), or to comprehensive care (OR 1.26; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.82; P = 0.22), domiciliary care (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.55; P = 0.89), or no comprehensive care (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.22; P = 0.43).For the outcome of death or deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL), there was no strong evidence for day hospital attendance compared to other treatments (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.49; P = 0.70), or to comprehensive care (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.63 to 2.18; P = 0.61), domiciliary care (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.42; P = 0.21) or no comprehensive care (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.56 to 1.05; P = 0.09).For the outcome of death or poor outcome (institutional care, dependency, deterioration in physical function), there was no strong evidence for day hospitals compared to other treatments (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.15; P = 0.49), or compared to comprehensive care (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.40; P = 0.74) or domiciliary care (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.74; P = 0.75). However, compared with no comprehensive care there was a difference in favour of day hospitals (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.99; P = 0.04).For the outcome of death or institutional care, there was no strong evidence for day hospitals compared to other treatments overall (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.14; P = 0.28), or to comprehensive care (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.44; P = 0.99), domiciliary care (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.57 to1.92; P = 0. 88) or no comprehensive care (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40 to 1.00; P = 0.05).For the outcome of deterioration in ADL, there was no strong evidence that day hospital attendance had a different effect than other treatments overall (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.80; P = 0.67) or compared with comprehensive care (OR 1.21; 0.58 to 2.52; P = 0.61), or domiciliary care (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.87 to 2.90; P = 0.13). However, day hospital patients showed a reduced odds of deterioration compared with those receiving no comprehensive care (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.97; P = 0.04) and significant subgroup differences (P = 0.04).For the outcome of requiring institutional care, there was no strong evidence for day hospitals compared to other treatments (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.21; P = 0.35), or to comprehensive care (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.19; P = 0.49), domiciliary care (OR 1.49; 95% CI 0.53 to 4.25; P = 0.45), or no comprehensive care (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.28 to 1.20; P = 0.14). There is low quality evidence that medical day hospitals appear effective compared to no comprehensive care for the combined outcome of death or poor outcome, and for deterioration in ADL. There is no clear evidence for other outcomes, or an advantage over other medical care provision.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 06/2015; 6:CD001730. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD001730.pub3 · 6.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stroke-associated pneumonia, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection after stroke, affects a fifth of stroke survivors annually. Associated with increased risk of death and poorer rehabilitation outcomes, research suggests a possible relationship between stroke-associated pneumonia and patients' oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of enhanced oral healthcare vs. usual oral healthcare for people in stroke care settings. Our pilot, multicentered, pragmatic, stepped wedge, cluster randomized controlled trial oral healthcare [Stroke Oral healthCare pLan Evaluation (SOCLE II)] will compare enhanced oral healthcare intervention and usual oral healthcare. Over 13 months, across 4 wards, we seek to recruit 400 patients (estimating an average of 23 beds per site and a 50% recruitment rate) and 60 nursing staff (estimating an average of 20 members of staff per site and a 75% recruitment rate). Initially, control data (usual oral healthcare) will be collected from all sites. In a randomized, stepped manner, wards will convert to deliver the enhanced oral healthcare intervention. Outcomes will be captured across dimensions of care (as recommended for evaluations of complex interventions) at baseline and weekly thereafter. Primary outcomes are pneumonia (patients), knowledge and attitudes (staff), and specialist dental referrals (service). Secondary outcomes include oral health quality of life, plaque, antibiotics, length of stay, death (patients), use of oral healthcare equipment and products, completed assessments, and documented oral healthcare plans (staff). As one of the first stepped wedge, cluster randomized, controlled trials in stroke care mapping of the complex intervention, our choice of primary and secondary outcomes and choice of trial design are described. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
    International Journal of Stroke 06/2015; 10(6). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12530 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • M C Brady · K Jamieson · C Bugge · S Hagen · D McClurg · C Chalmers · P Langhorne
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigate the perspectives of patients and nursing staff on the implementation of an augmented continence care intervention after stroke. Qualitative data were elicited during semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 15) and staff (14 nurses; nine nursing assistants) and analysed using thematic analysis. Mixed acute and rehabilitation stroke ward. Stroke patients and nursing staff that experienced an enhanced continence care intervention. Four themes emerged from patients' interviews describing: (a) challenges communicating about continence (initiating conversations and information exchange); (b) mixed perceptions of continence care; (c) ambiguity of focus between mobility and continence issues; and (d) inconsistent involvement in continence care decision making. Patients' perceptions reflected the severity of their urinary incontinence. Staff described changes in: (i) knowledge as a consequence of specialist training; (ii) continence interventions (including the development of nurse-led initiatives to reduce the incidence of unnecessary catheterisation among patients admitted to their ward); (iii) changes in attitude towards continence from containment approaches to continence rehabilitation; and (iv) the challenges of providing continence care within a stroke care context including limitations in access to continence care equipment or products, and institutional attitudes towards continence. Patients (particularly those with severe urinary incontinence) described challenges communicating about and involvement in continence care decisions. In contrast, nurses described improved continence knowledge, attitudes and confidence alongside a shift from containment to rehabilitative approaches. Contextual components including care from point of hospital admission, equipment accessibility and interdisciplinary approaches were perceived as important factors to enhancing continence care. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Clinical Rehabilitation 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/0269215515589331 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • European Stroke Organisation Conference, Glasgow; 04/2015
  • ESOC, Glasgow; 04/2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of pneumonia complicating stroke is challenging, and there are currently no consensus diagnostic criteria. As a first step in developing such consensus-based diagnostic criteria, we undertook a systematic review to identify the existing diagnostic approaches to pneumonia in recent clinical stroke research to establish the variation in diagnosis and terminology. Studies of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or both, which reported occurrence of pneumonia from January 2009 to March 2014, were considered and independently screened for inclusion by 2 reviewers after multiple searches using electronic databases. The primary analysis was to identify existing diagnostic approaches for pneumonia. Secondary analyses explored potential reasons for any heterogeneity where standard criteria for pneumonia had been applied. Sixty-four studies (56% ischemic stroke, 6% intracerebral hemorrhage, 38% both) of 639 953 patients were included. Six studies (9%) reported no information on the diagnostic approach, whereas 12 (19%) used unspecified clinician-reported diagnosis or initiation of antibiotics. The majority used objective diagnostic criteria: 20 studies (31%) used respiratory or other published standard criteria; 26 studies (41%) used previously unpublished ad hoc criteria. The overall occurrence of pneumonia was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.2%-15.4%; I(2)=98.9%). Occurrence was highest in studies applying standard criteria (19.1%; 95% confidence interval 15.1%-23.4%; I(2)=98.5%). The substantial heterogeneity observed was not explained by stratifying for other potential confounders. We found considerable variation in terminology and the diagnostic approach to pneumonia. Our review supports the need for consensus development of operational diagnostic criteria for pneumonia complicating stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 04/2015; 46(5). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007843 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in India of a family-led, trained caregiver-delivered, home-based rehabilitation intervention vs. routine care. A prospective, randomized (within seven-days of hospital admission), blinded outcome assessor, controlled trial of structured home-based rehabilitation delivered by trained and protocol-guided family caregivers (intervention) vs. routine care alone (control) was conducted in patients with residual disability. Key feasibility measures were recruitment, acceptance and adherence to assessment procedures, and follow-up of participants over six-months. CTRI/2014/10/005133. A total of 104 patients from the stroke unit at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana were recruited over nine-months. Recruitment was feasible and accepted by patients and their carers. Important observations were made regarding potential unblinding of the participants, contamination of therapy between the randomized groups, organization of home visits, and resources required for a multicenter study. The pilot study established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale study of family-led, trained caregiver-delivered, home-based stroke rehabilitation in a low resource setting. The main phase of the trial 'ATTEND' is currently underway in over 10 centers in India. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
    International Journal of Stroke 03/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12475 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Stroke 02/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008295 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Erratum in Lancet. 2015 Feb 14;385(9968):606. Abstract BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. METHODS: In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140-220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16-37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference -7·0 [95% CI -8·5 to -5·6] mm Hg/-3·5 [-4·4 to -2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference -9·5 [95% CI -11·8 to -7·2] mm Hg/-5·0 [-6·4 to -3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison-the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show no evidence to support continuing prestroke antihypertensive drugs in patients in the first few days after acute stroke. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council. Copyright © 2015 Bath et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    02/2015, Supervisor: ENOS Trial Investigators, Bath PM, Woodhouse L, Scutt P, Krishnan K, Wardlaw JM, Bereczki D, Sprigg N, Berge E, Beridze M, Caso V, Chen C, Christensen H, Collins R, El Etribi A, Laska AC, Lees KR, Ozturk S, Phillips S, Pocock S, de Silva HA, Szatmari S, U
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Further research is needed to better identify the methods of evaluating processes and outcomes of stroke care. We investigated whether achieving 4 evidence-based components of a care bundle in a Scotland-wide population with ischemic stroke is associated with 30-day and 6-month outcomes. Using national datasets, we looked at the effect of 4 standards (stroke unit entry on calendar day of admission [day 0] or day following [day 1], aspirin on day 0 or day 1, scan on day 0, and swallow screen recorded on day 0) on mortality and discharge to usual residence, at 30 days and 6 months. Data were corrected for the validated 6 simple variables, admission year, and hospital-level random effects. A total of 36 055 patients were included. Achieving stroke unit admission, swallow screen, and aspirin standards were associated with reduced 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.82 [0.75-0.90], 0.88 [0.77-0.99], and 0.39 [0.35-0.43], respectively). Thirty-day all-cause mortality was higher when fewer standards were achieved, from 0 versus 4 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.95 [1.91-4.55]) to 3 versus 4 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.21 [1.09-1.34]). This effect persisted at 6 months. When less than the full care bundle was achieved, discharge to usual residence was less likely at 6 months (3 versus 4 standards; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.91 [0.85-0.98]). Achieving a care bundle for ischemic stroke is associated with reduced mortality at 30 days and 6 months and increased likelihood of discharge to usual residence at 6 months. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 02/2015; 46(4). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007608 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Improvements in stroke management have led to increases in the numbers of stroke survivors over the last decade and there has been a corresponding increase of hospital readmissions after an initial stroke hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to examine the one year risk of having a readmission due to infective, gastrointestinal or immobility (IGI) complications and to identify temporal trends and any risk factors.Methods Using a cohort of first hospitalised for stroke patients who were discharged alive, time to first event (readmission for IGI complications or death) within 1 year was analysed in a competing risks framework using cumulative incidence methods. Regression on the cumulative incidence function was used to model the risks of having an outcome using the covariates age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, discharge destination and length of hospital stay.ResultsThere were a total of 51,182 patients discharged alive after an incident stroke hospitalisation in Scotland between 1997¿2005, and 7,747 (15.1%) were readmitted for IGI complications within a year of the discharge. Comparing incident stroke hospitalisations in 2005 with 1997, the adjusted risk of IGI readmission did not increase (HR¿=¿1.00 95% CI (0.90, 1.11). However, there was a higher risk of IGI readmission with increasing levels of deprivation (most deprived fifth vs. least deprived fifth HR¿=¿1.16 (1.08, 1.26).Conclusions Approximately 15 in 100 patients discharged alive after an incident hospitalisation for stroke in Scotland between 1997 and 2005 went on to have an IGI readmission within one year. The proportion of readmissions did not change over the study period but those living in deprived areas had an increased risk.
    BMC Neurology 01/2015; 15(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s12883-014-0257-1 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Brady M · Campbell P · Enderby P · Godwin J · Pollock A · Langhorne P · Mead G · van Wijck F
    REWARD/EQUATOR Conference, Edinburgh; 01/2015

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,579.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2015
    • University of Glasgow
      • Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Southern Denmark
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 2013
    • The University of Manchester
      • Centre for Vascular and Stroke Research
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Glasgow Caledonian University
      • Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professions Research Unit (NMAHP RU)
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Akademia Wychowania Fiycznego im. Jergo Kukuczki w Katowicach
      Catowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Central Lancashire
      • School of Health
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2008
    • Bradford Institute for Health Research
      Bradford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of East Anglia
      Norwich, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2005
    • The Bracton Centre, Oxleas NHS Trust
      Дартфорде, England, United Kingdom
    • UK Department of Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1994–2001
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom