Patrick A Rivers

Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois, United States

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Publications (90)43.32 Total impact

  • Aftab Hussain · LaShonda M. Stewart · Patrick A. Rivers · George Munchus ·
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose - Statistical evidence shows that medication errors are a major cause of injuries that concerns all health care oganizations. Despite all the efforts to improve the quality of care, the lack of understanding and inability of management to design a robust system that will strategically target those factors is a major cause of distress. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Achieving optimum organizational performance requires two key variables; work process factors and human performance factors. The approach is that healthcare administrators must take in account both variables in designing a strategy to reduce medication errors. However, strategies that will combat such phenomena require that managers and administrators understand the key factors that are causing medication delivery errors. Findings - The authors recommend that healthcare organizations implement the Toyota Production System (TPS) combined with human performance improvement (HPI) methodologies to eliminate medication delivery errors in hospitals. Originality/value - Despite all the efforts to improve the quality of care, there continues to be a lack of understanding and the ability of management to design a robust system that will strategically target those factors associated with medication errors. This paper proposes a solution to an ambiguous workflow process using the TPS combined with the HPI system.
    International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 02/2015; 28(1):55-63. DOI:10.1108/IJHCQA-08-2013-0102
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    Hasan M. Mohsin · Habib-Ur-Rehman · Patrick A. Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective of this study is to analyze the impact of policy rate changes on bank stock returns in Pakistan by using daily stock returns from 1998 to 2011. We used event study approach by constructing the estimation window of 250 days and an event window of 31 days (15 pre-event days, event day and 15 post event days. The daily stock returns from 1998 to 2011 have been used to analyze the impact of policy rate changes by State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) on banking stock returns. The study used ARIMA model to estimate the normal returns by using estimation window of 250 days. Since Monetary Policy committee decides changes in policy rate, we have used date of MP Committee meeting as an event. Reportedly, 35 meetings were conducted during study period from Jan 1998 to Dec 2011. Abnormal returns are calculated by taking the difference of actual daily stock returns and estimated daily stock returns. Abnormal daily stock returns are aggregated as cumulative abnormal returns (CAR). The CAR at 0.6340 showed a significant impact of policy rate changes on banks stock returns. The study finds 31 out of all 35 events have significant impact on banks stock returns and returns were normal at 4th day of MP announcement. Further, we analyzed the impact with respect to expansionary and contractionary monetary policy and observed that the highest positive impact on banks stock returns was due to expansionary monetary policy.
  • Al-Naqbi S · S. A. Hamidi · M. Z. Younis · P. A. Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven monarchies, whose rulers retain absolute power within their emirates. The seven Emirates include Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharajah, and Umm al-Quwain. Abu Dhabi, the capital, is also the country’s centre of political, industrial and cultural activities. This study focuses on the Emirate of Fujairah. Employees are the backbone of any strong health system, thus, the success of any health system is highly dependent on satisfaction of employee needs. This study identifies and quantifies main determinants of employee satisfaction within Human Resource Departments in the Fujairah Medical District (FMD, thereafter). Methods: Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to measure employee satisfaction with the services provided by Human Resource Departments in the FMD. After completing a pilot study of the self-developed questionnaire, researchers randomly distributed 600 copies to employees at all 16 health institutes under the authority of the FMD. However, 310 responses were received, representing a 52 per cent response rate. Data were subsequently analyzed with t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Compared to the standard of 60 per cent or greater, overall level of employee satisfaction in this study was slightly lower at 58 per cent. Results indicated that males were significantly more dissatisfied with the organizational factors than females. Both married and unmarried employees were dissatisfied with the services provided by Human Resources. Employees at all experience levels reported low levels of satisfaction with training and development. Regardless of educational level, employee satisfaction with conditions of the workplace and facility structure in the FMD was low when compared to the standard. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study shows that the employees were not satisfied with the services within Human Resource Departments in the FMD. It is recommended that FMD management overcome the determinant factors to reduce the level of dissatisfaction of their employees in the following four dimensions: organizational factors, work conditions/facility structure, training and career development.
    Journal of Health Management 06/2014; 16(2):271-286. DOI:10.1177/0972063414526125
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    ABSTRACT: Background The adoption of health information technology has been recommended as a viable mechanism for improving quality of care and patient health outcomes. However, the capacity of health information technology (i.e., availability and use of multiple and advanced functionalities), particularly in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) on improving quality of care is not well understood. We examined associations between health information technology (HIT) capacity at FQHCs and quality of care, measured by the receipt of discharge summary, frequency of patients receiving reminders/notifications for preventive care/follow-up care, and timely appointment for specialty care. Methods The analyses used 2009 data from the National Survey of Federally Qualified Health Centers. The study included 776 of the FQHCs that participated in the survey. We examined the extent of HIT use and tested the hypothesis that level of HIT capacity is associated with quality of care. Multivariable logistic regressions, reporting unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, were used to examine whether ‘FQHCs’ HIT capacity’ is associated with the outcome measures. Results The results showed a positive association between health information technology capacity and quality of care. FQHCs with higher HIT capacity were significantly more likely to have improved quality of care, measured by the receipt of discharge summaries (OR=1.43; CI=1.01, 2.40), the use of a patient notification system for preventive and follow-up care (OR=1.74; CI=1.23, 2.45), and timely appointment for specialty care (OR=1.77; CI=1.24, 2.53). Conclusions Our findings highlight the promise of HIT in improving quality of care, particularly for vulnerable populations who seek care at FQHCs. The results also show that FQHCs may not be maximizing the benefits of HIT. Efforts to implement HIT must include strategies that facilitate the implementation of comprehensive and advanced functionalities, as well as promote meaningful use of these systems. Further examination of the role of health information systems in clinical decision-making and improvements in patient outcomes are needed to better understand the benefits of HIT in improving overall quality of care.
    BMC Health Services Research 01/2013; 13(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-35 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electronic medical records EMRs are at the forefront of the national healthcare agenda and this paper examines EMR implementation and usage based on data from the 2009 Commonwealth Fund National Survey of Federally Qualified Health Centers FQHC. Chi-square analysis was used to examine differences in EMR implementation and usage. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the adjusted associations between EMR implementation and usage. A significant finding of this study was that simple EMRs were implemented in more than half of FQHCs in the Northeast, Southern, and Western regions of the United States and EMRs in more than half of the FQHCs in the Southern and Western regions are not even utilized. These findings indicate simple EMR usage and full EMR implementation need improvement to meet the requirements of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act by 2014, or face reduction in Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements.
    International journal of healthcare information systems and informatics 07/2012; 7(3):1-14. DOI:10.4018/jhisi.2012070101
  • Aftab Hussain · Patrick A Rivers · Saundra H Glover · Myron D Fottler ·
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    ABSTRACT: The well-anticipated and well-documented demographic shift attributed to ageing of the baby boomer generation will place significant demands upon the health-care industry in the future. Significant resources such as the nurse workforce, will be needed to provide health-care services to this cohort. There is a looming shortage of professional and paraprofessional nurses. This paper evaluates strategies that can be utilized to decrease the rate of the nursing shortage, while retaining the current supply of nurses. Recommendations for solving the nursing shortage problem include enhancing the work environment through fostering open communication, improving technology, nurse empowerment, building long-lasting and fulfilling partnerships, and efficient workplace organization.
    Health Services Management Research 02/2012; 25(1):41-7. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2011.011015
  • Hasan Muhammad Mohsin · P Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study contributes to the literature by estimating Interest Rate Pass Through (IRPT) using Pakistani aggregate banks’ lending and deposit rate data. Lending and deposit rates are estimated to be sluggish in terms of their response to a change in monetary policy rate. There is also evidence of asymmetry in the pass through of four types of banks (i.e., privatized, nationalized, foreign and specialized). Overall, the domestic banks’ pass through is estimated to be higher than that of foreign bank. Although the IRPT is estimated to be incomplete, the degree of lending rate pass- through is not very low. This study provides evidence of an increase in the adjustment speed when the lending rate is below equilibrium after January 2005. However, there was no significant change in the pass through after January 2005 which coincided with the constant increase in the Treasury bill rate by the State Bank of Pakistan.
    10/2011; 3(6). DOI:10.5539/ijef.v3n6p198
  • Martha M Perryman · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups.
    Health Services Management Research 08/2011; 24(3):151-9. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2011.011002
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    H Mohsin · P Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: According to Frankel (1992) in order to find financial integration from Feldstein Horoika (FH, 1980) model, the real interest parity must hold. This paper estimates the degree of financial market integration of South Asian countries i.e. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal with both the techniques. The study finds some degree of integration with FH model has which increased after 1990s, post liberalization period. Furthermore, Panel Unit Root techniques i.e. LLC, IPS and Hadri has been used to estimate the real interest rate differentials (RIDs) of South Asian countries are found to be stationary with USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Sweden, Netherland, Australia, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Korea, Singapore, China and Japan. The empirical evidence of integration with both the techniques in my study is unique in the literature. Even though, the RIDS technique provides strong evidence of integration, correlation between savings and investment is still significant.
    04/2011; DOI:10.5539/ijef.v3n2p65
  • Derek A Asoh · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: E-health, as well as its value and benefits, has been characterized as a concept defined in various ways depending on intended audience and use. Attempts to define, characterize and appreciate e-health inadvertently portray it as something out of main stream academia; thus, undermining the relevance and importance of the transformation capabilities of e-health on the practice of health care from the individual and organizational perspectives. In order to contribute towards an understanding and appreciation of e-health as a main stream concept, we propose the use of existing models, theories and principles in support of e-health. Specifically, the empowerment theory and the principles of quality health will be used to discuss the value proposition of e-health. An understanding of the e-health value proposition is important, because it helps organizations to develop a shared vision and context, which in turn keeps organizations focused and realistic as they expend resources and adopt e-health. It also helps e-health consumers understand what is possible and impossible, and how they can best participate in e-health for the betterment of their health and health care.
    Health Services Management Research 11/2010; 23(4):181-4. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2010.010007
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    ABSTRACT: Utilization of specialty care may not be a discrete, isolated behavior but rather, a behavior of sequential movements within the health care system. Although patients may often visit their primary care physician and receive a referral before utilizing specialty care, prior studies have underestimated the importance of accounting for these sequential movements. The sample included 6,772 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Care, sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund. A sequential logit model was used to account for movement in all stages of utilization: use of any health services (i.e., first stage), having a perceived need for specialty care (i.e., second stage), and utilization of specialty care (i.e., third stage). In the sequential logit model, all stages are nested within the previous stage. Gender, race/ethnicity, education and poor health had significant explanatory effects with regard to use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, however racial/ethnic, gender, and educational disparities were not present in utilization of specialty care. After controlling for use of any health services and having a perceived need for specialty care, inability to pay for specialty care via income (AOR = 1.334, CI = 1.10 to 1.62) or health insurance (unstable insurance: AOR = 0.26, CI = 0.14 to 0.48; no insurance: AOR = 0.12, CI = 0.07 to 0.20) were significant barriers to utilization of specialty care. Use of a sequential logit model to examine utilization of specialty care resulted in a detailed representation of utilization behaviors and patient characteristics that impact these behaviors at all stages within the health care system. After controlling for sequential movements within the health care system, the biggest barrier to utilizing specialty care is the inability to pay, while racial, gender, and educational disparities diminish to non-significance. Findings from this study represent how Americans use the health care system and more precisely reveals the disparities and inequalities in the U.S. health care system.
    BMC Health Services Research 09/2010; 10(1):269. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-10-269 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    Bin-Guang Su · Kai-Li Tsai · Shu-Hsing Yeh · Yi-Yi Ho · Shin-Yi Liu · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: According to the 2004 US Renal Data System's annual report, the incidence rate of chronic renal failure in Taiwan increased from 120 to 352 per million populations between 1990 and 2003. This incidence rate is the highest in the world. The prevalence rate, which ranks number two in the world (Japan ranks number one), also increased from 384 to 1630 per million populations. Based on 2005 Taiwan national statistics, there were 52,958 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving routine dialysis treatment. This number, which comprised less than 0.2% of the total population and consumed $2.6 billion New Taiwan dollars, was more than 6.12% of the total annual spending of national health insurance during 2005. Dialysis expenditures for patients with ESRD rank the highest among all major injuries (traumas) and diseases. This article identifies and discusses the risk factors associated with consumption of medical resources during dialysis. Instead of using reimbursement data to estimate cost, as seen in previous studies, this study uses cost data within organizations and focuses on evaluating and predicting the resource consumption pattern for dialysis patients with different risk factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify 23 risk factors for routine dialysis patients. Of these risk factors, six were associated with the increase of dialysis cost: age (i.e. 75 years old and older), liver function disorder, hypertension, bile-duct disorder, cancer and high blood lipids. Patients with liver function disorder incurred much higher costs for injection medication and supplies. Hypertensive patients incurred higher costs for injection medication, supplies and oral medication. Patients with bile-duct disorder incurred a significant difference in check-up costs (i.e. costs were higher for those aged 75 years and older than those who were younger than 30 years of age). Cancer patients also incurred significant differences in cost of medical supplies. Patients with high blood lipids incurred significant differences in cost of oral medication. This study identified the relationship between cost and risk factors of dialysis procedures for ESRD patients based on average variable costs for each dialysis treatment. The results show that certain risk factors (e.g. aged 75 and older, hypertension, bile-duct disease, cancer and high blood lipids) are associated with higher cost. The results from this study could enable health policy makers and the National Health Insurance Bureau to design a fairer and more convincible reimbursement system for dialysis procedures. This study also provides a better understanding of what risk factors play more influential roles in affecting ESRD patients to receive haemodialysis treatment. It will help policy makers and health-care providers in better control or even prevent the disease and manage the distribution of the treatment. In addition, with the results from the analysis of cost information, we can tell which risk factors have more impacts on the dialysis cost. It will further help us control the cost for those high-risk dialysis patients more efficiently.
    Health Services Management Research 05/2010; 23(2):84-93. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2009.009017
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status.Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality Survey ( n = 6722). Multivariate logistic regression and chi-squared analyses were used.Results: Hypertension was the most common chronic disease (25 per cent). Respondents with negative perceived health and minorities were less likely to report specialty care. Non-English language and foreign-born status were predictors of low specialty care use.Conclusions: Efforts to improve outcomes should be tailored and provided in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner. Bilingual efforts to promote specialty care and methods to eliminate patient and system level barriers are needed.
    Health Education Journal 03/2010; 69(1):95-106. DOI:10.1177/0017896910363336 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Aftab Hussain · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: Once again, efforts are being made to overhaul the US health care system. Democrats and Republicans have conflicting views on how to repair this ailing system. However, this is not a new phenomenon. Reformers have long struggled to form a universal health care system only to find themselves in conflict with groups whose financial stake is threatened as well as numerous labor associations who are concerned about a loss of power. This struggle is also caused by differences in ideologies. This article surveys social movements for national health insurance (NHI) that occurred in the United States and will examine features that prevented NHI policy formation.
    Journal of health care finance 03/2010; 36(3):34-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite efforts to eliminate health disparities, racial, ethnic, and geographic groups continue lag behind their counterparts in health outcomes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to determine variation in specialty care utilization by chronic disease status. Data were extracted from the Commonwealth Fund 2006 Health Care Quality Survey (n = 2475). A stratified minority sample design was employed to ensure a representative sample. Logistic regression was used in analyses to predict specialty care utilization in the sample. Poor perceived health, minority status, and lack of insurance was associated with reduced specialty care use and chronic disease diagnosis.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 03/2010; 7(3):975-90. DOI:10.3390/ijerph7030975 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    Saundra Glover · Patrick A Rivers · Derek A Asoh · Crystal N Piper · Keva Murph ·
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    ABSTRACT: Data mining is highly profiled. It has the potential to enhance executive information systems. Such enhancement would mean better decision-making by management, which in turn would mean better services for customers. While the future of data mining as technology should be exciting, some are worried about privacy concerns, which make the future of data mining daunting. This paper examines why data mining is highly profiled - the imperative toward data mining, data mining models and processes. Additionally, the paper examines some of the benefits and challenges of using data mining processes within the health-care arena. We cast the future of data mining by highlighting two of the many data mining tools available - one commercial and one freely available. Subsequently, we discuss a number of social and technical factors that may thwart the extensive deployment of data mining, especially when the intent is to know more about the people that organizations have to serve and cast a view of what the future holds for data mining. This component is especially important when attempting to determine the longevity of data mining within health-care organizations. It is hoped that our discussions would be useful to organizations as they engage data mining, strategies for executive information systems and information policy issues.
    Health Services Management Research 02/2010; 23(1):42-6. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2009.009029
  • Stephen C Shih · Patrick A Rivers · H Y Sonya Hsu ·
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    ABSTRACT: To gain and sustain competitive advantage, health-care providers have to continuously review and renovate their operational and information technology (IT) strategies through collaborative and cooperative endeavour with their supply chain channel members. This paper explores new ways of enhancing a health-care organization's responsiveness to changes and increasing its competitiveness through implementing strategic information technology alliances among channel members in a health-care supply chain network. An overview of issues and problems (e.g. bullwhip effect, negative externalities and free-riding phenomenon in multichannel supply chains) presented in the health-care supply chains is first delineated. This paper further goes over the issues of health-care supply chain coordination and integration for strategic IT alliances, followed by the discussion of the spillover effect of IT investments. A number of viable IT practices (such as information sharing and Internet-enabled supply chain portal) for effective health-care supply chain collaboration and coordination are then examined in this research. Finally, the paper discusses how strategic IT alliances can help improve the effectiveness of health-care supply chain management.
    Health Services Management Research 09/2009; 22(3):140-50. DOI:10.1258/hsmr.2009.009003
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – Poor people often experience a delay in meeting their healthcare needs due to their economic situation. As a result, delayed diagnoses and treatment may increase disease severity, increase the risk of death, and enhance disease transmission in the community. The purpose of this paper is to provide important information about health service delays among the poorest people in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach – A field study is conducted among the 92 poorest households in the Etimesgut region of Ankara in order to ascertain any delays in health services among the poor, as well as the factors related to those delays. Findings – The results of the study show that 87 percent of the households lived on a daily income of US$2.15, and that household member's delay seeking healthcare services an average of 4.66±1.17 times in the past year. Reasons for delaying or not seeking healthcare services included the following: participants thought they would get better without doing anything (7.6 percent), by using traditional herbs (12.7 percent), by using pharmaceuticals already on hand (11.4 percent), the health facility was too far away (5.1 percent), and inability to pay (63.3 percent). Significant associations are found between the delaying behaviors, socioeconomic characteristics of households, and health status. Practical implications – At the end of the study, policy suggestions are provided for improving medical care seeking behaviors and treatment compliance among the poor. Originality/value – Poverty is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that consists of income insufficiency, lack of education, malnutrition, and poor health. The relationship between poverty and poor health impacts those who live in poverty as well as communities, organizations and entire countries. Reducing health disparities and decreasing delays and difficulties in access to health care among poor households are important goals.
    Education Business and Society Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues 08/2009; 2(3):232-240. DOI:10.1108/17537980910981796
  • Velma Roberts · Martha Perryman · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: As employers, parents, and policy makers demand more accountability from higher education, transferring student learning to health services management practice is more important than ever. If educators want to give these stakeholders the evidence-based performance results they expect, assessment of student learning outcomes, as well as aggregate statistics on groups of students, is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to outline how healthcare management faculty can use a learning-centered approach to assess student learning outcomes, to discuss how assessment of student learning outcomes can be the most effective way to develop and transfer knowledge to practice, and to recommend implementation strategies for practical application in the classroom.
    Health Education Journal 06/2009; 68(2):140-148. DOI:10.1177/0017896909103851 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Martha Perryman · Marisa Lewis · Patrick A Rivers ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this explanatory study was to determine whether medication prescribing for Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs by racial and ethnic group membership. The following research question was examined in this study: Are there prescribing pattern differences for AD among racial and ethnic groups? Additional beneficiary characteristic variables examined included: diabetes, memory loss, psychological disorder, age category, and gender. This research project employed a time series study design to analyze three years of a national secondary dataset to examine Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specific medications were identified as the standard of care treatment regimen for severe and mild to moderate AD (Aricept and Exelon, respectively). Descriptive statistics for medications for the AD group were obtained. Total prescribed medications for the AD group was analyzed for treatment differences for the study variables race, age category, gender, psychological disorder, diabetes, and memory loss. An association was found for all three years between treatment (Aricept) and the following variables: diabetes, memory loss, and psychological disorder. Treatment type trends indicated that Aricept use for both blacks and whites has decreased. High frequency of antiseizure medications were found, which could indicate their use as mood enhancers. Study findings indicate that patients on AD treatment were not also taking mood enhancers. Diabetic patients were found to be on Aricept and Exelon and mood altering medications. Hormones were present among the medications; since the sample was over 65 (post menopausal), could indicate use of hormone therapy as a treatment option for this sample despite standard treatment recommendations.
    Journal of health care finance 06/2009; 35(4):64-73.

Publication Stats

510 Citations
43.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2015
    • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
      • College of Applied Sciences and Arts
      Illinois, United States
  • 2000-2005
    • Arizona State University
      • Department of Sociology
      Tempe, Arizona, United States
    • University of South Carolina
      • Institute for Partnerships to Eliminate Health Disparities
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States
  • 1998-1999
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Health Services
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1997-1999
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Health Services Administration
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States