[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the current trend in the number and incidence of hip fracture among persons 50 years of age or older in Finland between 1970 and 2010. After a clear rise until the late 1990s, the incidence of hip fracture has continuously declined. INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures are a major public health issue associated with excess morbidity and mortality. We determined the current trend in the number and incidence (per 100,000 persons) of hip fracture among older adults in Finland, an EU country with a well-defined Caucasian population of 5.4 million people. METHODS: We took into account all persons 50 years of age or older who were admitted to hospitals for primary treatment of hip fracture between 1970 and 2010. RESULTS: The number of hip fractures rose sharply till the end of 1990s (from 1,857 in 1970 to 7,122 in 1997), but since then, the rise has leveled off (7,594 fractures in 2010). Similarly, the age-adjusted incidence of hip fracture increased until 1997 but declined thereafter. The decline was especially clear in women whose age-adjusted incidence was 515.7 (per 100,000 persons) in 1997 but only 382.6 in 2010. In men, the corresponding incidence was 245.3 in 1997 and 210.7 in 2010. The number of hip fractures will increase 1.8-fold by 2030 even with the current 2010 incidence rates because the size of the 50-year-old or older population is likely to increase sharply in the near future. CONCLUSIONS: The declining trend in the incidence of hip fracture in Finland has continued through the entire first decade of the new millennium. Reasons for this development are uncertain, but possible explanations include increased average body weight, improved functional ability among elderly Finns, and specific measures to prevent bone loss and reduce the risk of falling.
Osteoporosis International 10/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and performance) among 70-80-year-old home-dwelling Finnish women is very low, while every third woman has WHO-based osteopenia (low bone mass). Muscle mass and derived indices of sarcopenia were not significantly related to measures of functional ability. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and osteopenia among four hundred nine 70-80-year-old independently living Finnish women. The study compared consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia recently published by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWG) and assessed their associations with functional ability. METHODS: Femoral bone mineral density and body composition were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), gait speed, and handgrip strength were used for sarcopenia diagnosis. Independent samples t tests determined group differences in body composition and functional ability according to recommended diagnostic cutpoints. Scatter plots were used to illustrate the correlations between the outcome measures used for diagnosis. RESULTS: Prevalence of sarcopenia was 0.9 and 2.7 % according to the EWGSOP and IWG, respectively. Thirty-six percent of the women had WHO-based osteopenia. Women with higher gait speed had significantly lower body weight and fat mass percentage, higher lean mass percentage, and better functional ability. Women with a low SMI weighed significantly less, with no significant differences in other outcome measures. SMI, gait speed, and grip strength were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that when using consensus definitions, sarcopenia is infrequent among older home-dwelling women while every third woman has osteopenia. In clinical practice, attention should be paid to the decline in functional ability rather than focusing on low muscle mass alone.
Osteoporosis International 06/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme and educational counselling are effective in preventing acute lower limb injuries in young men during military service. Design Cluster randomised controlled study. Setting Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade (Pori Brigade, Säkylä) in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term (pre-study period). After this, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for one term (6 months) comprising data during the intervention (study period). Participants 944 conscripts participated in the study during the pre-study period. The randomised controlled trial included 968 conscripts (mean age 19 years): 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. Intervention A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational counselling programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute injuries during compulsory military service. Main outcome measures Acute injuries of the lower limbs. Results In the intervention companies, the risk for acute ankle injuries decreased significantly compared to control companies (adjusted Hazard ratio (HR)=0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.78, p=0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low, as well as medium-to-high, baseline fitness. In addition, the intervention companies tended to have fewer severe injuries (adjusted HR=0.42; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.06). On the other hand, among men with low baseline fitness, intervention-induced additional training was associated with an increased risk for overuse injuries (adjusted HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.84, p=0.009). Conclusion A neuromuscular training programme was effective in preventing acute ankle injuries in young Finnish men during compulsory military service. Among conscripts with low baseline fitness, the amount and intensity of neuromuscular training requires careful planning and execution to avoid overuse injuries.
British journal of sports medicine 04/2011; 45(4):314. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Sports injuries are the most common injury type in Finland. The Sports and Exercise Safety in Finland (LiVE) program started in 2006, and is financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. Objectives The aim of the program is to increase safety of sports and exercise in a nationwide setting. Methods LiVE research projects are carried out in Tampere Research Centre of Sports Medicine. Epidemiology and prevention of sports injuries are in focus on the studies. Results are spread to the field by two campaigns, Healthy Athlete (TU) and Safety in School Sports (TEKO). The target group of the TU is young athletes, their coaches and parents. The target group of the TEKO is secondary school students, their teachers and parents. LiVE program educates annually LiVE-instructors who work in different operational environments. The 1-year education is directed for coaches, physical therapists, PE teachers and PE instructors. Educated LiVE-instructors uses a four-step-approach to prevent injuries: 1) Survey in a target group, 2) Analyses and planning, 3) Implementation, and 4) Evaluation. Results Two large randomised controlled trials have been carried through. Also, numerous original studies of sports injury epidemiology have been published. Results have been spread to the field by education and communication. Today, overall 55 LiVE-instructors work in different organisations (eg, sports federations, sports clubs, schools). In addition, the program has appeared annually in about 30 different sports and school events. LiVE website has attracted 4000-6000 visitors and 40,000-60,000 hits per month. Conclusion Implementation of preventive strategies against sports injuries will result in a reduction of the number of health problems and work or school absenteeism, as well as a clear decrease in the medical costs. Essential results of the LiVE program will be expressed within five to 10 years.
British journal of sports medicine 04/2011; 45(4):368. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with cross-sectional geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among 204 female athletes representing five different exercise loadings and 50 referents. All exercises involving ground impacts (e.g., endurance running, ball games, jumping) were associated with thicker cortex at the distal and diaphyseal sites of the tibia and also with large diaphyseal cross-section, whereas the high-magnitude (powerlifting) and non-impact (swimming) exercises were not.
Bones adapt to the specific loading to which they are habitually subjected. In this cross-sectional study, the association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with the geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among premenopausal female athletes representing 11 different sports.
A total of 204 athletes were divided into five exercise loading groups, and the respective peripheral quantitative computed tomographic data were compared to data obtained from 50 physically active, non-athletic referents. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the between-group differences.
At the distal tibia, the high-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loading groups had approximately 30% to 50% (p < 0.05) greater cortical area (CoA) than the referents. At the tibial shaft, these three impact groups had approximately 15% to 20% (p < 0.05) greater total area (ToA) and approximately 15% to 30% (p < 0.05) greater CoA. By contrast, both the high-magnitude and repetitive non-impact groups had similar ToA and CoA values to the reference group at both tibial sites.
High-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loadings were associated with thicker cortex at the distal tibia. At the tibial shaft, impact loading was not only associated with thicker cortex, but also a larger cross-sectional area. High-magnitude exercise loading did not show such associations at either site but was comparable to repetitive non-impact loading and reference data. Collectively, the relevance of high strain rate together with moderate-to-high strain magnitude as major determinants of osteogenic loading of the weight-bearing tibia is implicated.
Osteoporosis International 11/2009; 21(10):1687-94. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip protectors represent a promising strategy for preventing fall-related hip fractures. However, clinical trials have yielded conflicting results due, in part, to lack of agreement on techniques for measuring and optimizing the biomechanical performance of hip protectors as a prerequisite to clinical trials.
In November 2007, the International Hip Protector Research Group met in Copenhagen to address barriers to the clinical effectiveness of hip protectors. This paper represents an evidence-based consensus statement from the group on recommended methods for evaluating the biomechanical performance of hip protectors.
The primary outcome of testing should be the percent reduction (compared with the unpadded condition) in peak value of the axial compressive force applied to the femoral neck during a simulated fall on the greater trochanter. To provide reasonable results, the test system should accurately simulate the pelvic anatomy, and the impact velocity (3.4 m/s), pelvic stiffness (acceptable range: 39-55 kN/m), and effective mass of the body (acceptable range: 22-33 kg) during impact. Given the current lack of clear evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of specific hip protectors, the primary value of biomechanical testing at present is to compare the protective value of different products, as opposed to rejecting or accepting specific devices for market use.
Osteoporosis International 10/2009; 20(12):1977-88. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While hip protectors are effective in some clinical trials, many, including all in community settings, have been unable to demonstrate effectiveness. This is due partly to differences in the design and analysis. The aim of this report is to develop recommendations for subsequent clinical research.
In November of 2007, the International Hip Protector Research Group met to address barriers to the clinical effectiveness of hip protectors. This paper represents a consensus statement from the group on recommended methods for conducting future clinical trials of hip protectors.
Consensus recommendations include the following: the use of a hip protector that has undergone adequate biomechanical testing, the use of sham hip protectors, the conduct of clinical trials in populations with annual hip fracture incidence of at least 3%, a run-in period with demonstration of adequate adherence, surveillance of falls and adherence, and the inclusion of economic analyses. Larger and more costly clinical trials are required to definitively investigate effectiveness of hip protectors.
Osteoporosis International 10/2009; 21(1):1-10. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether a 6-month neuromuscular warm-up programme could improve muscle power, balance, speed and agility.
Cluster randomised controlled study.
27 top level female floorball teams in Finland.
222 players (mean age 24 years); 119 in the intervention group and 103 in the control group were followed-up for one league season (6 months).
A neuromuscular warm-up programme included sports-specific running technique, balance, jumping and strengthening exercises. The teams were advised to use the programme 1-3 times per week through the league season. One training session took approximately 25 min.
Performance tests were assessed before and after the 6-month intervention and included static jump, countermovement jump, jumping over a bar, standing on a bar and figure-of-eight running.
At 6 months, significant between-group differences were found in two outcome measures: jumping over a bar (number of jumps in 15 s) and standing on a bar (number of balance losses in 60 s). These differences were 2.3 jumps (95% CI 0.8 to 3.8, p = 0.003), favouring the intervention group, and -0.4 balance losses (95% CI -0.8 to 0.0, p = 0.050), again in favour of the intervention group.
A neuromuscular warm-up programme improved the floorball players' sideways jumping speed and static balance. The exercises were also safe to perform and can thus be recommended for weekly training of floorball players.
British journal of sports medicine 08/2009; 43(13):1073-8. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared to high-impact exercises, moderate-magnitude impacts from odd-loading directions have similar ability to thicken vulnerable cortical regions of the femoral neck. Since odd-impact exercises are mechanically less demanding to the body, this type of exercise can provide a reasonable basis for devising feasible, targeted bone training against hip fragility.
Regional cortical thinning at the femoral neck is associated with hip fragility. Here, we investigated whether exercises involving high-magnitude impacts, moderate-magnitude impacts from odd directions, high-magnitude muscle forces, low-magnitude impacts at high repetition rate, or non-impact muscle forces at high repetition rate were associated with thicker femoral neck cortex.
Using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned the proximal femur of 91 female athletes, representing the above-mentioned five exercise-loadings, and 20 referents. Cortical thickness at the inferior, anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the femoral neck was evaluated. Between-group differences were analyzed with ANCOVA.
For the inferior cortical thickness, only the high-impact group differed significantly (approximately 60%, p = 0.012) from the reference group, while for the anterior cortex, both the high-impact and odd-impact groups differed (approximately 20%, p = 0.042 and p = 0.044, respectively). Also, the posterior cortex was approximately 20% thicker (p = 0.014 and p = 0.006, respectively) in these two groups.
Odd-impact exercise-loading was associated, similar to high-impact exercise-loading, with approximately 20% thicker cortex around the femoral neck. Since odd-impact exercises are mechanically less demanding to the body than high-impact exercises, it is argued that this type of bone training would offer a feasible basis for targeted exercise-based prevention of hip fragility.
Osteoporosis International 12/2008; 20(8):1321-8. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study showed that about a half of the exercise-induced gain in dynamic balance and bone strength was maintained one year after cessation of the supervised high-intensity training of home-dwelling elderly women. However, to maintain exercise-induced gains in lower limb muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.
Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone structure was assessed one year after cessation of 12-month randomized controlled exercise intervention.
Originally 149 healthy women 70-78 years of age participated in the 12-month exercise RCT and 120 (81%) of them completed the follow-up study. Self-rated physical functioning, dynamic balance, leg extensor force, and bone structure were assessed.
During the intervention, exercise increased dynamic balance by 7% in the combination resistance and balance-jumping training group (COMB). At the follow-up, a 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) gain compared with the controls was still seen, while the exercise-induced isometric leg extension force and self-rated physical functioning benefits had disappeared. During the intervention, at least twice a week trained COMB subjects obtained a significant 2% benefit in tibial shaft bone strength index compared to the controls. A half of this benefit seemed to be maintained at the follow-up.
Exercise-induced benefits in dynamic balance and rigidity in the tibial shaft may partly be maintained one year after cessation of a supervised 12-month multi-component training in initially healthy elderly women. However, to maintain the achieved gains in muscle force and physical functioning, continued training seems necessary.
Osteoporosis International 09/2008; 20(4):665-74. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poisonings cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, only few countries have published nationwide statistics on poisoning deaths. Based on the Official Cause-of-Death Statistics of Finland, we investigated the incidence and secular trend of poisoning deaths in Finland in 1971-2005. Alcohol poisoning deaths and other poisoning deaths were analyzed separately. During the 35-year study period, other poisoning deaths (non-alcohol) increased from 2.6/100,000 in men and 1.4/100,000 in women in 1971 to 6.8/100,000 and 3.2/100,000 in 2005, respectively. Alcohol poisoning death rates also increased from 9.6/100,000 in men and 0.7/100,000 in women in 1971 to 16.8/100,000 and 4.2/100,000 in 2005, respectively. In the early 1970s, the incidence rates of alcohol deaths were about 10 times higher in men compared with women, whereas in the last few years of observation, men's incidence rate was only about four times higher. Our study showed that alcohol and other poisoning deaths increased in Finland between 1971 and 2005. Men's risk was markedly higher than women's risk, but in the later years, women's risk was increasing. Poisoning death rates among children and adolescents were low throughout the period.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 08/2008; 27(7):567-73. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The knee joint is the most common site for injury among younger people, the injury often resulting in expensive (surgical) treatment, long-term rehabilitation and permanent functional impairment and disability.
We investigated the incidence and risk factors for a major knee-ligament injury in an adolescent Finnish population. A population-based cohort of 46 472 adolescents was followed for an average of 9 years. All patients hospitalised with the diagnosis of anterior or posterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL or PCL injury) were included in the analysis.
265 (0.6%) people (194 male and 71 female subjects) from the total cohort of 46 472 were treated for a cruciate ligament injury of the knee during the follow-up period, giving an injury incidence of 60.9 (95% CI 53.6 to 68.2) per 100 000 person-years. When the socioeconomic, health and lifestyle background variables were taken into account, the adjusted hazard ratio for a cruciate ligament injury of the knee was 8.5 (95% CI 4.3 to 16.4) for female and 4.0 (95% CI 2.7 to 6.1) for male subjects who participated in organised sports > or =4 times/week.
The general risk for a cruciate ligament injury of the knee is relatively low among adolescents and young adults, but participation in organised sports increases the risk significantly. The risk is especially high in active young women. Preventive measures should be adopted to decrease the short-term and long-term burden of these severe injuries.
British journal of sports medicine 06/2008; 42(6):422-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study assessed the recent secular trend in the incidence of low-trauma knee fractures among older Finns in the years 1970-2006. The clear rise in women's fracture incidence from early 1970s until the late 1990s was followed by a declining fracture rate. Exact reasons for the decline are unknown, but a cohort effect toward a healthier female population with improved functionality and reduced risk of injurious slips, trips and falls could partly explain the phenomenon.
Although low-trauma fractures of elderly adults have been recognized as a major public health concern in modern societies with aging populations, fresh nationwide information on their secular trends is sparse.
We determined the current trend in the number and incidence (per 100,000 persons) of low-trauma knee fractures among elderly people in Finland, an EU country with a well-defined white population of 5.3 million, by taking into account all persons 60 years of age or older who were admitted to our hospitals for primary treatment of such fractures from 1970 to 2006.
The number and incidence of low-trauma knee fractures among 60-year-old or older Finnish women sharply rose between 1970 and 1997, from 218 (number) and 55 (incidence) in 1970 to 733 and 124 in 1997. However, thereafter both the number and incidence of fractures have continuously declined so that there were only 626 fractures in these women in 2006 (incidence 94). In the age-adjusted fracture incidence, the findings were similar. During 1970-1997, the age-adjusted incidence of low-trauma knee fractures in our elderly women clearly rose (from 60 to 118), but thereafter, this incidence declined to 85 in 2006. In men, the fracture incidence did not show consistent trend changes over time (30 in 1970 and 36 in 2006).
The sharp rise in the incidence of low-trauma knee fractures in Finnish elderly women from early 1970s until late 1990s has been followed by a declining fracture rate. Exact reasons for this are unknown, but a cohort effect toward a healthier aging female population with improved functional ability and reduced risk of injurious slips, trips and falls cannot be excluded.
Osteoporosis International 06/2008; 20(1):43-6. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 05/2008; 19(2):267-73. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone structure of weight-bearing proximal femur and tibia was examined among the Finnish world-class moguls skiers and slalom skiers. We hypothesized that these bones, during typical sport-specific performance, had been subjected not only to extreme loading but also to distinct loading in terms of rate and primary direction. Bone [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), magnetic resonance imaging] and muscle performance data of the lower extremities were obtained from the five Finnish male moguls skiers and six slalom skiers competing at the World Cup level. Data (DXA, pQCT) from 12 age- and weight-matched normally active men were used for comparison. The ANCOVA with body height as a covariate was used for statistical analysis. The weight-bearing bones of the athletes were 10-60% stronger than those of the normally active men. Compared with the moguls skiers, the slalom skiers showed an average 43% thicker anterior cortex at the narrowest region of the femoral neck. This study suggests that the bone structure at skiers' heavily loaded lower extremities was very robust. A specific finding was the thick anterior cortex of the femoral neck among the slalom skiers. Apparently, the predominant loading type had modulated the site-specific skeletal response to physical exertion.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 05/2008; 18(2):145-53. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the injury risk in pivoting indoor sports between two different surfaces: artificial floors and wooden floors.
Female players (n = 331) from 26 top-level Finnish floorball teams were followed for one competitive season (6 months). All traumatic game related time-loss injuries were recorded. Injury incidences were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 game hours for both surfaces. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were obtained from Poisson regression models.
Over the competitive season, 62 traumatic injuries occurred during the games. The injury incidence per 1000 playing hours was 59.9 (95% CI 43.2 to 83.0) on artificial floors and 26.8 (95% CI 18.2 to 39.3) on wooden floors, the adjusted IRR being twofold higher (IRR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.5, p = 0.005) on artificial floors than wooden floors. The risk for non-contact injuries (adjusted IRR = 12.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 54.9, p = 0.001) and severe injuries (adjusted IRR = 3.3; 95% CI 0.9 to 10.9, p = 0.052) was especially high when playing on artificial floors.
The study attested that the risk of traumatic injury in pivoting indoor sports is higher when playing on artificial floors than wooden floors. The higher shoe-surface friction on the former surface is likely to explain the higher injury risk.
British journal of sports medicine 04/2008; 42(3):194-7. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the incidence, nature, causes, and severity of injuries in female floorball. Three hundred and seventy-four licensed female floorball players from Finnish top leagues were observed prospectively for one season (6 months). The practice and game hours of floorball were recorded on an exercise diary. All injuries were registered with a structured questionnaire and verified by a physician. During the study period, 133 out of the 374 (35%) players sustained 172 injuries. The injury incidence was 1.8 per 1000 practice hours and 40.3 per 1000 game hours. Of all injuries, 70% were traumatic and 30% were from overuse. The most common injury type was joint sprain (27%). The most commonly injured sites were the knee (27%) and ankle (22%). Twenty-one of the knee injuries (46%) were serious including 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Eight of ACL ruptures occurred during floorball games, giving an ACL rupture incidence of 3.6 per 1000 game hours. Eleven injuries (6%) needed hospital admission. The study attested that injury rate in floorball game is very high. Injury prevention strategies in female floorball should be targeted at injuries occurring at the knee and ankle.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2008; 18(1):49-54. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths of 16 patients operated using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft and 32 patients operated using a quadruple hamstring autograft for an arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were analyzed 4- to 7-years postoperatively. Standardized isokinetic testing, a clinical evaluation and instrumented assessment of knee laxity were done. The findings showed no significant strength deficits between the patients in the BTB and Hamstring groups and the deficits were, in general, small. The quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were better in patients with a longer than shorter follow-up and stable knees had less knee flexion torque deficit than unstable knees. Strength deficit was associated with lower Lysholm knee scores. The findings of this study showed that the muscle strengths of the operated limb had a positive association with the functional outcome of the knee in the long-term and support the use of active rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2007; 28(10):868-72. · 2.27 Impact Factor