Philippe Fossati

Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (77)259.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of social pain that results from social threat, exclusion, rejection, loss or negative evaluation. Although activations have consistently been reported within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), it remains unclear which ACC subdivision is particularly involved. To provide a quantitative estimation of the specific involvement of ACC subdivisions in social pain, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis. The literature search identified 46 articles that included 940 subjects, the majority of which used the cyberball task. Significant likelihoods of activation were found in both the ventral and dorsal ACC for both social pain elicitation and self-reported distress during social pain. Self-reported distress involved more specifically the subgenual and pregenual ACC than social pain-related contrasts. The cyberball task involved the anterior midcingulate cortex to a lesser extent than other experimental tasks. During social pain, children exhibited subgenual activations to a greater extent than adults. Finally, the ventro-dorsal gradient of ACC activations in cyberball studies was related to the length of exclusion phases. The present meta-analysis contributes to a better understanding of the role of ACC subdivisions in social pain, and it could be of particular importance for guiding future studies of social pain and its neural underpinnings.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 08/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Jean-Yves Rotgé, Philippe Fossati, Cedric Lemogne
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2014; 75(4):408. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two sets of brain areas are repeatedly reported in neuroimaging studies on social cognition: the Mirror Neuron System and the Mentalizing System. The Mirror System is involved in goal understanding and has been associated with several emotional and cognitive functions central to social interaction, ranging from empathy to gestural communication and imitation. The Mentalizing System is recruited in tasks requiring cognitive processes such as self-reference and understanding of other's intentions. Although theoretical accounts for an interaction between the two systems have been proposed, little is known about their synergy during social exchanges. In order to explore this question, we have recorded brain activity by means of functional MRI during live social exchanges based on reciprocal imitation of hand gestures. Here, we investigate, using the method of psychophysiological interaction, the changes in functional connectivity of the Mirror System due to the conditions of interest (being imitated, imitating) compared with passive observation of hand gestures. We report a strong coupling between the Mirror System and the Mentalizing System during the imitative exchanges. Our findings suggest a complementary role of the two networks during social encounters. The Mirror System would engage in the preparation of own actions and the simulation of other's actions, while the Mentalizing System would engage in the anticipation of the other's intention and thus would participate to the co-regulation of reciprocal actions. Beyond a specific effect of imitation, the design used offers the opportunity to tackle the role of role-switching in an interpersonal account of social cognition.
    Cognitive Processing 01/2014; · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are two distinct modes of self-focus: analytical self-focus is abstract, general and evaluative whereas experiential self-focus is concrete, specific and non evaluative. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural bases of these two modes of self-focus in relation with brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination. Forty-one French-speaking right-handed healthy young adults (10 men, mean age ± s.d.: 21.8 ± 2.3 years) engaged in analytical and experiential self-focus triggered by verbal stimuli during fMRI. Brooding was measured with the 22-item Rumination Response Style scale. Individuals with lower brooding scores showed greater activation of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus during analytical than experiential self-focus, whereas individuals with higher brooding scores did not. This is consistent with the hypothesis that brooding is associated with less control over the nature of the self-focus engaged. These findings may help to refine our understanding of how rumination promotes depression through maladaptive self-focus.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 12/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: Autobiographical memory (AM) defines the memory systems that encode, consolidate, and retrieve personal events and facts, AM is strongly related to self-perception and self representation. We review here the neural correlates of AM retrieval. AM retrieval encompasses a large neural network including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, and limbic structures. All these regions subserve the cognitive processes (episodic remembering, cognitive control, self-processing, and scene construction) at play during memory retrieval. We emphasize the specific role of medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus in self-processing during autobiographical memory retrieval. Overall, these data call for further studies in psychiatric patients, to investigate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and self-representation in mental disorders.
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 12/2013; 15(4):487-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Many choice situations require imagining potential outcomes, a capacity that was shown to involve memory brain regions such as the hippocampus. We reasoned that the quality of hippocampus-mediated simulation might therefore condition the subjective value assigned to imagined outcomes. We developed a novel paradigm to assess the impact of hippocampus structure and function on the propensity to favor imagined outcomes in the context of intertemporal choices. The ecological condition opposed immediate options presented as pictures (hence directly observable) to delayed options presented as texts (hence requiring mental stimulation). To avoid confounding simulation process with delay discounting, we compared this ecological condition to control conditions using the same temporal labels while keeping constant the presentation mode. Behavioral data showed that participants who imagined future options with greater details rated them as more likeable. Functional MRI data confirmed that hippocampus activity could account for subjects assigning higher values to simulated options. Structural MRI data suggested that grey matter density was a significant predictor of hippocampus activation, and therefore of the propensity to favor simulated options. Conversely, patients with hippocampus atrophy due to Alzheimer's disease, but not patients with Fronto-Temporal Dementia, were less inclined to favor options that required mental simulation. We conclude that hippocampus-mediated simulation plays a critical role in providing the motivation to pursue goals that are not present to our senses.
    PLoS Biology 10/2013; 11(10):e1001684. · 12.69 Impact Factor
  • Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin, Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: Young, Erickson, and Drevets (2012) reported that positive and neutral cue words elicited less positive memories among patients with major depression than among healthy controls, while memories from patients were less specific than those from controls, regardless of their intrinsic valence. These results suggested methodological refinements that may shed light on several aspects of autobiographical memory impairment in mental disorders.
    Psychological Reports 08/2013; 113(1):1030-4. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual perspective (i.e. first-person versus third-person perspective) during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval plays a role in both emotional regulation and self-related processes. However, its neural underpinnings remain mostly unexplored. Visual perspective during AM retrieval was assessed in two independent datasets of 45 and 20 healthy young adults with two different AM retrieval tasks. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess individual differences in the precuneus grey matter volume. The spontaneous tendency to recall memories from a first-person perspective was positively correlated with the right precuneus volume among the two independent datasets. Whole-brain analyses revealed that these results were relatively specific to the anterior part of the right precuneus. Our results provide first evidence for the role of the precuneus in egocentric spatial processing in the context of AM retrieval among healthy subjects.
    Brain Structure and Function 04/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    Ayna Baladi Nejad, Philippe Fossati, Cédric Lemogne
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    ABSTRACT: Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:666. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Cédric Lemogne, Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: AM retrieval is a reconstruction process that grounds the self by providing coherent narratives organized to elicit a sense of identity across the time. Major depression is associated with impairments of AM retrieval, combining a mood congruent recall, a lack of specificity, an increased prevalence of the third-person visual perspective and frequent intrusive memories, which are characterized by an involuntary, fast and effortless recall. Intrusive memories in depression relate to a broad range of negative life events and are usually vivid, distressful and associated with a poorer outcome as well as with typical depressogenic cognitive biases, especially with cognitive avoidance. To date, little is known about the neural bases of these memories. These bases are likely to partially mirror those of the depressive state, with a decreased cognitive control over unwanted thoughts by the prefrontal cortex and an increased amygdala activation.
    Annales Médico-psychologiques revue psychiatrique 04/2012; 170(3):193–196. · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterised by progressive behavioural changes and social interpersonal dysfunctions. Its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge, and depression is one of the main causes of misdiagnoses due to the prevalence of apathy in bvFTD. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Social Cognition and Emotional Assessment (SEA) and the mini-SEA for differentiating bvFTD from major depressive disorder (MDD). Scores for the SEA and mini-SEA for 37 patients with bvFTD (divided into subgroups of 17 with early bvFTD and 20 with moderate bvFTD according to the normal range of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale), 19 MDD patients and 30 control subjects were compared to define the discrimination power of these tools compared with other standard neuropsychological tests. SEA and mini-SEA scores were significantly lower for both the early and moderate bvFTD groups compared with control subjects and the MDD group, and very few scores overlapped between patients in the bvFTD subgroups and patients in the MDD and control subgroups. SEA and mini-SEA scores distinguished early bvFTD from MDD with sensitivity and specificity rates above 94%. Unlike standard executive neuropsychological tests, SEA and the mini-SEA can differentiate MDD from bvFTD in the early stages of the disease. The mini-SEA is an easy tool that can be utilised in neurological or psychiatric departments.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2012; 83(4):411-6. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens, March 14-17, 2012 Abstract Submission 1001 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEPRESSIVE MOOD AND CANCER VERSUS CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY. Cédric Lemogne, MD, PhD, INSERM U894, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Isabelle Niedhammer, PhD, INSERM U1018, Versailles Saint-Quentin University, Villejuif, France, Myriam Khlat, PhD, Unité Mortalité, Santé, Epidémiologie, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, Paris, France, Jean-François Ravaud, MD, PhD, INSERM U988, CERMES3, IFRH, Villejuif, France, Francis Guillemin, MD, PhD, Ecole de santé publique, Faculté de Médecine, Vandoeuvre-les-nancy, France, Silla M. Consoli, MD, PhD, C-L Psychiatry, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Philippe Fossati, MD, PhD, CNRS USR 3246, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Nearkasen Chau, PhD, INSERM U669, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background Depressive mood has been associated with all-cause mortality in both men and women. This study aimed at exploring gender differences in the association between depressive mood and specific causes of mortality as well as factors that may account for it, including education, marital status, social support, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Methods A population-based survey including 6,043 subjects (2,892 men and 3,151 women) was conducted in 1996 in the north-east of France with a questionnaire covering education, marital status, social support, health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index), and chronic diseases. Depressive mood was measured using the Duke Health Profile questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to examine its association with subsequent natural all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results During a follow-up of 12.5 years, 406 men and 303 women died from a natural cause. Adjusting for all covariates, depressive mood predicted natural mortality in both men [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.69] and women (HR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.06-1.77). However, this association was significant for cardiovascular mortality in men (HR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.00-2.65) whereas it was significant for cancer mortality in women (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.11-2.64). Limitations Data were self-reported and the response rate was low. Discussion Preventive strategies aiming at reducing the increased mortality associated with depressive mood should take gender into account. Depressed men may warrant a better screening for cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, whereas depressed women may benefit from better cancer prevention measures.
    70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens; 03/2012
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    70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens; 03/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive mood has been associated with all-cause mortality in both men and women. This study aimed at exploring gender differences in the association between depressive mood and specific causes of mortality as well as factors that may account for it, including education, marital status, social support, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. A population-based survey including 6043 subjects (2892 men and 3151 women) was conducted in 1996 in the north-east of France with a questionnaire covering education, marital status, social support, health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index), and chronic diseases. Depressive mood was measured using the Duke Health Profile questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to examine its association with subsequent natural all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. During a follow-up of 12.5 years, 406 men and 303 women died from a natural cause. Adjusting for all covariates, depressive mood predicted natural mortality in both men [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.69] and women (HR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.06-1.77). However, this association was significant for cardiovascular mortality in men (HR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.00-2.65) whereas it was significant for cancer mortality in women (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.11-2.64). Baseline data were self-reported and the response rate was low. Preventive strategies aiming at reducing the increased mortality associated with depressive mood should take gender into account. Depressed men may warrant a better screening for cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, whereas depressed women may benefit from better cancer prevention measures.
    Journal of affective disorders 12/2011; 136(3):267-75. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations between biomechanical, physical, and psychological demands and occupational injury according to depressive symptoms severity. Two thousand eight hundred eighty-two French working people completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, job, chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and injuries during the previous 2-year period. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Occupational injury (9.2%) strongly related to biomechanical, physical, and psychological demands among depressive-symptoms-free workers (odds ratios ranging from 1.35 to 3.15). These relationships were stronger among the workers with depressive symptoms without medical treatment (11.9%) and among those with persistent symptoms despite a treatment (1.7%), with odds ratios up to 12. These associations were partially confounded (up to 51%) by unhealthy behaviors, health status, and chronic diseases. High-occupational demands and depressive symptoms can be early identified and monitored to prevent injury.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11/2011; 53(12):1452-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neural bases of the association between negative affectivity and self-focus remain unknown in healthy subjects. Building on the role of the cortical midline structures (CMS) in self-referential processing, we hypothesized that negative affectivity in healthy subjects would be associated with an increased activation of the CMS during self-referential processing. We presented positive and negative pictures to 45 healthy subjects during fMRI and asked them to judge whether the pictures were related to themselves or not (self condition), or whether the pictures were positive or negative (general condition). Negative affectivity was measured by the level of harm avoidance (HA) with the Temperament and Character Inventory. Self-referential processing activated the CMS, including the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). A higher HA score was associated with a greater activation of the dorsal MPFC and PCC during self-referential processing, this greater activation being more pronounced for negative pictures in the dorsal MPFC. This increased activation of the CMS may embody the association between negative affectivity and self-focus in healthy subjects, as previously observed in major depression. Within the CMS, the dorsal MPFC may play a key role in negative affectivity, integrating an increased attention to negative stimuli with an increased attention to the self.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 09/2011; 6(4):426-33. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown functional brain abnormalities in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, the extent to which these two disorders are associated with similar or distinct neural changes remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing BD and MDD patients to healthy participants using facial affect processing paradigms. Relevant spatial coordinates from twenty original studies were subjected to quantitative Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses based on 168 BD and 189 MDD patients and 344 healthy controls. We identified common and distinct patterns of neural engagement for BD and MDD within the facial affect processing network. Both disorders were associated with increased engagement of limbic regions. Diagnosis-specific differences were observed in cortical, thalamic and striatal regions. Decreased ventrolateral prefrontal cortical engagement was associated with BD while relative hypoactivation of the sensorimotor cortices was seen in MDD. Increased responsiveness in the thalamus and basal ganglia were associated with BD. These findings were modulated by stimulus valence. These data suggest that whereas limbic overactivation is reported consistently in patients with mood disorders, future research should consider the relevance of a wider network of regions in formulating conceptual models of BD and MDD.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2011; 22(2):100-13. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social interaction is a coregulated coupling activity that involves at least 2 autonomous agents. Numerous methodological and technical challenges impede the production of natural social interaction within an Magnetic Resonance Imaging environment under controlled conditions. To overcome the obstacle, we chose a simple format of social interaction, namely "interactive imitation" through a double-video system. We registered blood oxygen level-dependent activity of 23 participants during 2 imitative conditions: free (F) and instructed (I) episodes of imitating (i) and of being imitated (bi). In addition to the areas classically reported in instructed imitation tasks, 2 activation patterns were found, which differentiate the subconditions. Firstly, brain areas involved during decisional and attentional processes (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , dorsal part of anterior cingulate gyrus [dACC], pre-SMA) were activated during all conditions except for instructed imitation-classically used in neuroimaging studies of imitation. Second, a greater activation in dACC and insula combined with an increased deactivation in the default mode network was observed when subjects were imitated compared with when they imitated. We suggest that these 2 patterns reflect the anticipation of the other's behavior and the engagement with others required by social interaction
    Cerebral Cortex 07/2011; · 6.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
259.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2009–2011
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • L'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Institut de Psychologie
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1995–2010
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Baycrest
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada