Philippe Fossati

Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix"), Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (85)305.95 Total impact

  • Journal of psychosomatic research 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.06.009 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    Brain 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv060 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of social pain that results from social threat, exclusion, rejection, loss or negative evaluation. Although activations have consistently been reported within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), it remains unclear which ACC subdivision is particularly involved. To provide a quantitative estimation of the specific involvement of ACC subdivisions in social pain, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis. The literature search identified 46 articles that included 940 subjects, the majority of which used the cyberball task. Significant likelihoods of activation were found in both the ventral and dorsal ACC for both social pain elicitation and self-reported distress during social pain. Self-reported distress involved more specifically the subgenual and pregenual ACC than social pain-related contrasts. The cyberball task involved the anterior midcingulate cortex to a lesser extent than other experimental tasks. During social pain, children exhibited subgenual activations to a greater extent than adults. Finally, the ventro-dorsal gradient of ACC activations in cyberball studies was related to the length of exclusion phases. The present meta-analysis contributes to a better understanding of the role of ACC subdivisions in social pain, and it could be of particular importance for guiding future studies of social pain and its neural underpinnings.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 08/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1093/scan/nsu110 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a major stake for treatment for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We describe a preliminary trial of DBS of two potential brain targets in chronic TRD: the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and, in the event of failure, the caudate nucleus. Experimental procedures Patients were followed for 6 months before surgery (M0). From M1 to M5, they underwent stimulation of the Acb target. PET scans allowed us to track metabolic modifications resulting from this stimulation. The caudate target of nonresponders was stimulated between M5 and M9. Patients then entered an extension phase, in which it was possible to adapt stimulation parameters and treatments. Results Six patients were included and four were operated on. At M5, none of the patients were either responders or remitters, but we did observe a decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Three patients were switched to caudate stimulation, but no improvement was observed. During the extension phase, the Acb target was stimulated for all patients, three of whom exhibited a significant response. A decrease in glucose metabolism was observed after Acb stimulation, in the posterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal lobe, superior and medial gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. An increase in metabolism was observed in the bilateral frontal lobe (superior gyrus), left frontal lobe (medial gyrus), and right limbic lobe (anterior cingulate gyrus). Conclusion The results of this trial suggest that the Acb is a more promising target than the caudate. NCT01569711
    European Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2014; 24(8). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.05.006 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    Jean-Yves Rotgé, Philippe Fossati, Cedric Lemogne
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2014; 75(4):408. DOI:10.4088/JCP.13l08810 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two sets of brain areas are repeatedly reported in neuroimaging studies on social cognition: the Mirror Neuron System and the Mentalizing System. The Mirror System is involved in goal understanding and has been associated with several emotional and cognitive functions central to social interaction, ranging from empathy to gestural communication and imitation. The Mentalizing System is recruited in tasks requiring cognitive processes such as self-reference and understanding of other's intentions. Although theoretical accounts for an interaction between the two systems have been proposed, little is known about their synergy during social exchanges. In order to explore this question, we have recorded brain activity by means of functional MRI during live social exchanges based on reciprocal imitation of hand gestures. Here, we investigate, using the method of psychophysiological interaction, the changes in functional connectivity of the Mirror System due to the conditions of interest (being imitated, imitating) compared with passive observation of hand gestures. We report a strong coupling between the Mirror System and the Mentalizing System during the imitative exchanges. Our findings suggest a complementary role of the two networks during social encounters. The Mirror System would engage in the preparation of own actions and the simulation of other's actions, while the Mentalizing System would engage in the anticipation of the other's intention and thus would participate to the co-regulation of reciprocal actions. Beyond a specific effect of imitation, the design used offers the opportunity to tackle the role of role-switching in an interpersonal account of social cognition.
    Cognitive Processing 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10339-014-0600-x · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are two distinct modes of self-focus: analytical self-focus is abstract, general and evaluative whereas experiential self-focus is concrete, specific and non evaluative. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the neural bases of these two modes of self-focus in relation with brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination. Forty-one French-speaking right-handed healthy young adults (10 men, mean age ± s.d.: 21.8 ± 2.3 years) engaged in analytical and experiential self-focus triggered by verbal stimuli during fMRI. Brooding was measured with the 22-item Rumination Response Style scale. Individuals with lower brooding scores showed greater activation of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus during analytical than experiential self-focus, whereas individuals with higher brooding scores did not. This is consistent with the hypothesis that brooding is associated with less control over the nature of the self-focus engaged. These findings may help to refine our understanding of how rumination promotes depression through maladaptive self-focus.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 12/2013; 9(11). DOI:10.1093/scan/nst178 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: Autobiographical memory (AM) defines the memory systems that encode, consolidate, and retrieve personal events and facts, AM is strongly related to self-perception and self representation. We review here the neural correlates of AM retrieval. AM retrieval encompasses a large neural network including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, and limbic structures. All these regions subserve the cognitive processes (episodic remembering, cognitive control, self-processing, and scene construction) at play during memory retrieval. We emphasize the specific role of medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus in self-processing during autobiographical memory retrieval. Overall, these data call for further studies in psychiatric patients, to investigate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and self-representation in mental disorders.
    12/2013; 15(4):487-90.
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    Ayna Baladi Nejad, Philippe Fossati, Cédric Lemogne
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    ABSTRACT: Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:666. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00666 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many choice situations require imagining potential outcomes, a capacity that was shown to involve memory brain regions such as the hippocampus. We reasoned that the quality of hippocampus-mediated simulation might therefore condition the subjective value assigned to imagined outcomes. We developed a novel paradigm to assess the impact of hippocampus structure and function on the propensity to favor imagined outcomes in the context of intertemporal choices. The ecological condition opposed immediate options presented as pictures (hence directly observable) to delayed options presented as texts (hence requiring mental stimulation). To avoid confounding simulation process with delay discounting, we compared this ecological condition to control conditions using the same temporal labels while keeping constant the presentation mode. Behavioral data showed that participants who imagined future options with greater details rated them as more likeable. Functional MRI data confirmed that hippocampus activity could account for subjects assigning higher values to simulated options. Structural MRI data suggested that grey matter density was a significant predictor of hippocampus activation, and therefore of the propensity to favor simulated options. Conversely, patients with hippocampus atrophy due to Alzheimer's disease, but not patients with Fronto-Temporal Dementia, were less inclined to favor options that required mental simulation. We conclude that hippocampus-mediated simulation plays a critical role in providing the motivation to pursue goals that are not present to our senses.
    PLoS Biology 10/2013; 11(10):e1001684. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001684 · 11.77 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; 23:S137-S138. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(13)70190-1 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin, Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: Young, Erickson, and Drevets (2012) reported that positive and neutral cue words elicited less positive memories among patients with major depression than among healthy controls, while memories from patients were less specific than those from controls, regardless of their intrinsic valence. These results suggested methodological refinements that may shed light on several aspects of autobiographical memory impairment in mental disorders.
    Psychological Reports 08/2013; 113(1):1030-4. DOI:10.2466/09.02.15.PR0.113x11z3 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visual perspective (i.e. first-person versus third-person perspective) during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval plays a role in both emotional regulation and self-related processes. However, its neural underpinnings remain mostly unexplored. Visual perspective during AM retrieval was assessed in two independent datasets of 45 and 20 healthy young adults with two different AM retrieval tasks. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess individual differences in the precuneus grey matter volume. The spontaneous tendency to recall memories from a first-person perspective was positively correlated with the right precuneus volume among the two independent datasets. Whole-brain analyses revealed that these results were relatively specific to the anterior part of the right precuneus. Our results provide first evidence for the role of the precuneus in egocentric spatial processing in the context of AM retrieval among healthy subjects.
    Brain Structure and Function 04/2013; 219(3). DOI:10.1007/s00429-013-0546-2 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterised by progressive behavioural changes and social interpersonal dysfunctions. Its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge, and depression is one of the main causes of misdiagnoses due to the prevalence of apathy in bvFTD. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Social Cognition and Emotional Assessment (SEA) and the mini-SEA for differentiating bvFTD from major depressive disorder (MDD). Scores for the SEA and mini-SEA for 37 patients with bvFTD (divided into subgroups of 17 with early bvFTD and 20 with moderate bvFTD according to the normal range of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale), 19 MDD patients and 30 control subjects were compared to define the discrimination power of these tools compared with other standard neuropsychological tests. SEA and mini-SEA scores were significantly lower for both the early and moderate bvFTD groups compared with control subjects and the MDD group, and very few scores overlapped between patients in the bvFTD subgroups and patients in the MDD and control subgroups. SEA and mini-SEA scores distinguished early bvFTD from MDD with sensitivity and specificity rates above 94%. Unlike standard executive neuropsychological tests, SEA and the mini-SEA can differentiate MDD from bvFTD in the early stages of the disease. The mini-SEA is an easy tool that can be utilised in neurological or psychiatric departments.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2012; 83(4):411-6. DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2011-301849 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Cédric Lemogne, Philippe Fossati
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    ABSTRACT: AM retrieval is a reconstruction process that grounds the self by providing coherent narratives organized to elicit a sense of identity across the time. Major depression is associated with impairments of AM retrieval, combining a mood congruent recall, a lack of specificity, an increased prevalence of the third-person visual perspective and frequent intrusive memories, which are characterized by an involuntary, fast and effortless recall. Intrusive memories in depression relate to a broad range of negative life events and are usually vivid, distressful and associated with a poorer outcome as well as with typical depressogenic cognitive biases, especially with cognitive avoidance. To date, little is known about the neural bases of these memories. These bases are likely to partially mirror those of the depressive state, with a decreased cognitive control over unwanted thoughts by the prefrontal cortex and an increased amygdala activation.
    Annales Médico-psychologiques revue psychiatrique 04/2012; 170(3):193–196. DOI:10.1016/j.amp.2012.02.005 · 0.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens, March 14-17, 2012 Abstract Submission 1001 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEPRESSIVE MOOD AND CANCER VERSUS CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY. Cédric Lemogne, MD, PhD, INSERM U894, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Isabelle Niedhammer, PhD, INSERM U1018, Versailles Saint-Quentin University, Villejuif, France, Myriam Khlat, PhD, Unité Mortalité, Santé, Epidémiologie, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, Paris, France, Jean-François Ravaud, MD, PhD, INSERM U988, CERMES3, IFRH, Villejuif, France, Francis Guillemin, MD, PhD, Ecole de santé publique, Faculté de Médecine, Vandoeuvre-les-nancy, France, Silla M. Consoli, MD, PhD, C-L Psychiatry, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Philippe Fossati, MD, PhD, CNRS USR 3246, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, Nearkasen Chau, PhD, INSERM U669, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background Depressive mood has been associated with all-cause mortality in both men and women. This study aimed at exploring gender differences in the association between depressive mood and specific causes of mortality as well as factors that may account for it, including education, marital status, social support, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Methods A population-based survey including 6,043 subjects (2,892 men and 3,151 women) was conducted in 1996 in the north-east of France with a questionnaire covering education, marital status, social support, health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index), and chronic diseases. Depressive mood was measured using the Duke Health Profile questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to examine its association with subsequent natural all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results During a follow-up of 12.5 years, 406 men and 303 women died from a natural cause. Adjusting for all covariates, depressive mood predicted natural mortality in both men [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.69] and women (HR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.06-1.77). However, this association was significant for cardiovascular mortality in men (HR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.00-2.65) whereas it was significant for cancer mortality in women (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.11-2.64). Limitations Data were self-reported and the response rate was low. Discussion Preventive strategies aiming at reducing the increased mortality associated with depressive mood should take gender into account. Depressed men may warrant a better screening for cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, whereas depressed women may benefit from better cancer prevention measures.
    70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens; 03/2012
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    70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Association, Athens; 03/2012

Publication Stats

3k Citations
305.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2013
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Centre Émotion
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004–2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Baycrest
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002
    • University of Lille Nord de France
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France