Pierre Billuart

Institut Cochin, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (49)379.59 Total impact

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    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2015; DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4048-14.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome which is one of the most frequent sources of intellectual disability in women. Recent studies showed that loss of Mecp2 in astrocytes contributes to Rett-like symptoms and restoration of Mecp2 can rescue some of these defects. The goal of this work is to compare gene expression profiles of wild-type and mutant astrocytes from Mecp2(308/y) mice (B6.129S-MeCP2 /J) by using Affymetrix mouse 2.0 microarrays. Results were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and by Western blot analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis utilizing Ingenuity Pathways was employed to identify pathways disrupted by Mecp2 deficiency. A total of 2152 genes were statistically differentially expressed between wild-type and mutated samples, including 1784 coding transcripts. However, only 257 showed fold changes >1.2. We confirmed our data by replicative studies in independent primary cultures of cortical astrocytes from Mecp2-deficient mice. Interestingly, two genes known to encode secreted proteins, chromogranin B and lipocalin-2, showed significant dysregulation. These proteins secreted from Mecp2-deficient glia may exert negative non-cell autonomous effects on neuronal properties, including dendritic morphology. Moreover, transcriptional profiling revealed altered Nr2f2 expression which may explain down- and upregulation of several target genes in astrocytes such as Ccl2, Lcn2 and Chgb. Unraveling Nr2f2 involvement in Mecp2-deficient astrocytes could pave the way for a better understanding of Rett syndrome pathophysiology and offers new therapeutic perspectives.
    Neuromolecular medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12017-015-8363-9 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. During the past two decades in excess of 100 X-chromosome ID genes have been identified. Yet, a large number of families mapping to the X-chromosome remained unresolved suggesting that more XLID genes or loci are yet to be identified. Here, we have investigated 405 unresolved families with XLID. We employed massively parallel sequencing of all X-chromosome exons in the index males. The majority of these males were previously tested negative for copy number variations and for mutations in a subset of known XLID genes by Sanger sequencing. In total, 745 X-chromosomal genes were screened. After stringent filtering, a total of 1297 non-recurrent exonic variants remained for prioritization. Co-segregation analysis of potential clinically relevant changes revealed that 80 families (20%) carried pathogenic variants in established XLID genes. In 19 families, we detected likely causative protein truncating and missense variants in 7 novel and validated XLID genes (CLCN4, CNKSR2, FRMPD4, KLHL15, LAS1L, RLIM and USP27X) and potentially deleterious variants in 2 novel candidate XLID genes (CDK16 and TAF1). We show that the CLCN4 and CNKSR2 variants impair protein functions as indicated by electrophysiological studies and altered differentiation of cultured primary neurons from Clcn4-/- mice or after mRNA knock-down. The newly identified and candidate XLID proteins belong to pathways and networks with established roles in cognitive function and intellectual disability in particular. We suggest that systematic sequencing of all X-chromosomal genes in a cohort of patients with genetic evidence for X-chromosome locus involvement may resolve up to 58% of Fragile X-negative cases.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 February 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.193.
    Molecular Psychiatry 02/2015; advance online publication. DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.193 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which encodes a transcriptional modulator of many genes including BDNF. BDNF comprises nine distinct promoter regions, each triggering the expression of a specific transcript. The role of this diversity of transcripts remains unknown. MeCP2 being highly expressed in neurons, RTT was initially considered as a neuronal disease. However, recent studies have shown that MeCP2 was also expressed in astrocytes. Though several studies explored Bdnf IV expression in Mecp2-deficient mice, the differential expression of Bdnf isoforms in Mecp2-deficient neurons and astrocytes was never studied. By using TaqMan technology and a mouse model expressing a truncated Mecp2 (Mecp2(308/y)), we firstly showed in neurons that Bdnf transcripts containing exon I, IIb, IIc, IV, and VI are prominently expressed, whereas in astrocytes, Bdnf transcript containing exon VI is preferentially expressed, suggesting a specific regulation of Bdnf expression at the cellular level. Secondly, we confirmed the repressive role of Mecp2 only on the expression of Bdnf VI in neurons. Our data suggested that the truncated Mecp2 protein maintains its function on Bdnf expression regulation in neurons and in astrocytes. Interestingly, we observed that Bdnf transcripts (I and IXA), regulated by neural activity induced by bicuculline in Mecp2(308/y) neurons, were not affected by histone deacetylase inhibition. In contrast, Bdnf transcripts (IIb, IIc, and VI), regulated by histone deacetylation, were not affected by bicuculline treatment in wild-type and Mecp2(308/y) neurons. All these results reflect the complexity of regulation of Bdnf gene.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 01/2015; 56(4). DOI:10.1007/s12031-014-0487-0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Platelet cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for platelet adhesion and thrombus formation in hemostasis and thrombosis. The Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 are the main players in cytoskeletal dynamics of platelets and induce filopodia and lamellipodia formation and actin polymerization to strongly increase the platelet surface upon activation. Moreover, they are important for platelet secretion, integrin activation and arterial thrombus formation.Objectives Rho GTPases are regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate their GTPase activity to terminate Rho signaling. The regulation of Rho GTPase activity in platelets is not well-defined. Recently, we identified Oligophrenin1 (OPHN1), a RhoGAP in platelets that exhibits strong GTPase-stimulating activity towards RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1.ResultsIn the present study we show for the first time, that deficiency of OPHN1 led to abnormal Rho activation and increased platelet cytoskeletal reorganization including cell adhesion and lamellipodia formation on fibrinogen. Furthermore, platelets from ophn1-/- mice showed enhanced susceptibility to platelet activation with alterations in actin distribution and early release of granules. Platelet activation was enhanced following GPVI and PAR4 stimulation. This translated into elevated platelet thrombus formation and promoted arterial thrombosis under low shear conditions with altered hemostasis as detected by tail bleeding time.Conclusions The results of the present study identified OPHN1 as an important regulator of platelet cytoskeletal reorganization and demonstrate that abnormal regulation of Rho proteins leads to increased platelet adhesion and thrombus formation under low shear conditions in vitro and in vivo suggesting a pro-thrombotic phenotype of mice critical for acute thrombotic occlusions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.1111/jth.12834 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OCRL mutations are associated with both Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease, two rare X-linked conditions. Lowe syndrome is an oculo-cerebro-renal disorder, whereas Dent-2 patients mainly present renal proximal tubulopathy. Loss of OCRL-1, a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase, leads in Lowe patients' fibroblasts to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) accumulation, with defects in F-actin network, α-actinin distribution and ciliogenesis, whereas fibroblasts of Dent-2 patients are still uncharacterized. To search for mechanisms linked to clinical variability observed between these two OCRL mutation-associated pathologies, we compared dermal fibroblasts from independent patients, four affected by Dent-2 disease and six with Lowe syndrome. For the first time, we describe that Dent-2 fibroblasts with OCRL loss-of-function (LOF) mutations, exhibit decrease in actin stress fibers, appearance of punctate α-actinin signals and alteration in primary cilia formation. Interestingly, we quantified these phenotypes as clearly intermediate between Lowe and control fibroblasts, thus suggesting that levels of these defects correlate with clinical variations observed between patients with OCRL mutations. In addition, we show that Lowe and Dent-2 fibroblasts display similar PI(4,5)P2 accumulation levels. Finally, we analyzed INPP5B, a paralogous gene already reported to exhibit functional redundancy with OCRL, and report neither differences in its expression at RNA or protein levels, nor specific allelic variations between fibroblasts of patients. Altogether, we describe here differential phenotypes between fibroblasts from Lowe and Dent-2 patients, both associated with OCRL LOF mutations, we exclude direct roles of PI(4,5)P2 and INPP5B in this phenotypic variability and we underline potential key alterations leading to ocular and neurological clinical features in Lowe syndrome.
    Human Molecular Genetics 10/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu514 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene have been associated with non-syndromic intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. This protein interacts with synaptic partners like PSD-95 and PTPδ, regulating the formation and function of excitatory synapses. The aim of this work is to characterize the synaptic consequences of three IL1RAPL1 mutations, two novel causing the deletion of exon 6 (Δex6) and one point mutation (C31R), identified in patients with intellectual disability. Using immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings we examined the effects of IL1RAPL1 mutants over-expression on synapse formation and function in cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. Δex6 but not C31R mutation leads to IL1RAPL1 protein instability and mislocalization within dendrites. Analysis of different markers of excitatory synapses and sEPSC recording revealed that both mutants fail to induce pre- and post-synaptic differentiation, contrary to WT IL1RAPL1 protein. Cell aggregation and immunoprecipitation assays in HEK293 cells showed a reduction of the interaction between IL1RAPL1 mutants and PTPδ that could explain the observed synaptogenic defect in neurons. However, these mutants do not affect all cellular signaling since their over-expression still activates JNK pathway. We conclude that both mutations described in this study lead to a partial loss of function of the IL1RAPL1 protein through different mechanisms. Our work highlights the important function of the trans-synaptic PTPδ/ IL1RAPL1 interaction in synaptogenesis and as such, in intellectual disability in the patients.
    Human Molecular Genetics 10/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu523 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding for the RhoGAP protein of oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) lead to cognitive disabilities (CDs) in humans, yet the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we show that in mice constitutive lack of Ophn1 is associated with dysregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/phosphate kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signalling pathway in a brain-area-specific manner. Consistent with a key role of cAMP/PKA signalling in regulating presynaptic function and plasticity, we found that PKA-dependent presynaptic plasticity was completely abolished in affected brain regions, including hippocampus and amygdala. At the behavioural level, lack of OPHN1 resulted in hippocampus- and amygdala-related learning disabilities which could be fully rescued by the ROCK/PKA kinase inhibitor fasudil. Together, our data identify OPHN1 as a key regulator of presynaptic function and suggest that, in addition to reported postsynaptic deficits, loss of presynaptic plasticity contributes to the pathophysiology of CDs.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2014; 369(1633):20130160. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2013.0160 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disorders (IDs) have been regularly associated with morphological and functional deficits at glutamatergic synapses in both humans and rodents. How these synaptic deficits may lead to the variety of learning and memory deficits defining ID is still unknown. Here we studied the functional and behavioral consequences of the ID gene il1rapl1 deficiency in mice and reported that il1rapl1 constitutive deletion alters cued fear memory formation. Combined in vivo and in vitro approaches allowed us to unveil a causal relationship between a marked inhibitory/excitatory (I/E) imbalance in dedicated amygdala neuronal subcircuits and behavioral deficits. Cell-targeted recordings further demonstrated a morpho-functional impact of the mutation at thalamic projections contacting principal cells, whereas the same afferents on interneurons are unaffected by the lack of Il1rapl1. We thus propose that excitatory synapses have a heterogeneous vulnerability to il1rapl1 gene constitutive mutation and that alteration of a subset of excitatory synapses in neuronal circuits is sufficient to generate permanent cognitive deficits.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2013; 33(34):13805-13819. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1457-13.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intersectin 1 (ITSN1) is a multifunctional adaptor protein which is involved in endocytosis, exocytosis and cellular signaling and it is also associated with such pathologies as Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this study was to identify new ITSN1 protein partners which are implicated in membrane trafficking. Methods. In silico analysis by Scansite online resource had identified a GTPase activating protein oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) as a potential partner of ITSN1 SH3A domain. GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation were used to prove complex formation between ITSN1 and OPHN1. Subcellular protein localization was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results. We have shown that brain-specific and ubiquitously expressed SH3A domain isoforms of ITSN1 interact with OPHN1. ITSN1 and OPHN1 form complexes in both resting and stimulated to exocytosis PC12 cell line. Conclusions. GTPase activating protein OPHN1 and adaptor protein ITSN1 interact in PC12 cell line independently of exocytosis stimulation.
    Biopolymers and Cell 09/2012; 28(5):357-362. DOI:10.7124/bc.000070
  • P Billuart · T Bienvenu · C Beljord · J Chelly
    08/2012; 14(5):679. DOI:10.4267/10608/1120
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability affects 2-3% of the population: those due to mutations of the X-chromosome are a major cause of moderate to severe cases (1.8/1000 males). Established theories ascribe the cellular aetiology of intellectual disability to malformations of dendritic spines. Recent work has identified changes in synaptic physiology in some experimental models. Here, we investigated the pathophysiology of a mouse model of intellectual disability using electrophysiological recordings combined with confocal imaging of dentate gyrus granule neurons. Lack of oligophrenin-1 resulted in reductions in dendritic tree complexity and mature dendritic spine density and in evoked and spontaneous EPSCs and IPSCs. In the case of inhibitory transmission, the physiological change was associated with a reduction in the readily releasable pool and vesicle recycling which impaired the efficiency of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Acute inhibition of the downstream signalling pathway of oligophrenin-1 fully reversed the functional changes in synaptic transmission but not the dendritic abnormalities. The impaired inhibitory (as well as excitatory) synaptic transmission at frequencies associated with cognitive function suggests a cellular mechanism for the intellectual disability, because cortical oscillations associated with cognition normally depend on inhibitory neurons firing on every cycle.
    The Journal of Physiology 11/2011; 590(Pt 4):763-76. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.219907 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We observed a three-generation family with two maternal cousins and an uncle affected by mental retardation (MR) with cerebellar hypoplasia. X-linked inheritance and the presence of cerebellar malformation suggested a mutation in the OPHN1 gene. In fact, mutational screening revealed a 2-bp deletion that abolishes a donor splicing site, resulting in the inclusion of the initial 48 nucleotides of intron 7 in the mRNA. This mutation determines the production of a mutant oligophrenin 1 protein with 16 extra amino acids inserted in-frame in the N-terminal BAR (Bin1/amphiphysin/Rvs167) domain. This is the first case of a mutation in OPHN1 that does not result in the production of a truncated protein or in its complete loss. OPHN1 (ARHGAP41) encodes a GTPase-activating (GAP) protein belonging to the GRAF subfamily characterized by an N-terminal BAR domain, followed by a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain and the GAP domain. GRAF proteins play a role in endocytosis and are supposed to dimerize via their BAR domain, that induces membrane curvature. The extra 16 amino acids cause the insertion of 4.4 turns in the third alpha-helix of the BAR domain and apparently impair the protein function. In fact, the clinical phenotype of these patients is identical to that of patients with loss-of-function mutations.
    Human Mutation 11/2011; 32(11):E2294-307. DOI:10.1002/humu.21567 · 5.05 Impact Factor
  • A Pavlowsky · J Chelly · P Billuart
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID) include mutations in proteins with various functions. However, many of these proteins are enriched in synapses and recent investigations point out their crucial role in the subtle regulation of synaptic activity and dendritic spine morphogenesis. Moreover, in addition to genetic data, functional and animal model studies are providing compelling evidence that supports the emerging unifying synapse-based theory for cognitive deficit. In this review, we highlight ID-related gene products involved in synaptic morphogenesis and function, with a particular focus on the emergent signaling pathways involved in synaptic plasticity whose disruption results in cognitive deficit.
    Molecular Psychiatry 10/2011; 17(7):682-93. DOI:10.1038/mp.2011.139 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligophrenin-1 regulates dendritic spine morphology in the brain. Mutations in the oligophrenin-1 gene (OPHN1) cause intellectual disability. We discovered a previously unknown partner of oligophrenin-1, Rev-erbα, a nuclear receptor that represses the transcription of circadian oscillators. We found that oligophrenin-1 interacts with Rev-erbα in the mouse brain, causing it to locate to dendrites, reducing its repressor activity and protecting it from degradation. Our results indicate the presence of a circadian oscillator in the hippocampus, involving the clock gene Bmal1 (also known as Arntl), that is modulated by Rev-erbα and requires oligophrenin-1 for normal oscillation. We also found that synaptic activity induced Rev-erbα localization to dendrites and spines, a process that is mediated by AMPA receptor activation and requires oligophrenin-1. Our data reveal new interactions between synaptic activity and circadian oscillators, and delineate a new means of communication between nucleus and synapse that may provide insight into normal plasticity and the etiology of intellectual disability.
    Nature Neuroscience 08/2011; 14(10):1293-301. DOI:10.1038/nn.2911 · 14.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1-Receptor Accessory Protein Like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene mutations are associated to cognitive impairment ranging from non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation to autism. Functionally IL1RAPL1 belongs to a novel family of Toll/IL-1 Receptors, but its ligand is unknown. In a recent study, we have shown that IL1RAPL1 is present in dendritic spine where it interacts with PSD-95, a major scaffold protein of excitatory post-synaptic density. We demonstrated that IL1RAPL1 regulates the synaptic localization of PSD-95 by controlling JNK (c-Jun terminal Kinase) activity and PSD-95 phosphorylation. Loss of IL1RAPL1 in mouse not only led to a reduction of excitatory synapses but also to specific deficits in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Here we report that activation of JNK pathway in neurons by Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is mediated by IL1RAPL1. The interaction of IL1RAPL1 with PSD-95 discloses a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying cognitive impairment associated with alterations of the JNK pathway in response to IL-1 and leading to the mislocalization of PSD-95, that subsequently result in abnormal synaptic organization and function.
    Communicative & integrative biology 05/2010; 3(3):245-7. DOI:10.4161/cib.3.3.11414
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene mutations are associated with cognitive impairment ranging from nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation to autism. IL1RAPL1 belongs to a novel family of Toll/IL-1 receptors, whose expression in the brain is upregulated by neuronal activity. Currently, very little is known about the function of this protein. We previously showed that IL1RAPL1 interacts with the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 and that it regulates voltage-gated calcium channel activity in PC12 cells. Here we show that IL1RAPL1 is present in dendritic spine where it interacts with PSD-95, a major component of excitatory postsynaptic compartment. Using gain- and loss-of-function experiments in neurons, we demonstrated that IL1RAPL1 regulates the synaptic localization of PSD-95 by controlling c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) activity and PSD-95 phosphorylation. Mice carrying a null mutation of the mouse Il1rapl1 gene show a reduction of both dendritic spine density and excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. These structural abnormalities are associated with specific deficits in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. The interaction of IL1RAPL1 with PSD-95 discloses a novel pathophysiological mechanism of cognitive impairment associated with alterations of the JNK pathway leading to a mislocalization of PSD-95 and abnormal synaptic organization and function.
    Current biology: CB 01/2010; 20(2):103-15. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.030 · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates numerous cellular functions and is critical for processes ranging from embryo development to cancer progression. Although autophosphorylation on Tyr-397 appears required for FAK functions in vitro, its role in vivo has not been established. We addressed this question using a mutant mouse (fakΔ) deleted of exon 15, which encodes Tyr-397. The resulting mutant protein FAKΔ is an active kinase expressed at normal levels. Our results demonstrate that the requirement for FAK autophosphorylation varies during development. FAKΔ/Δ embryos developed normally up to embryonic day (E) 12.5, contrasting with the lethality at E8.5 of FAK-null embryos. Thus, autophosphorylation on Tyr-397 is not required for FAK to achieve its functions until late mid-gestation. However, FAKΔ/Δ embryos displayed hemorrhages, edema, delayed artery formation, vascular remodeling defects, multiple organ abnormalities, and overall developmental retardation at E13.5–14.5, and died thereafter demonstrating that FAK autophosphorylation is also necessary for normal development. Fibroblasts derived from mutant embryos had a normal stellate morphology and expression of focal adhesion proteins, Src family members, p53, and Pyk2. In contrast, in FAKΔ/Δ fibroblasts and endothelial cells, spreading and lamellipodia formation were altered with an increased size and number of focal adhesions, enriched in FAKΔ. FAK mutation also decreased fibroblast proliferation. These results show that the physiological functions of FAK in vivo are achieved through both autophosphorylation-independent and autophosphorylation-dependent mechanisms.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; 284(50):34769-34776. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in the formation and function of cerebellar circuitry potentially contribute to cognitive deficits in humans. In the adult, the activity of the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex - the Purkinje cells (PCs) - is shaped by the balance of activity between local excitatory and inhibitory circuits. However, how this balance is established during development remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), a protein linked to cognitive function which interacts with neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) in the development of mouse cerebellum. Using Il1rapl1-deficient mice, we found that absence of IL1RAPL1 causes a transient disinhibition of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons between postnatal days 10 and 14 (P10/P14). Upstream, in the cerebellar cortex, we found developmental perturbations in the activity level of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs), resulting in the premature appearance of giant GABAA-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic currents capable of silencing PCs. Examination of feed-forward recruitment of MLIs by parallel fibres shows that during this P10/P14 time window, MLIs were more responsive to incoming excitatory drive. Thus, we conclude that IL1RAPL1 exerts a key function during cerebellar development in establishing local excitation/inhibition balance.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2009; 30(8):1476-86. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06975.x · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
379.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Institut Cochin
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998–2014
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2013
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Cochin Institute
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010–2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2003
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2001
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1996
    • Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France