[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis investigating antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS:A literature search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies providing data on the association between antibiotic use and newly diagnosed IBD. Included studies reported Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or a composite of both (IBD) as the primary outcome and evaluated antibiotic exposure before being diagnosed with IBD. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).RESULTS:A total of 11 observational studies (8 case-control and 3 cohort) including 7,208 patients diagnosed with IBD were analyzed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for IBD among patients exposed to any antibiotic was 1.57 (95% CI 1.27-1.94). Antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with CD (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.35-2.23) but was not significant for UC (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27). Exposure to antibiotics most markedly increased the risk of CD in children (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.72-4.38). All antibiotics were associated with IBD, with the exception of penicillin. Exposure to metronidazole (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.65-15.25) or fluoroquinolones (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.03-3.12) was most strongly associated with new-onset IBD.CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to antibiotics appears to increase the odds of being newly diagnosed with CD but not UC. This risk is most marked in children diagnosed with CD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 16 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.246.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 109(11). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.246 · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After an earlier study defining immunolabeled lymphoid follicles, obstructed lymphatics, and granulomas of the diseased ilea of 24 Crohn's disease patients, we chose to trace the lymphatics of these cases and 10 additional by serial sectioning. Particular attention was given to establishing physical continuity between granuloma-obstructed lymphatics and lymphatics with ‘lymphocytic thrombi’. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from resected diseased ilea and proximal colons from 34 patients were reviewed. Patients were 13 men and 21 women, aged 14–60 years. Duration of disease ranged from 1 month to 10 years. Immunohistochemistry employed D2-40 antibody to label lymphatics and anti-CD68 to label granulomas. Twenty-nine of the 34 (85%) resection tissues had lymphangectasia, in mucosa, submucosa, and subserosa. In 53% of the specimens, lymphatics of the various layers were obstructed by granulomas that filled the lumina. In 44%, 15/34, there were also distended lymphatics that were totally plugged with lymphocytes. In 10 of the 15, serial sections revealed continuity between the lymphocyte-plugged lymphatics and the endolymphatic granulomatous obstruction downstream. In 5 of the cases, D2-40 immunostaining revealed redundant lymphatic endothelium interwoven with the granuloma cells. Granulomas totally obstruct lymphatics in all layers of the intestine in Crohn's disease. Upstream of these obstructions, lymphatics are distended with lymphocytes. The degree and extent of this potentially irreversible ‘lymphangitis nodosa’ have undoubtedly confounded treatment regimens and clinical trials. There currently are no imaging methods to demonstrate the lymphangitis, nor treatments to resolve it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that antibiotics may be associated with new onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for developing IBD.METHODS: A literature search using Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases as well as major conference abstracts from the last 2 years was performed to identify comparative studies providing data on the association between antibiotic use and newly diagnosed IBD. Included studies reported Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or a composite of both (IBD) as the primary outcome and evaluated antibiotic exposures prior to diagnosis of IBD. Data on CD, UC, and IBD incidence and antibiotic exposure were extracted from each study. A random-effect meta-analysis was conducted to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the incidence of IBD in patients exposed to antibiotics and those not exposed.RESULTS: A total of 12 observational studies (9 case-control and 3 cohort) that included 8,297 patients diagnosed with IBD were analyzed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for IBD among patients exposed to any antibiotic was 1.62 (95% CI 1.31-2.01). Antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with CD (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.42-2.40) but was not significant for UC (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27). When combining data from studies that reported on specific classes of antibiotics, all antibiotics appeared to be associated with IBD with the exception of penicillin (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.76-1.64). Exposure to metronidazole (OR = 5.01, 95% CI 1.65-15.25) or quinolones (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.03-3.12) was most strongly associated with new onset IBD.CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to antibiotics appears to increase the odds of being newly diagnosed with IBD. Most antibiotic classes are associated with IBD. Antibiotic use is associated with new onset CD but not new onset UC.(C) Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed.
We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia.
Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively.
With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy.
CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%.
Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2013; 27(5). DOI:10.1111/jvim.12138 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies show that diseased intestinal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) contain obstructed lymphatics, granulomas, and tertiary lymphoid organs, representing responses to persistent antigen.
Methods: Forty-seven tissue sections from 28 CD patients and 20 tissue sections from 17 control patients were studied. Tissues were immunostained with antibody directed against adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus I, parvovirus B19, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
Results: There was no evidence of adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the tissues. Clostridia were positively stained in the mucus of 18.5% of CD patients versus 35.3% of controls and in the tissue of 11.1% of CD patients but in no controls. Immunoreactivity to listeria antibody occurred in the mucus of 3.7% of CD patients and in 5.9% of controls while it occurred in the tissue of 37.0% of CD patients and 29.4% of controls. E. coli occurred in the mucus of 48.1% CD and 64.7% controls and in the tissue of 18.5% and 5.9% respectively.
Conclusions: Of the agents demonstrated in this search, none was located in granulomas or inflamed lymphatics. Finding the common gut microbes, E. coli and clostridia, in the mucus of patients and controls was not unexpected. The minor focal staining of E. coli and clostridia does not suggest a primary role for these pathogens in CD. Positive staining for listeria in patients and controls may very well represent cross reactivity rather than specific identification.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2012; 7(2). DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2012.03.021 · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case studies in the past repeatedly suggested that the fundamental alteration in Crohn's disease occurs in the regional lymphatics of the intestine.
To evaluate the lymphatic inflammation in Crohn's disease, and to characterise lymphoid aggregates and granulomas in and surrounding lymphatics and blood vasculature.
Forty-eight tissue blocks from 24 Crohn's disease patients and 23 tissue blocks from 23 control patients were selected. Tissue sections were immunostained with a lymphatic endothelial cell marker (D2-40), a marker for blood vasculature (FVIII), and markers for T cells (CD3), B cells (CD20) and macrophages (CD68).
Lymphangiectasia and lymphocytic perilymphangitis were demonstrated in all 24 patients, lymphocyte-obstructed lymphatics in seven patients, granuloma-obstructed lymphatics in nine patients and inflammatory lymphoid follicles in all 24 patients. Free-standing granulomas occurred in 19 patients, and in three further patients granulomas were in or attached to blood vascular units.
This study, employing immunohistochemistry, revealed, better than standard microscopy, the association of inflammation, granulomas and tertiary lymphoid follicles or organs with the lymphatic vasculature in Crohn's disease. Disease in some patients was characterised by perilymphangitis and lymphoid follicular inflammation and in others by granulomas, some of which totally obstructed lymphatics. These findings have aetiological, therapeutic and prognostic implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sura R, Gavrilov B, Flamand L, Ablashi D, Cartun R, Colombel J-F, Van Kruiningen HJ. Human herpesvirus-6 in patients with Crohn’s disease. APMIS 2010; 118: 394–400.
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infections are usually asymptomatic reactivations in immunocompetent persons, but may be severe in immunocompromised individuals. Although primary HHV-6 infection is mainly associated with roseola infantum, it has also been associated with gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and nausea in children. In this study, we investigated the potential role of HHV-6 in Crohn’s disease (CD). Evidence of HHV-6 infection in CD patients and controls was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Fifty-one tissue blocks from 23 CD patients and 20 tissue blocks from 20 controls were examined. Quantitativereal-time PCR was used to assess HHV-6 viral loads. IHC, PCR and qPCR indicated the presence of HHV-6 in both CD patients and controls. Immunohistochemistry of tissues revealed an almost equal frequency and distribution of positive cells; however, non-specific immunostaining confounded interpretation. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 52% (12/23) of CD and 55% (11/20) of control patients by PCR and in 69.5% (16/23) of CD cases and 65% (13/20) of controls by qPCR. Mean viral load in intestinal tissues was similar in CD and controls (33.4 and 57.9 copies μg−1 DNA, respectively). Finding equal evidence of HHV-6 in patients and controls by multiple methods suggests that this virus is ubiquitous and probably not a cause of CD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two groups of vespertilionid bats were collected from affected hibernacula. In group 1 (n, 14; pathology and microbiology), the average body weights of all species were at the lower limit of published ranges. Twelve bats (86%) had mycotic growth in the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. Geomyces destructans, with its characteristic curved conidia, was observed microscopically, cultured, and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Dermatitis and mural folliculitis was nil to mild. When focally coinfected with Gram-negative bacteria, there was necrosis and pustules. Fat stores were little to abundant in 12 bats (86%) and nil in 2. Thirteen bats (93%) had pulmonary congestion and 7 (50%) had bone marrow granulocytosis. In group 2 (n, 24; liver elements), 3 bats (13%) had potentially toxic lead levels and 1 (4%), potentially toxic arsenic level. There was no evidence of major organ failure or consistent element toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 2 years, 24 dairy calves died of emphysematous abomasitis and abomasal bloat. Anaerobic cultures of necrotic abomasal mucosa yielded Clostridium perfringens from 10 of 15 calves. Sarcina were observed in 17 of 22 examined histologically. A change in the antibiotic regimen for newborns and improved sanitizing of feeding utensils eliminated further losses.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 08/2009; 50(8):857-60. · 0.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCAs) are present in 50-60% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and in 20-25% of their healthy relatives (HRs). The yeast, Candida albicans, has been shown to generate ASCAs, but the presence of C. albicans in the digestive tract of CD patients and their HRs has never been investigated. Therefore, we studied C. albicans carriage in familial CD and its correlation with ASCAs.
Study groups consisted of 41 CD families composed of 129 patients and 113 HRs, and 14 control families composed of 76 individuals. Mouth swabs and stool specimens were collected for isolation, identification, and quantification of yeasts. Serum samples were collected for detection of ASCAs and anti-C. albicans mannan antibodies (ACMAs).
C. albicans was isolated significantly more frequently from stool samples from CD patients (44%) and their HRs (38%) than from controls (22%) (P<0.05). The prevalence of ACMAs was similar between CD patients, their HRs, and controls (22, 19, and 21%, respectively, P=0.845), whereas the prevalence of ASCAs was significantly increased in CD families (72 and 34% in CD and HRs, respectively, in contrast to 4% in controls, P<0.0001). AMCA levels correlated with C. albicans colonization in all populations. ASCA levels correlated with C. albicans colonization in HRs but not in CD patients.
CD patients and their first-degree HRs are more frequently and more heavily colonized by C. albicans than are controls. ASCAs correlate with C. albicans colonization in HRs but not in CD. In HRs, ASCAs could result from an altered immune response to C. albicans. In CD, a subsequent alteration in sensing C. albicans colonization could occur with disease onset.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2009; 104(7):1745-53. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2009.225 · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-month-old female llama with a history of tetraparesis was presented for necropsy. This cria was apparently normal until it became ataxic during its second week of life. It had diminished flexor reflexes of the left forelimb and both hind limbs. Hematology and serum biochemistry revealed neutrophilia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, elevated phosphorus, and modest hyperglycemia. Radiography of the cervical spine demonstrated an abnormal C3-C4 intervertebral disc and bony proliferation of the vertebral end plates. The llama was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids but failed to respond. Postmortem examination revealed cervical intervertebral disc disease and vertebral exostosis. Microscopically, there was necrosis of intervertebral connective tissue and focal malacia of the spinal cord. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intervertebral disc space and from cerebrospinal fluid. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of Pseudomonas-associated discospondylitis in a llama.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 06/2008; 20(3):349-52. DOI:10.1177/104063870802000316 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research into Crohn's disease has recently been focused on the genetics of the patient, the gastrointestinal flora, the gut epithelium and mucosal immune responses. For over 60 years pathologists have reported that the fundamental alteration in Crohn's disease occurs in regional lymphatics of the intestine--the disease is a lymphocytic and granulomatous lymphangitis. At an earlier time, experimental sclerosis of regional intestinal lymphatics of the pig produced a chronic segmental enteritis with many features of Crohn's disease, including lymphocytic and granulomatous lymphangitis of the bowel wall and enteroenteric and enterocutaneous fistulas. In Crohn's disease, differences in the anatomic distribution of vasa recta appear to explain long-segment disease of the ileum and short-segment disease of the more proximal intestine. A variety of bacteria and viruses cause lymphangitis, suggesting that microorganisms may be at the centre of the basic changes in Crohn's disease. Dietary antigens and lipids are worthy of consideration as well. Now that antibodies to label lymphatics are available, attention should be directed at defining the initial damage to lymphatic endothelium and agents that might be responsible.
Gut 02/2008; 57(1):1-4. DOI:10.1136/gut.2007.123166 · 13.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. were necropsied (n=34; 1995-1997) or clinically evaluated (n=25, 2002-2003) to characterize a lameness and polyarthritis, reported by wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators, and unsuccessfully treated with antibiotics. Overall, 22 affected skunks had one or multiple swollen joints, swollen paws, and subcutaneous abscesses. Purulent exudate was located in joint spaces, in periarticular connective tissue between muscle fascicles and tendons, and between and along flexor and extensor tendons of the paws. Histologic examination revealed suppurative arthritis, with necrosis and erosion of articular cartilage, and suppurative osteomyelitis. Special stains failed to reveal a causative microorganism within affected joints, and routine bacteriologic cultures failed to isolate a pathogen with any significant frequency or consistency. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed using DNA extracted from archived, formalin-fixed joint samples of 11 affected skunks, and DNA from joints of 7 of 11 affected skunks yielded amplicons with sequences highly similar to sequences of Mycoplasma fermentans within the Mycoplasma bovis cluster, whereas DNA samples from joints of four unaffected skunks were negative by PCR. Skunks from Connecticut, U.S.A. (n=21; 1995-2003) were similarly examined and were found not to have suppurative polyarthritis, suggesting a unique geographic distribution of this condition. Concurrent pathologic conditions in adult skunks from both Cape Cod and Connecticut included verminous pneumonia, gastric nematodiasis, arthropod ectoparasitism, and canine distemper. Amyloidosis was present in skunks with and without suppurative polyarthritis, and the amyloid was immunohistochemically identified as AA-amyloid. This is the first report of suppurative polyarthritis in wild skunks with evidence of a mycoplasmal etiology.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 10/2007; 38(3):388-99. DOI:10.1638/2006-0049R.1 · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New-onset Crohn's disease and acute flares are often associated with viral infections. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of persistent or recurrent viruses in patients. Tissue blocks were obtained from surgical specimens from patients and a control population. 111 samples were tested by PCR or RT-PCR, for EBV, CMV, HSV 1, HSV 2, HHV 8, pestiviruses, and enteroviruses. Additionally, seven sets of serum samples, including pre-operative and post-operative samples, from CD patients were analyzed serologically for antibodies to EBV. The tests revealed evidence of EBV nucleic acid in tissues of 11 patients from a total of 70 tested (15.7%) and in tissues of 3 of 41 control subjects (7.3%). Evidence of pestivirus was found in one CD patient, while one patient and one control were positive for CMV. No HSV 1 or 2, HHV 8 or enteroviruses were found. The serologic tests revealed that five of seven CD patients had antibodies against the early protein, the capsid protein and the EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA). The titers were not significantly altered post-surgically. None of the patients had antibodies of the IgM isotype. Our findings vary from those of Ruther et al. who demonstrated evidence of EBV in tissues from 7 of 11 (64%) German CD patients. Antibodies to early EBV viral antigen and to nuclear antigen in five of seven Belgian patients suggest persistent active viral infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superficial similarity of Johne's disease to Crohn's disease led to the hypothesis that, like the former. Crohn's disease was caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Detailed pathologic comparisons, however, reveal little similarity between these two entities, including the lack of important extraintestinal manifestations. Attempts to recover M. paratuberculosis by culture have only rarely succeeded and the significance of spheroplasts that appear more frequently on culture is seriously in question. Five immunocytochemistry studies have failed to find mycobacterial antigens in diseased tissues and the five most recent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) attempts to find genomic evidence of M. paratuberculosis were uniformly negative. Numerous serologic studies failed to demonstrate antibody to M. paratuberculosis and attempts to show cell-mediated immunity were also unrewarding. Inoculation of numerous experimental animals with Crohn's disease tissue has failed to induce Johne's disease, and inoculation of various animal species with M. paratuberculosis has equally failed to result in Crohn's disease. Controlled studies of the treatment of Crohn's disease with antimycobacterial agents have generally resulted in no improvement, and most studies that have shown a positive response are either uncontrolled or include broad-spectrum antibiotics that may be acting on pathogens other than mycobacteria. Finally, although Johne's disease is common in farm animals, and infected animals shed M. paratuberculosis in large numbers, no record of zoonotic transmission has been recorded.