ABSTRACT: Immediate, as well as early, revascularisation is of benefit in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) presenting with ST elevation. However, trials comparing invasive versus medical treatment in patients with an acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation do not consistently show improvement in survival after revascularisation. Accordingly, additional data are warranted.
The effect of revascularisation within 30 days on one-year survival in the GUSTO IV ACS trial was investigated. A total of 7800 patients were included with an acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation, documented by either elevated cardiac troponin or transient or persistent ST-segment depression. In this trial, comparing abciximab versus placebo as initial medical therapy, coronary angiography within 60 h after randomisation was discouraged. In 30-day survivors, those who underwent revascularisation were compared with 30-day survivors without revascularisation. Adjustments were made for patient characteristics, and for a propensity score that was adjusted for covariates associated with the likelihood of early revascularisation.
Of the 7496 patients who survived at least 30 days, 2265 (30%) underwent coronary revascularisation within 30 days: 789 patients CABG, 1450 PCI and 26 both CABG and PCI. Procedure-related mortality was low at 1.8%. Patients with revascularisation had a lower one-year mortality compared to medically treated patients (2.3% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.001). After multivariable analyses, patients with revascularisation had a relative risk of subsequent mortality within 1 year of 0.53 (95% CI 0.37-0.77) compared to patients without revascularisation.
Revascularisation within 30 days is associated with an improved prognosis in ACS without ST-segment elevation. The relative high mortality in medically treated patients may be related in part to patient selection, but warrants further studies to improve outcome of these patients.
European Heart Journal 10/2004; 25(17):1494-501. · 10.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate long-term effects of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation who were not scheduled for coronary intervention.
A total of 7800 patients were included with an acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation, documented by either elevated cardiac troponin or transient or persistent ST-segment depression. They were randomized to abciximab bolus and 24-hour infusion, abciximab bolus and 48-hour infusion, or matching placebo. The overall 1-year mortality rate was 8.3% (649 patients). One-year mortality was 7.8% in the placebo group and 8.2% in the 24-hour and 9.0% in the 48-hour abciximab infusion group. Compared with placebo, the hazard ratio for the 24-hour infusion of abciximab was 1.1 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.29), and for the 48-hour infusion, it was 1.2 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.41). The lack of benefit of abciximab was observed in every subgroup studied. Patients with negative troponin or elevated C-reactive protein had a higher mortality rate after treatment with abciximab for 48 hours than with placebo: 8.5% versus 5.8% in those with negative troponin (P=0.02), 16.3% versus 12.1% in those with elevated C-reactive protein (P=0.04).
Compared with placebo, abciximab did not provide any survival benefit at 1 year in patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome with ST depression and/or elevated troponin who were not scheduled to undergo early coronary revascularization. In subgroups of patients, in particular those with low cardiac troponin or elevated C-reactive protein, abciximab was associated with excess mortality.
Circulation 02/2003; 107(3):437-42. · 14.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of abciximab in addition to low-molecular-weight-heparin as the primary medical treatment of acute coronary syndromes has not previously been investigated.
The GUSTO IV-ACS trial included 7800 patients with chest pain and either ST-segment depression or a positive troponin test. They were randomized to abciximab for 24 h, 48 h or placebo. In the dalteparin substudy, 974 patients received 5 days of s.c. dalteparin, instead of a 48 h infusion of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Major and minor bleedings were more frequent for abciximab (24 and 48 h combined) than placebo both in the dalteparin (abciximab 5.0% vs placebo 1.8% P<0.05) and in the UFH cohort (3.8% vs 1.8% P<0.001). However, stroke rates were low, < or = 0.6%. At 30 days there were no significant differences in the rate of death or MI, either in the dalteparin (abciximab 9.6% vs placebo 11.3%: O.R. 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.58-1.25) or in the UFH cohort (8.5% vs 7.6%: O.R.; 1.12: 0.95-1.34).
Treatment with abciximab, aspirin and s.c. dalteparin is associated with a low risk of major side effects and is as safe as the combination of abciximab and UFH. Without early coronary intervention there is no indication for abciximab treatment.
European Heart Journal 11/2002; 23(19):1538-45. · 10.48 Impact Factor