P S Parfrey

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Are you P S Parfrey?

Claim your profile

Publications (312)2306.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%-29%. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 12/2014;
  • 05/2014; 29 Suppl 3:iii47-iii48.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess hemodialysis (HD) patients' physical health, social supports, psychosocial well-being and the interrelationship among patients' experiences, demographics, illness characteristics, and biochemical indicators of health. To determine responsiveness of the Patient's Perception of Hemodialysis Scale (PPHS) to change in health status and critical events.
    04/2014; 24(2):33-44.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Smoking is a risk factor for incident colorectal cancer (CRC); however, it is unclear about its influence on survival after CRC diagnosis.Methods:A cohort of 706 CRC patients diagnosed from 1999 to 2003 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was followed for mortality and recurrence until April 2010. Smoking and other relevant data were collected by questionnaire after cancer diagnosis, using a referent period of '2 years before diagnosis' to capture pre-diagnosis information. Molecular analyses of microsatellite instability (MSI) status and BRAF V600E mutation status were performed in tumour tissue using standard techniques. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for major prognostic factors.Results:Compared with never smokers, all-cause mortality (overall survival, OS) was higher for current (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04-3.06), but not for former (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.71-1.59) smokers. The associations of cigarette smoking with the study outcomes were higher among patients with 40 pack-years of smoking (OS: HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.03-2.85; disease-free survival (DFS: HR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.25-3.19), those who smoked 30 cigarettes per day (DFS: HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67), and those with microsatellite stable (MSS) or MSI-low tumours (OS: HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82 and DFS: HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.01-1.72). Potential heterogeneity was noted for sex (DFS HR: 1.68 for men and 1.01 for women: P for heterogeneity=0.04), and age at diagnosis (OS: HR: 1.11 for patients aged <60 and 1.69 for patients aged 60: P for heterogeneity=0.03).Conclusions:Pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking is associated with worsened prognosis among patients with CRC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 21 January 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.6 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long-term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial. EVOLVE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance. Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes. Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(6).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy. Identification of genetic prognostic markers may help prognostic estimations in colorectal cancer. Genes that regulate response to hypoxia and other genes that are regulated under the hypoxic conditions have been shown to play roles in cancer progression. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the hypoxia pathway genes were associated with the risk of outcome in colorectal cancer patients. This study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, 49 SNPs from six hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, LOX, MIF and CXCL12) in 272 colorectal cancer patients were analyzed. In the second phase, 77 SNPs from seven hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, HIF2B, HIF3A, LOX and CXCL12) were analyzed in an additional cohort of 535 patients. Kaplan Meier, Cox univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the SNPs and overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) or disease specific survival (DSS). Since this was a hypothesis-generating study, no correction for multiple testing was applied. In phase I, one SNP (HIF2A rs11125070) was found to be associated with DFS in multivariable analysis; yet association of a proxy polymorphism (HIF2A rs4953342) was not detected in the phase II patient cohort. In phase II, associations of two SNPs (HIF2A rs4953352 and HIF2B rs12593988) were significant in both OS and DFS multivariable analyses. However, association of HIF2A rs4953352 was not replicated in the phase I cohort using a proxy SNP (HIF2A rs6706003). Overall, our study did not find a convincing evidence of association of the investigated polymorphisms with the disease outcomes in colorectal cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e113513. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
    The British journal of nutrition 10/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context:The clinical course of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in patients on hemodialysis is not well described, and the effect of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on disease progression is uncertain.Objective:To describe (a) the clinical course of sHPT in patients treated with phosphate binders and/or vitamin D sterols and (b) the impact of cinacalcet on occurrence of severe unremitting HPT, defined by the persistence of markedly elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations together with hypercalcemia or parathyroidectomy (PTX).Design:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Setting:Global, multicenter.Patients:3883 patients on hemodialysis of 5755 screened with moderate to severe sHPT.Main outcome measures:Parathyroidectomy, severe, unremitting HPT and use of commercial cinacalcet (a protocol violation).Intervention:Cinacalcet (30 to 180 mg daily) or placebo for up to 64 months.Results:In the 1935 patients randomized to placebo, 278 (14%) patients underwent PTX (median PTH 1872 pg/mL within prior 12 weeks of surgery). Age, sex, geographic region, co-morbidity, calcium-containing phosphate binder use, and baseline serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH concentrations were associated with PTX. Commercial cinacalcet was started in 443 (23%) patients (median PTH 1108 pg/mL before treatment began). Severe unremitting HPT developed in 470 (24%) patients. In a multivariable Cox model, the relative hazard (comparing patients randomized to cinacalcet versus placebo) of severe unremitting HPT was 0.31 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.37). The relative hazard differed little when adjusted by baseline clinical characteristics.Conclusions:Severe unremitting HPT develops frequently in patients on hemodialysis despite conventional therapy, and cinacalcet substantially reduces its occurrence.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of molecular biology and genomics continues to expand rapidly, promising numerous opportunities for improving health. However, a key aspect of the success of genomic medicine is related to public understanding and acceptance. Using community consultations and an online survey, we explored public attitudes and expectations about genomics research. Thirty-three members of the general public in Newfoundland, Canada, took part in the community sessions, while 1024 Atlantic Canadians completed the online survey. Overall, many participants noted they lacked knowledge about genetics and associated research and took the opportunity to ask numerous questions throughout sessions. Participants were largely hopeful about genomics research in its capacity to improve health, not only for current residents, but also for future generations. However, they did not accept such research uncritically, and a variety of complex issues and questions arose during the community consultations and were reflected in survey responses. With the proliferation of biobanks and the rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. If researchers can engage the public in regular, transparent dialogue, this two-way communication could allow greater understanding of the research process and the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them.
    Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy 08/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Statistics in Medicine 08/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Patrick S Parfrey, Geoff Warden, Brendan J Barrett
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Glenn M Chertow, Patrick S Parfrey
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2013; 368(19):1844-5. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The presence of Lynch syndrome (LS) can bring a lifetime of uncertainty to an entire family as members adjust to living with a high lifetime cancer risk. The research base on how individuals and families adjust to genetic-linked diseases following predictive genetic testing has increased our understanding of short-term impacts but gaps continue to exist in knowledge of important factors that facilitate or impede long-term adjustment. The failure of existing scales to detect psychosocial adjustment challenges in this population has led researchers to question the adequate sensitivity of these instruments. Furthermore, we have limited insight into the role of the family in promoting adjustment. Methods The purpose of this study was to develop and initially validate the Psychosocial Adjustment to Hereditary Diseases (PAHD) scale. This scale consists of two subscales, the Burden of Knowing (BK) and Family Connectedness (FC). Items for the two subscales were generated from a qualitative data base and tested in a sample of 243 participants from families with LS. Results The Multitrait/Multi-Item Analysis Program-Revised (MAP-R) was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PAHD. The findings support the convergent and discriminant validity of the subscales. Construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis and Cronbach?s alpha supported a strong internal consistency for BK (0.83) and FC (0.84). Conclusion Preliminary testing suggests that the PAHD is a psychometrically sound scale capable of assessing psychosocial adjustment. We conclude that the PAHD may be a valuable monitoring tool to identify individuals and families who may require therapeutic interventions.
    BMC Psychology. 04/2013; 1(7).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.64.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Cohort study. A familial CRC registry in Newfoundland. 529 newly diagnosed CRC patients from Newfoundland. They were recruited from 1999 to 2003 and followed up until April 2010. Participants reported their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified with factor analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate HR and 95% CI for association of dietary patterns with CRC recurrence and death from all causes, after controlling for covariates. Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a high processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.09). No associations were observed with the prudent vegetable or the high-sugar patterns and DFS. The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.40) whereas the relationship between overall survival (OS) and this pattern was observed among patients with colon cancer only (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.43). Potential effect modification was noted for sex (p value for interaction 0.04, HR 3.85 for women and 1.22 for men). The processed meat dietary pattern prior to diagnosis is associated with higher risk of tumour recurrence, metastasis and death among patients with CRC.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(2). · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, 27 genetic polymorphisms that were previously reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients were investigated in relation to overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer patients from Newfoundland. The discovery and validation cohorts comprised of 532 and 252 patients, respectively. Genotypes of 27 polymorphisms were first obtained in the discovery cohort and survival analyses were performed assuming the co-dominant genetic model. Polymorphisms associated with disease outcomes in the discovery cohort were then investigated in the validation cohort. When adjusted for sex, age, tumor stage and microsatellite instability (MSI) status, four polymorphisms were independent predictors of OS in the discovery cohort MTHFR Glu429Ala (HR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.84, p = 0.036), ERCC5 His46His (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.15-2.76, p = 0.01), SERPINE1 -675indelG (HR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.84, p = 0.008), and the homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.03-1.92, p = 0.033). In the validation cohort, the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was associated with shorter OS (HR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.18-2.49, p = 0.005), although with a different genotype than the discovery cohort (CC genotype in the discovery cohort and AC genotype in the validation cohort). When stratified based on treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based regimens, this polymorphism was associated with reduced OS only in patients not treated with 5-FU. In the DFS analysis, when adjusted for other variables, the TT genotype of the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism was associated with shorter DFS in both cohorts (discovery cohort: HR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.04-2.29, p = 0.032 and replication cohort: HR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.11-2.94, p = 0.018). In this study, associations of the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism with OS and the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism with DFS were identified in two colorectal cancer patient cohorts. Our results also suggest that the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism may be an adverse prognostic marker in patients not treated with 5-FU.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61469. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) may be the result of Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, a syndrome of unknown etiology called familial colorectal cancer type-X (FCCTX), or familial serrated neoplasia associated with the colorectal cancer (CRC) somatic BRAF mutation.
    Clinical Genetics 12/2012; · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sparse data are available about the natural history of hemoglobin (Hb) level trends in contemporary patients with anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We intended to describe Hb level trends over time with no or minimal administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 2,019 individuals with type 2 diabetes, moderate anemia, and CKD from the placebo arm of the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) followed up for 2.3 years with an average of 32 monthly Hb level determinations per patient. Darbepoetin alfa was administered only if Hb level decreased to <9 g/dL. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Number of protocol-directed doses of darbepoetin alfa received due to an Hb level decrease to <9 g/dL. RESULTS: 1,106 (55%) placebo patients consistently maintained an Hb level ≥9 g/dL and received no protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa. The other patients received 1 (16%), 2-4 (16%), or 5 or more (13%) doses of darbepoetin alfa. Those who received no darbepoetin alfa doses had higher baseline Hb levels, higher estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs), less proteinuria, and lower ferritin and transferrin saturation values. On average, Hb levels were stable or increased in all groups. Compared with individuals who received no darbepoetin alfa, those who received 5 or more doses were more likely to receive intravenous iron therapy and blood transfusions and progress to renal replacement therapy, but were not at higher risk of death. The strongest predictors of requiring 5 or more doses of darbepoetin alfa were lower baseline Hb level, lower eGFR, and higher proteinuria level. LIMITATIONS: Post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of a specific population with diabetes, anemia, and non-dialysis-dependent CKD. CONCLUSIONS: In the TREAT placebo arm, Hb levels were stable with no or minimal protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa during 2.3 years of follow-up. Most patients with moderate anemia, non-dialysis-dependent CKD, and type 2 diabetes are able to maintain a stable Hb level without implementing long-term erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2012; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • New England Journal of Medicine 11/2012; · 54.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

16k Citations
2,306.17 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2013
    • Memorial University of Newfoundland
      • • Division of Community Health and Humanities
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology
      St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
  • 2012
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Université de Picardie Jules Verne
      Amiens, Picardie, France
  • 2011
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2011
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • SickKids
      • Program in Genetics and Genome Biology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1999–2011
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009–2010
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Azienda Ospedaliera di Cremona
      Cremona, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2001–2009
    • University Health Network
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2001–2006
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2005
    • Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information
      St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
    • Simon Fraser University
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
      Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2002
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2000
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Florida Memorial University
      Saint John, Indiana, United States
  • 1995
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Medicine
      London, Ontario, Canada