[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Alanine (Ala), a nonessential amino acid, is present in normal brain at a concentration of ~0.5 mmol/kg. During acute hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) Ala increases due to decreased flux of pyruvate through the Krebs cycle and the activity of alanine transaminase (AAT). Brain Ala increases in proportion to the severity of HI and may be detected using proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Pediatric Research 08/2005; 58(2):426-426. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean cerebral saturation and changes in the oxidation state of the CuA centre of cytochrome oxidase were measured by near infra-red spectroscopy simultaneously with phosphorous metabolites and intracellular pH measured using 31P NMR spectroscopy during transient anoxia (inspired oxygen fraction = 0.0 for 105 seconds) in the newborn piglet brain. By collecting high quality 31P spectra every 10 seconds, it was possible to resolve the delay between the onset of anoxia and the fall in PCr and to show that the CuA centre of cytochrome oxidase reduced simultaneously with the fall in PCr. From these observations it is concluded that, at normoxia, oxygen tension at the mitochondrial level is substantially above a critical value at which oxidative metabolism becomes oxygen dependent.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2003; 530:555-63. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of normothermia and delayed hypothermia on the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of mitochondrial complex I, II-III, IV and citrate synthase were measured in brain homogenates obtained from anaesthetized neonatal pigs following transient in vivo hypoxia-ischaemia. In the normothermic animals there was a significant decrease in complex I activity and in the levels of GSH and NAA when compared to the controls. Delayed hypothermia preserved NAA and GSH at control levels and enhanced the rate of complex II-III activity. There was correlation (R = 0.79) between GSH and NAA levels when data from all three experimental groups were analyzed. Citrate synthase activity was not significantly different in the three groups, indicating maintenance of mitochondrial integrity. These data suggest that delayed hypothermia affords protection of integrated mitochondrial function in the neonatal brain following transient hypoxia-ischaemia.
Neurochemical Research 01/2003; 27(12):1599-604. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in hemoglobin oxygenation and oxidation state of the CuA centre of cytochrome oxidase were measured with full spectral near infrared spectroscopy simultaneously with phosphorus metabolites using nuclear magnetic resonance 31P spectroscopy at high time resolution (10 seconds) during transient anoxia (FiO2 = 0.0 for 105 seconds) in the newborn piglet brain. During the onset of anoxia, there was no change in either phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration or the oxidation state of the CuA centre of cytochrome oxidase until there was a substantial fall in cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation, at which point the CuA centre reduced simultaneously with the decline in PCr. At a later time during the anoxia, intracellular pH decreased rapidly, consistent with a fall in cerebral metabolic rate for O2 and reduced flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The simultaneous reduction of CuA and decline in PCr can be explained in terms of the effects of the falling mitochondrial electrochemical potential. From these observations, it is concluded that, at normoxia, oxidative phosphorylation and the oxidation state of the components of the electron transport chain are independent of cerebral oxygenation and that the reduction in the CuA signal occurs when oxygen tension limits the capacity of oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the phosphorylation potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the accuracy of prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and structured neonatal neurological assessment in term infants after presumed hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Eighteen control infants and 28 infants with presumed hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury underwent proton MRS investigation. Studies were carried out as soon as possible after the cerebral insult, most within 48 hours. Infants had an early structured neurological assessment at a median of 19 hours (range 0 hours to 9 days) from the presumed hypoxic-ischaemic insult and a late assessment at a median of 7 days (range 3 to 25 days) during recovery. The maximum cerebral peak-area ratio lactate:N-acetylaspartate measured by proton MRS accurately predicted adverse outcome at 1 year with a specificity of 93% and positive predictive value of 92%. Neurological assessment had a tendency for false-positive predictions. However, both early and late neurological examination can be used as a reliable indicator for a favourable outcome at 1 year having negative predictive values of 100% and 91% respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of the brains of severely birth-asphyxiated infants using proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown changes indicating a rise in cerebral lactate (Lac) and a fall in N-acetylaspartate (Naa). The aim of this study was to test two hypotheses: 1) that these changes can be reproduced in the newborn piglet after transient reversed cerebral hypoxiaischemia, and their time course determined; and 2) that changes in Lac peak-area ratios are related to changes in phosphorylation potential as determined by phosphorus (31P) MRS. Eighteen piglets aged < 24 h were anesthetized and ventilated. Twelve underwent temporary occlusion of the carotid arteries and hypoxemia, and six served as sham-operated controls. 1H and 31P spectra were acquired alternately, both during the insult and for the next 48 h, using a 7-tesla spectrometer. During hypoxiaischemia, the median Lac/total creatine (Cr) peak-area ratio rose from a baseline of 0.14 (interquartile range 0.07-0.27), to a maximum of 4.34 (3.33-7.45). After resuscitation, Lac/Cr fell to 0.75 (0.45-1.64) by 2 h, and then increased again to 2.43 (1.13-3.08) by 48 h. At all stages after resuscitation Lac/Cr remained significantly above baseline and control values. Naa/Cr was significantly reduced below baseline and control values by 48 h after resuscitation. The increases in the Lac peak-area ratios were concomitant with the falls in the [phosphocreatine (PCr)*]/ [inorganic phosphate (Pi)] ratio, during both acute hypoxiaischemia and delayed energy failure. The maximum Lac/Naa during delayed energy failure correlated strongly with the minimum [nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)]/[exchangeable phosphate pool (EPP)] (r = -0.94, p < 0.0001). We conclude that both hypotheses have been confirmed.
Pediatric Research 07/1997; 41(6):795-802. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that mild hypothermia after severe transient hypoxia-ischemia reduces the subsequent delayed rise in cerebral lactate peak-area ratios as determined by proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the newborn piglet. Nine piglets aged < 24 h underwent temporary occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hypoxemia. Resuscitation was started when cerebral [phosphocreatine]/[inorganic phosphate] had fallen close to zero and [nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)]/[exchangeable phosphate pool (EPP)] was below about a third of baseline. On resuscitation rectal and tympanic temperatures were lowered to 35 degrees C for 12 h after which normothermia (38.5 degrees C) was resumed. 1H MRS data collected over 48 or 64 h after resuscitation were compared with concurrently established data from 12 piglets similarly subjected to transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, but maintained normothermic, and six sham-operated controls. The severity of the primary insult (judged from the time integral of depletion of [NTP]/[EPP]) was similar in the hypothermic and normothermic groups. The maximum lactate/N-acetylaspartate ratio observed between 24 and 48 h after resuscitation in the hypothermic group was 0.10 (0.05-0.97), median (interquartile range), which was significantly lower than that observed in the normothermic group, 1.28 (0.97-2.14), and not significantly different from that observed in the control group, 0.08 (0.06-0.11). Similar results were obtained for lactate/choline and lactate/total creatine. We conclude that mild hypothermia after a severe acute cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult reduces the delayed elevation in lactate peak-area ratios, thus reflecting reduced lactate accumulation.
Pediatric Research 07/1997; 41(6):803-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severely birth-asphyxiated human infants develop delayed ("secondary") cerebral energy failure, which carries a poor prognosis, during the first few days of life. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) after severe transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia decreases the severity of delayed energy failure in the newborn piglet. Twelve piglets underwent temporary occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hypoxemia. Resuscitation was started when cerebral [phosphocreatine (PCr)]/[inorganic phosphate (Pi)], as determined by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, had fallen virtually to zero, and nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) had fallen below a third of baseline. The piglets were randomized to receive, blind, either: 1) three i.v. infusions of 12.5% MgSO4 heptahydrate solution: 400 mg.kg-1 MgSO4.7H2O starting 1 h after resuscitation, and 200 mg.kg-1 12 and 24 h later (n = 6); or 2) three infusions of placebo, 0.9% NaCl (n = 6). Phosphorus and proton spectroscopy were continued until 48 h after resuscitation, and values were compared between the two groups. Mean plasma magnesium levels, 1 h after each of the three doses of MgSO4, were 2.1, 2.0, and 1.9 mmol.L-1, respectively. The severity of the primary insult, determined by the time-integral of depletion of cerebral [NTP]/[exchangeable phosphate pool (EPP)], was similar in the MgSO4-treated and placebo groups. After resuscitation, there was no difference in the progression or severity of delayed energy failure between the two groups, as judged by cerebral [PCr]/[Pi], [NTP]/[EPP], or lactate/creatine and N-acetylaspartate/creatine peak-area ratios. We conclude that MgSO4 did not decrease the severity of delayed cerebral energy failure.
Pediatric Research 04/1997; 41(3):443-7. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the brains of normal infants demonstrated lower lactate (Lac)/choline (Cho), Lac/creatine (Cr), and Lac/ N-acetylaspartate (Naa) peak-area ratios in the thalamic region (predominantly gray matter) compared with occipitoparietal (mainly unmyelinated white matter) values. In the present study, thalamic Cho, Cr, and Naa concentrations between 32-42 weeks' gestational plus postnatal age were greater than occipito-parietal: 4.6 +/- 0.8 (mean +/- SE), 10.5 +/- 2.0, and 9.0 +/- 0.7 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6, 5.8 +/- 1.5, and 3.4 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg wet weight, respectively: Lac concentrations were similar, 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 3.3 +/- 1.3 mmol/kg wet weight, respectively. In the thalamic region, Cho and Naa T2s increased, and Cho and Lac concentrations decreased, during development. Lower thalamic Lac peak-area ratios are principally due to higher thalamic concentrations of Cho, Cr, and Naa rather than less Lac. The high thalamic Cho concentration may relate to active myelination; the high thalamic Naa concentration may be due to advanced gray-matter development including active myelination. Lac concentration is higher in neonatal than in adult brain.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 01/1997; 36(6):878-86. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gradient localized spectroscopy techniques suffer from a well documented spatial localization error caused by the difference in chemical shifts between resonances. This results in the acquisition of spectra from partially overlapping spatial regions of the sample, with each resonance representing a different region. The image-selected in vivo spectroscopy technique uses hyperbolic secant inversion pulses, where the main limitation in reducing this error is in the RF power available for application of the selective RF pulse. This spatial localization error may be dramatically reduced by increasing, and temporally shaping, the gradient pulse during slice-selective spin inversion. The performance of these RF pulses have been experimentally verified.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 11/1996; 36(4):562-6. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were 1) to define normal perinatal maturational changes in proton metabolite peak-area ratios in two regions of the neonatal brain, the thalamic and occipitoparietal regions, and 2) to investigate abnormalities of these ratios after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. Fifty-four infants were studied: 35 normal control infants at 31-42 wk of gestational plus postnatal age, and 19 "asphyxiated" infants suspected of cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. Proton spectra were collected at 2.4 tesla from (2 cm)3 voxels using the point-resolved spectroscopy technique with a 270-ms echo time. Lactate was detected in all infants studied. In the normal infants, lactate relative to N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline and creatine was significantly greater in the occipitoparietal region than in the thalamus, and fell with increasing maturity in both regions, whereas NAA/ choline increased. The 19 asphyxiated infants were studied on a total of 34 occasions during the 1st wk of life (median age 1.8 d), at gestational plus postnatal ages of 27-41 wk. Maximum lactate/NAA was above 95% confidence limits for the control data in one or both regions in 11 of the 19 infants. Minimum NAA/choline was below 95% confidence limits in only one asphyxiated infants, who was later found to have congenital hypothyroidism. SD scores for lactate, relative to NAA, choline, and creatine, were higher in both regions in the asphyxiated infants compared with the normal infants, particularly in the thalamus. Early results of 1-y follow-up examinations indicate that raised lactate/NAA carries a poor long-term prognosis.
Pediatric Research 08/1996; 40(1):6-14. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for noninvasive, in vivo quantitation of cerebral phosphorus (31P) metabolites is described. The technique employs point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) to obtain both 31P-metabolite and proton (1H) water spectra: brain water is used as an internal concentration reference. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2s) of cerebral 31P metabolites are much longer than the minimum echo time (TE) usable on a spectrometer equipped with actively shielded gradient coils. With short-TE (approximately 10 ms) 31P PRESS, T2 relaxation is minimal and phase modulation of the nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) multiplets can be accounted for 1H water spectra were acquired using several TEs so that extra- and intracellular water signals could be separated from that due to cerebrospinal fluid. Prior calibration of the 31P and 1H spectrometer channels and an assumed brain-water concentration enabled estimations of metabolite concentrations. Using this method, mean 31P metabolite concentrations in the brains of eight normal infants of gestational plus postnatal age 34 to 39 wk were: phosphomonoester (PME) 5.6 (SD 0.9); inorganic phosphate 1.4 (0.4); mobile phosphodiester 2.3 (0.6); phosphocreatine 2.9 (0.3); nucleotide triphosphate 2.8 (0.6); and total mobile phosphate 21.4 (2.8) mmol/kg wet.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/1996; 14(3):293-304. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severely birth-asphyxiated human infants develop delayed ("secondary") cerebral energy failure, which carries a poor prognosis, during the first few days of life. This study tested the hypothesis that mild hypothermia after severe transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia decreases the severity of delayed energy failure in the newborn piglet. Six piglets underwent temporary occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hypoxemia. Resuscitation was started when cerebral [phosphocreatine (PCr)]/[inorganic phosphate (Pi)] as determined by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy had fallen almost to zero and [nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)]/[exchangeable phosphate pool (EPP)] had fallen below about 30% of baseline. Rectal and tympanic temperatures were then reduced to 35 degrees C for 12 h after which normothermia (38.5 degrees C) was resumed. Spectroscopy results over the next 64 h were compared with previously established data from 12 piglets similarly subjected to transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, but maintained normothermic, and six sham-operated controls. The mean severity of the primary insult (judged by the time integral of depletion of [NTP]/[EPP]) was similar in the hypothermic and normothermic groups. In the normothermic group, [PCr]/[Pi] and [NTP]/[EPP] recovered after the acute insult and then fell again. Minimum values for these variables observed between 24 and 48 h were significantly higher in the hypothermic group and not significantly different from the control values (p < 0.05, analysis of variance). A large reduction in secondary energy failure relative to the extent of the primary insult was shown and no further fall in either [PCr]/[Pi] or [NTP]/[EPP] took place up to 64 h in the hypothermic piglets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Pediatric Research 06/1995; 37(5):667-70. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorous (31P) spectra from the brains of severely birth-asphyxiated human infants are commonly normal on the first day of life. Later, cerebral energy failure develops, which carries a serious prognosis. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that this delayed ("secondary") energy failure could be reproduced in the newborn piglet after a severe acute reversed cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult. Twelve piglets were subjected to temporary occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hypoxemia [mean arterial PO2 3.1 (SD 0.6) kPa]. Mean cerebral phosphocreatine concentration [PCr]/inorganic orthophosphate concentration [Pi] decreased from 1.40 (SD 0.29) to 0.01 (SD 0.02), and nucleotide triphosphate concentration [NTP]/exchangeable phosphate pool concentration [EPP] decreased from 0.19 (SD 0.02) to 0.06 (SD 0.04) (p < 0.001 for each decrease). On reperfusion and reoxygenation of the brain, mean [PCr]/[Pi] and [NTP]/[EPP] returned to baseline. Observations continuing for the next 48 h showed that [PCr]/[Pi] again decreased, in spite of normal arterial PO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose, to 0.62 (SD 0.61) at 24 h (p < 0.01) and 0.49 (SD 0.37) at 48 h (p < 0.001). [NTP]/[EPP] also decreased, but to a lesser degree. Intracellular pH remained unchanged. These findings appeared identical with those seen in birth-asphyxiated human infants. No changes in cerebral metabolite concentrations took place in six control piglets. The severity of secondary energy failure, as judged by the lowest [PCr]/[Pi] recorded at 24-48 h, was directly related to the extent of acute energy depletion, obtained as the time integral of reduction in [NTP]/[EPP] (p < 0.0001). This animal model of secondary energy failure may prove useful for testing cerebroprotective strategies.
Pediatric Research 01/1995; 36(6):699-706. · 2.67 Impact Factor