[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cardiovascular function in response to exercise in patients after atrial correction of transposition of the great arteries (TGA).
Cardiac function at rest and during submaximal exercise was assessed with MRI in 27 patients with TGA (mean (SD) age 26 (5) years) late (23 (2) years) after atrial correction and in 14 control participants (25 (5) years old).
At rest, only right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients than in controls (56 (7)% v 65 (7)%, p < 0.05). In response to exercise, increases in right ventricular end diastolic (155 (55) ml to 163 (57) ml, p < 0.05) and right ventricular end systolic volumes (70 (34) ml to 75 (36) ml, p < 0.05) were observed in patients. Furthermore, right and left ventricular stroke volumes and ejection fraction did not increase significantly in patients. Changes in right ventricular ejection fraction with exercise correlated with diminished exercise capacity (r = 0.43, p < 0.05).
In patients with atrially corrected TGA, MRI showed an abnormal response to exercise of both systemic right and left ventricles. Exercise MRI provides a tool for close monitoring of cardiovascular function in these patients, who are at risk for late death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate in an animal model the potential for clinical use of a new rapid clearance blood pool contrast agent to improve free-breathing and breath-hold magnetic resonance (MR) coronary angiography.
Free-breathing and breath-hold MR coronary angiography were performed in a pig model (n = 9) (a) without use of a contrast agent; (b) with P792 (Guerbet Research, Aulnay Sous Bois, France), a monodisperse monogadolinated macromolecular compound that acts as a blood pool contrast agent with rapid clearance properties; and (c) with an extravascular gadolinium-based contrast agent. This resulted in six imaging options, which were compared in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio, and vessel length measurements by using the Student t test.
Use of P792 improved CNR and visible vessel length significantly with both MR respiratory motion correction approaches, as compared with nonenhanced MR imaging (P <.05). CNR was improved by 76% (from 5.0 to 8.6) with the free-breathing approach and by 34% (from 6.2 to 8.2) with the breath-hold approach. Visible vessel length was increased by 27% (from 79.7 to 99.2 mm) with the free-breathing approach and by 90% (from 48.2 to 86.5 mm) with the breath-hold approach. The P792-enhanced free-breathing approach allowed more distal visualization of the coronary arteries than did the P792-enhanced breath-hold approach (P <.05). Use of the extravascular contrast agent did not improve image quality significantly when compared with that of nonenhanced MR images.
Use of P792 improves coronary artery MR imaging in conjunction with free-breathing and breath-hold approaches.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potential noninvasive diagnostic tool to detect coronary artery bypass graft stenosis, but its value in clinical practice remains to be established. We investigated the value of MRI in detecting stenotic grafts, including recipient vessels.
We screened for inclusion 173 consecutive patients who were scheduled for coronary angiography because of recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We studied 69 eligible patients with 166 grafts (81 single vein, 44 sequential vein, and 41 arterial grafts). MRI with baseline and stress flow mapping was performed. Both scans were successful in 80% of grafts. Grafts were divided into groups with stenosis > or =50% (n=72) and > or =70% (n=48) in the graft or recipient vessels. Marginal logistic regression was used to predict the probability for the presence of stenosis per graft type using multiple MRI variables. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Sensitivity (95% confidence interval)/specificity (95% confidence interval) in detecting single vein grafts with stenosis > or =50% and > or =70% were 94% (86 to 100)/63% (48 to 79) and 96% (87 to 100)/92% (84 to 100), respectively.
MRI with flow mapping is useful for identifying grafts and recipient vessels with flow-limiting stenosis. Flow scans could be obtained in 80% of the grafts. This proof-of-concept study suggests that noninvasive MRI detection of stenotic grafts in patients who present with recurrent chest pain after CABG may be useful in selecting those in need of an invasive procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In six asymptomatic patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot and nine healthy control subjects, the authors assessed left ventricular (LV) function during recovery from supine bicycle exercise by performing fast magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping in the ascending aorta. Abnormal recovery of LV function after exercise was observed in the patients. MR flow mapping allows assessment of cardiac recovery after exercise.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peak systolic velocity (PSV) measurements of blood flow inside vascular stents allow reliable detection of in-stent re-stenosis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the feasibility of obtaining PSV measurements inside vascular stents made of Stainless Steel and Nitinol, using a velocity encoded MR technique.
In a flow phantom, stents of Stainless Steel and Nitinol were studied. The phantom was integrated into a closed-tubing circuit driven by a MR dedicated pulsatile flow pump. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5 T system. The PSV in the tube without stent was used as the gold standard to determine the accuracy and the variability (paired t-test and Pittman's test) of the PSV measurements inside the stents.
PSV values inside the stents showed percentual difference in mean of -15 to 21% (P < 0.05) at a pump setting of 10 and 20 ml/s.
PSV measurements can be accurately obtained inside stents made of Stainless Steel and Nitinol. MR-velocity measurements may be used in patients to non-invasively evaluate stent patency and in-stent re-stenosis.
MAGMA Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics Biology and Medicine 11/2002; 15(1-3):52-7. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurements of gastric volume and motility with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were compared with simultaneously performed measurements with a barostat in six healthy volunteers. Three-dimensional volume and two-dimensional dynamic MR images and barostat measurements were obtained at rest. Alterations in gastric volume and motility were induced by means of infusion of glucagon and erythromycin, respectively. There is strong evidence to have the opinion that MR imaging is as accurate as barostat measurement in determining changes in gastric volume, and it yields additional information about gastric contractions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate reproducibility of total cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (pcMRI).
We repeated total CBF measurements in 15 healthy volunteers with and without cardiac triggering, and with and without repositioning. In eight volunteers measurements were performed at two different occasions. In addition, measurement of flow in a phantom was performed to validate MR measurements.
A difference of 40.4 ml/minute was found between CBF measurements performed with and without triggering (P < 0.05). For repeated triggered measurements, the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.1%, and for nontriggered measurements 10.3%. For repeated measurements with repositioning, the CV was 7.1% with and 11.2% without triggering. Repeated measurements at different occasions showed a CV of 8.8%. Comparing measured with real flow in the phantom, the triggered differed 4.9% and the nontriggered 8.3%.
The findings of this study demonstrate that pcMRI is a reliable method to measure total CBF in terms of both accuracy and reproducibility.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 07/2002; 16(1):1-5. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the potential of perfusion-corrected diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing soft-tissue tumors.
Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in 23 histologically proven soft-tissue masses using a diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence with diffusion gradient strengths yielding five b-values (0-701 seconds/mm(2)). True diffusion coefficients and perfusion fractions were estimated and compared with apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs).
ADC values of all tumors, subcutaneous fat, and muscle were significantly higher than true diffusion coefficients, indicating a contribution of perfusion to the ADC. True diffusion coefficients of malignant tumors (1.08 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second) were significantly lower than those of benign masses (1.71 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second), whereas ADC values between these groups were not significantly different.
Perfusion-corrected diffusion-weighted MRI has potential in differentiating benign from malignant soft-tissue masses.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2002; 15(3):302-7. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the responses of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and biventricular function to submaximal exercise by using a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exercise protocol with young adult patients who underwent tetralogy of Fallot repair at a young age.
Fifteen patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (mean age, 17.5 years +/- 2.5 [SD]) underwent MR imaging at rest and during exercise for the evaluation of PR and biventricular function. Results were compared with findings from 16 control subjects (mean age, 17.5 years +/- 2.3). Mean age at tetralogy of Fallot repair was 2.1 years +/- 1.6, and mean follow-up time after repair was 15.4 years +/- 2.6. Exercise level at MR imaging was calculated individually and corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake. The parameters of cardiac function obtained at rest and during exercise were compared by using a paired t test. An unpaired t test was used to compare parameters of cardiac function between patients and control subjects.
PR decreased during exercise (from 27 mL/m(2) +/- 17 to 23 mL/m(2) +/- 15; P =.012). At rest, right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction was normal (>47%) in 80% of patients. RV response to exercise in the patient group was abnormal compared with response in the control group, as demonstrated by an increase in RV end-diastolic volume index (132 mL/m(2) +/- 36 to 137 mL/m(2) +/- 38; P =.041) and no significant change in end-systolic volume index or ejection fraction. In only one patient, RV ejection fraction increased by more than 5%. Left ventricular response was not different between patients and control subjects.
MR imaging is well suited to assess cardiac response to exercise, and findings revealed a decrease in PR and an abnormal RV response to exercise in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The application of previous magnetic resonance (MR) angiography techniques has enabled noninvasive differentiation between patent and occluded coronary artery bypass grafts. However, the detection of graft stenosis remains difficult. The purpose of our study was to determine the accuracy of high-resolution navigator-gated 3-dimensional (3-D) MR angiography in detecting vein graft disease. Methods and Results- MR angiography was performed in addition to coronary angiography with quantitative coronary analysis in 56 vein grafts from 38 patients (mean age 66.6+/-9.3 years), who presented with recurrent chest pain after bypass surgery. Eighteen grafts showed a luminal stenosis >/=50%, 11 grafts a stenosis >/=70%, and 6 grafts were occluded. All MR angiograms were evaluated independently by 2 blinded observers, who scored the presence of graft occlusion and graft stenosis >/=50% and >/=70% with a confidence level of 1 to 10. MR image quality was judged as insufficient in 6 grafts and these were excluded. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.89 and 0.89 for identifying graft occlusion, 0.81 and 0.87 for stenosis >/=50%, and 0.82 and 0.79 for stenosis >/=70% for the 2 observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement in assessing graft occlusion and stenosis >/=50% and >/=70% was 94% (kappa=0.74, r=0.81), 72% (kappa=0.40, r=0.66), and 82% (kappa=0.53, r=0.72), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution navigator-gated 3-D MR angiography allows not only good differentiation between patent and occluded vein grafts but also the assessment of vein graft disease with a fair diagnostic accuracy. This approach offers perspective as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for patients who present with recurrent chest pain after vein graft surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate fast magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping with intravascular Doppler flow measurements in vitro and in patients with nonstenotic and stenotic coronary artery bypass grafts.
MR and Doppler flow measurements were performed in a small-diameter flow phantom with physiologic flow conditions and at baseline and during adenosine stress in 27 grafts in 23 patients, who were scheduled for cardiac catheterization. At invasive analysis, the grafts were divided into those with stenosis of less than 50% (nonstenotic) and those with stenosis greater than or equal to 50% (stenotic). In vitro velocity values and velocity values in nonstenotic and stenotic grafts were compared with linear regression analysis, and the in vitro interstudy variability was determined.
Excellent correlations in average peak velocity (r = 0.99, P <.001) and diastolic peak velocity (r = 0.99, P <.001) were demonstrated in vitro between MR and Doppler flow measurements, with less than 5% interstudy variability. MR and Doppler flow measurements revealed good correlations in peak velocity and velocity reserve both in nonstenotic (n = 20) (average peak velocity: r = 0.81, P <.001; diastolic peak velocity: r = 0.83, P <.001; velocity reserve: r = 0.56, P =.010) and stenotic (n = 7) (average peak velocity: r = 0.83, P <.001; diastolic peak velocity: r = 0.78, P =.001; velocity reserve: r = 0.70, P =.078) grafts.
Fast MR flow mapping provides noninvasive measures of peak velocity and velocity reserve, which closely correlate with Doppler values both in vitro and in nonstenotic and stenotic grafts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After atrial correction of transposition of the great arteries (TGA), dysfunction of the systemic right ventricle at rest and during exercise has been reported. Information on changes in systemic right ventricular function during recovery from exercise is lacking. This study evaluates cardiac recovery from supine exercise using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with asymptomatic TGA after atrial correction. Flow in the ascending aorta, representing stroke volume of the systemic ventricle, was assessed with MR flow mapping in 10 asymptomatic patients with atrially corrected TGA and in 12 controls at rest during exercise and an 8-minute recovery period. In response to exercise, the patients had a smaller increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output than did controls. After exercise, no significant difference in halftime of heart rate recovery was observed (patients, 48 +/- 7 seconds; controls, 39 +/- 4 seconds [p >0.05]). In the patients, the time course of stroke volume recovery was significantly different (p <0.001). Stroke volume in the patients, as a percent difference from rest, remained significantly elevated, from 2.5 minutes (+16 +/- 5% vs +7 +/- 6%; p <0.05) to 8 minutes (+4 +/- 7% vs -3 +/- 5%; p <0.05) after exercise. Subsequently, cardiac output remained significantly elevated, from 4.5 minutes (+27 +/- 13% vs +15 +/- 11%; p <0.05) to 7 minutes (+22 +/- 11% vs +12 +/- 12%; p <0.05) after exercise. We conclude that heart rate recovery is within normal limits in patients with atrially corrected TGA. Furthermore, cardiac recovery from exercise, assessed with MR flow mapping, is prolonged in patients with asymptomatic TGA after atrial correction. Abnormal recovery may reflect dysfunction of the systemic right ventricle and an altered metabolic response to exercise.
The American Journal of Cardiology 12/2001; 88(9):1011-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous assessment of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) response to exercise is limited with the current imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are now under development that allow near real-time evaluation of biventricular function under physical stress. This approach may open new avenues to study heart function in response to exercise in health and disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate biventricular response to supine physical exercise using ultrafast MRI. Biventricular volumes and function were examined in 16 healthy volunteers (mean age 18 +/- 2 years) using an ultrafast MRI sequence at rest and during an exercise protocol on a MRI compatible bicycle ergometer. Exercise level was individualized at the workload corresponding to 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake. All subjects completed the exercise MRI examination, allowing functional evaluation. Stroke volume of both ventricles increased from rest to exercise (left ventricle, 89 +/- 14 ml vs 102 +/- 19 ml, p < 0.05; right ventricle, 88 +/- 14 ml vs 101 +/- 16 ml, p < 0.05). Ejection fraction also increased in both ventricles from rest to exercise (left ventricle, 63 +/- 6% vs 74 +/- 6%, p < 0.05; right ventricle, 61 +/- 6% vs 70 +/- 6%, p < 0.05). End-systolic volume of the left and right ventricles decreased from rest to exercise (left ventricle, -33 +/- 12%, p < 0.05; right ventricle, -25 +/- 12%, p < 0.05), whereas LV and RV end-diastolic volumes remained unchanged. The results fit well with current concepts of cardiac physiology, and therefore we conclude that ergometer-induced exercise MRI is a valid approach to assess physiologic changes in LV and RV function simultaneously.
The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2001; 87(5):601-5. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate a recently developed fast high-temporal-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) flow sequence and use it to assess coronary artery bypass graft function during pharmacologic stress.
Aortic and internal mammary artery flow was measured in 11 healthy volunteers by using conventional cine gradient-echo imaging as a reference standard method and turbo-field echo-planar imaging (TFEPI). By using TFEPI, breath-hold flow mapping with a spatial and temporal resolution of 0.8 mm(2) and 23 msec, respectively, can be performed. This sequence was applied in 20 angiographically normal grafts, and total blood flow at rest and during adenosine infusion (140 microgram/kg/min) was measured.
Good agreement in aortic and internal mammary artery flow values between conventional fast-field echo and TFEPI techniques was found. The mean bypass graft total flow (+/- SD), as assessed with TFEPI, increased from 30.8 mL/min +/- 13.5 to 76.7 mL/min +/- 36.5 (P <.05) to yield a flow reserve of 2.7. Furthermore, this sequence revealed a difference in total flow between single and sequential grafts at rest (25.4 mL/min vs 40.9 mL/min; P <.05) and during stress (65.2 mL/min vs 98.3 mL/min; P <.05).
Breath-hold TFEPI provides fast accurate flow measurements with high temporal resolution and allows motion-compensated flow quantification in multiple coronary artery bypass grafts during one 6-minute adenosine infusion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease has great potential impact on patient management, because a number of aspects of ischemic heart disease can be evaluated in one imaging session. High resolution coronary magnetic resonance angiography is currently available, although several technical improvements are awaited to make the technique routinely applicable. A major advance will probably include the availability of magnetic resonance blood pool contrast agents to improve vessel visualization. Contrast media, in combination with either first pass or delayed myocardial scanning, will also play an important role in myocardial perfusion imaging. Functional magnetic resonance assessment of regional and global ventricular function is currently a well-established technique and is considered a new gold standard, which may impact on routine cardiology practice. This review summarizes some of the recent magnetic resonance developments for evaluating various aspects of ischemic heart disease, including magnetic resonance coronary angiography, flow imaging, and imaging of myocardial perfusion and function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and flow mapping have the potential to become a major noninvasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of coronary artery bypass graft morphology and function. Several MR sequences, such as conventional non-respiratory compensated methods, and phase contrast cine flow sequences have been reported for the evaluation of bypass graft patency. However the visualization of different graft segments and the detection of graft stenosis remains difficult. Recent advances in MR coronary angiography and flow mapping are volume coronary angiongraphy with targeted scans, navigator gated angiography, contrast-enhanced angiography, and breath-hold or navigator gated flow sequences. Future approaches, such as navigator gated fast MR techniques resulting in high-resolution angiography in combination with breath-hold MR flow mapping with high temporal resolution, might allow a comprehensive evaluation of bypass graft stenosis and function. This review article will address the major issues concerning the MR evaluation of bypass grafts.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/1999; 10(3):434-41. · 2.57 Impact Factor