[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and discomfort for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT). There are multiple causes of diarrhea in patients undergoing transplantation including antineoplastic chemotherapy, antimicrobials and infection, including Clostridium difficile as the most common pathogen involved. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) 1 week before and 30 days after APBSCT, and to identify risk factors for the development of CDAD including diagnosis. Two hundred and forty-two patients underwent APBSCT for multiple myeloma and lymphoma between October 1996 and October 2001 in two teaching hospitals. Diarrhea was reported in 157 (64.9%) subjects. One hundred and thirty-five out of the 157 subjects were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxin A. These subjects constitute the study group. The incidence of CDAD was 15%. Two thirds of the patients who developed CDAD had multiple myeloma and one third had lymphoma; this difference did not attain statistical significance. The use of cephalosporins (P = 0.03) and the use of intravenous vancomycin (P = 0.02) were the only identified risk factors associated with the development of CDAD. Patients treated with paclitaxel as part of the mobilization regimen had a lower incidence of CDAD than patients who received hematopoietic growth factor only (P = 0.01).
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2006; 37(5):517-21. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) antagonists represent a significant advance in the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting (N/V) from highly emetogenic chemotherapy. We sought to determine if any differences in efficacy or adverse effects exist between two such agents, ondansetron and granisetron, during conditioning therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients were randomized to receive either ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg intravenously every 8 h or granisetron 10 microg/kg intravenously daily. Additionally, all patients received scheduled dexamethasone and lorazepam. Prophylaxis was continued until 24 h after completion of chemotherapy. Nausea and distress were measured subjectively with visual analog scales and emetic episodes were quantified. Of the 110 randomized patients, 96 were evaluable for efficacy and safety. No significant differences in efficacy were observed between the ondansetron- and granisetron-treated patients, evaluated by comparing the degree of nausea and distress, number of emetic episodes and overall control of emesis. The adverse effects were also comparable and no patients were removed from study because of severe toxicities. This trial demonstrates that ondansetron and granisetron are equally effective at preventing acute N/V associated with conditioning therapy frequently used for HSCT. The agent of choice should be based on drug acquisition cost or preference.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 01/2005; 34(11):963-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor