[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in PCSK1 cause monogenic obesity. To assess the contribution of PCSK1 to polygenic obesity risk, we genotyped tag SNPs in a total of 13,659 individuals of European ancestry from eight independent case-control or family-based cohorts. The nonsynonymous variants rs6232, encoding N221D, and rs6234-rs6235, encoding the Q665E-S690T pair, were consistently associated with obesity in adults and children (P = 7.27 x 10(-8) and P = 2.31 x 10(-12), respectively). Functional analysis showed a significant impairment of the N221D-mutant PC1/3 protein catalytic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid pathway is involved in eating behavior and body weight regulation in both animals and humans. The association of a missense polymorphism (Pro129Thr) in FAAH gene with overweight/obesity has been recently questioned.
To evaluate the contribution of the FAAH gene variation in polygenic obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the French population, we investigated the entire FAAH locus. We selected and genotyped ten tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 635 obese children, 896 morbidly obese adults, 2,238 T2DM subjects and 1,340 control subjects, all of French European origin. Case control association tests were performed using logistic regression models.
Nominal evidences of association were observed for rs6429600, rs324419, rs324418, rs2295633, rs7520850 and risk for class III adult obesity (0,001 < p < 0.04). The rs324420 (Pro129Thr) was nominally associated with class III adult obesity (ORadditive = 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.93), p = 0.005; ORdominant = 0.76 (95% CI 0.63-0.92), p = 0.005), Pro129 being the obesity risk allele. These associations did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. There was no significant association between FAAH SNPs and risk for childhood obesity or T2DM.
Our results in 5,109 subjects suggest that FAAH Pro129Thr polymorphism may modestly contribute to class III adult obesity in the French population. Further validation is needed to precise the role of this gene variant in obesity susceptibility background.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from the interaction of environmental factors with a combination of genetic variants, most of which were hitherto unknown. A systematic search for these variants was recently made possible by the development of high-density arrays that permit the genotyping of hundreds of thousands of polymorphisms. We tested 392,935 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a French case-control cohort. Markers with the most significant difference in genotype frequencies between cases of type 2 diabetes and controls were fast-tracked for testing in a second cohort. This identified four loci containing variants that confer type 2 diabetes risk, in addition to confirming the known association with the TCF7L2 gene. These loci include a non-synonymous polymorphism in the zinc transporter SLC30A8, which is expressed exclusively in insulin-producing beta-cells, and two linkage disequilibrium blocks that contain genes potentially involved in beta-cell development or function (IDE-KIF11-HHEX and EXT2-ALX4). These associations explain a substantial portion of disease risk and constitute proof of principle for the genome-wide approach to the elucidation of complex genetic traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of obesity is influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Whereas changes in the environment appear to be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity, genetic factors interacting with environmental factors would contribute to explain obesity onset and severity.
To explore epidemiologic genotype-by-nutrient interactions in obesity.
A total of 42 polymorphisms of 26 candidate genes for obesity were genotyped in 549 adult obese women recruited from eight European centres in a case-only study. The nutritional variables assessed in this study were the dietary fibre intake (grams per day), the ratio of dietary polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (P:S ratio) and the percentage of energy derived from fat in the diet as calculated from a weighed three-day food record (%E). Under the assumption of genotype-nutrient independence in the population, the odds ratio calculated in a sample of obese women would indicate the existence of genotype-by-nutrient interactions, measured as deviations from the multiplicative effects of the genetic and the nutrient factors separately.
No new but confirmaty evidences for genotype-by-nutrient interactions in obesity were detected in this case-only study. The test of interaction between fibre intake and the -514 C > T polymorphism of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) yielded P-values of 0.01 across different statistical models. Likewise, the -11377G > C polymorphism of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and the -681 C > G polymorphism of the PPARG3 gene might interact with the percentage of energy derived from fat in the diet for the development of obesity (P-values in the range of 0.01-0.05 across different statistical models). The P-values were not adjusted for multiple testing, so these results should be considered with caution.
Although the use of obese-only samples is theoretically a useful approach to detect interactions, few genotype-by-nutrient interactions have been suggested in obese European women after the analysis of candidate polymorphisms and the selected nutrient variables. The most remarkable multiplicative interaction found in this study refers to the combination of the hepatic lipase gene polymorphism -514 C > T and fibre intake.
European Journal of Nutrition 12/2006; 45(8):454-62. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal studies have illustrated the importance of the expression in adipose tissue of the leptin receptor (OB-R), and of SOCS3 an inhibitor of the leptin signaling pathway, in body weight regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate in human adipose tissues of the same patients the OB-R isoforms and SOCS3 expression. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues were obtained from 6 lean and 18 morbidly obese women. The long isoform OB-Rb mRNA mediating leptin signaling, and SOCS3 mRNA are abundantly present in the subcutaneous fat of lean women, but are 90% and 70% decreased (P<0.0001) in obese women. In visceral fat from lean and obese women, both OB-Rb and SOCS3 mRNA are detected at very low levels. Subcutaneous/visceral ratios for OB-Ra the short OB-R isoform, OB-Rb, and SOCS3 mRNA abundance strongly correlate with the insulin sensitivity index, HOMA-% S, (r=0.49, P<0.0001, r=0.42, P=0.0002 and r=0.38, P=0.0002, respectively) in both lean and obese patients without type 2 diabetes. The near absence of OB-Rb mRNA and the similarly decreased SOCS3 expression in obese adipose tissue may reflect a defective leptin signaling pathway that could play a role in the impairment of insulin sensitivity associated with excess adiposity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2006; 348(4):1232-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study if genes with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity-related phenotypes influence weight loss (WL) in obese individuals treated by a hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet.
Randomised, parallel, two-arm, open-label multi-centre trial.
Eight clinical centres in seven European countries.
771 obese adult individuals.
10-wk dietary intervention to hypo-energetic (-600 kcal/d) diets with a targeted fat energy of 20%-25% or 40%-45%, completed in 648 participants.
WL during the 10 wk in relation to genotypes of 42 SNPs in 26 candidate genes, probably associated with hypothalamic regulation of appetite, efficiency of energy expenditure, regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function, lipid and glucose metabolism, or production of adipocytokines, determined in 642 participants.
Compared with the noncarriers of each of the SNPs, and after adjusting for gender, age, baseline weight and centre, heterozygotes showed WL differences that ranged from -0.6 to 0.8 kg, and homozygotes, from -0.7 to 3.1 kg. Genotype-dependent additional WL on low-fat diet ranged from 1.9 to -1.6 kg in heterozygotes, and from 3.8 kg to -2.1 kg in homozygotes relative to the noncarriers. Considering the multiple testing conducted, none of the associations was statistically significant.
Polymorphisms in a panel of obesity-related candidate genes play a minor role, if any, in modulating weight changes induced by a moderate hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both adverse intrauterine events and genetic background have been suggested to promote insulin resistance in subjects born small for gestational age (SGA). Among candidate genes that potentially influence both fetal growth and glucose metabolism is insulin. The potential effect of the insulin gene VNTR (INS) on birth weight has been controversial so far.
The present association study aimed at testing for the contribution of the INS VNTR locus on birth weight and on the metabolic profile of young adults born SGA (mean age, 22 yr). Two groups of subjects were selected on birth data: SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile; n = 735), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA; birth weight between 25th and 75th percentiles; n = 886). All subjects were genotyped for rs689 A/T single nucleotide polymorphism, in complete linkage disequilibrium with the INS VNTR classes I and III, respectively.
Class I INS frequencies were similar in the two groups (70% in AGA; 72% in SGA; P = 0.42). There was significant effect on mean birth weight in neither SGA (P = 0.99) nor AGA (P = 0.18). Although the INS VNTR locus did not associate with anomalies of insulin resistance indices in the AGA group, in the SGA group, INS VNTR class III allele was associated with higher insulin resistance (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index = 0.38 vs. 0.39; P = 0.05). Furthermore, there was evidence of an interaction between the SGA/AGA status and INS VNTR locus on insulin resistance indices (P = 0.01) in a multivariate analysis.
The INS VNTR locus does not associate in a major way with SGA in the French population. However, our data support an interaction between severe fetal growth restriction and INS VNTR locus, which were associated with insulin resistance in young adults born SGA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is a metabolic link between adipose tissue and insulin action, mediating part of obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified, and we investigated whether sequence variations in adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2) genes could contribute to the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes in a case-control study of 1,498 Caucasian subjects. We sequenced the putative functional regions of the two genes in 48 subjects and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the public database. Five SNPs in ADIPOR1 and 12 in ADIPOR2 were tested for association with type 2 diabetes. No SNP of ADIPOR1 showed association in any of the samples from the French population. In contrast, three SNPs of ADIPOR2 showed nominal evidence for association with type 2 diabetes before correction for multiple testing (odds ratio [OR] 1.29-1.37, P = 0.034-0.014); only rs767870, located in intron 6, was replicated in an additional diabetes dataset (n = 636, OR 1.29, P = 0.020) with significant allelic association from the overall meta-analysis of 2,876 subjects (adjusted OR 1.25 [95% CI 1.07-1.45], P = 0.0051). In conclusion, our data suggest a modest contribution of ADIPOR2 variants in diabetes risk in the French population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified a locus on chromosome 6q16.3-q24.2 (ref. 1) associated with childhood obesity that includes 2.4 Mb common to eight genome scans for type 2 diabetes (T2D) or obesity. Analysis of the gene ENPP1 (also called PC-1), a candidate for insulin resistance, in 6,147 subjects showed association between a three-allele risk haplotype (K121Q, IVS20delT-11 and A-->G+1044TGA; QdelTG) and childhood obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, P = 0.0006), morbid or moderate obesity in adults (OR = 1.50, P = 0.006 or OR = 1.37, P = 0.02, respectively) and T2D (OR = 1.56, P = 0.00002). The Genotype IBD Sharing Test suggested that this obesity-associated ENPP1 risk haplotype contributes to the observed chromosome 6q linkage with childhood obesity. The haplotype confers a higher risk of glucose intolerance and T2D to obese children and their parents and associates with increased serum levels of soluble ENPP1 protein in children. Expression of a long ENPP1 mRNA isoform, which includes the obesity-associated A-->G+1044TGA SNP, was specific for pancreatic islet beta cells, adipocytes and liver. These findings suggest that several variants of ENPP1 have a primary role in mediating insulin resistance and in the development of both obesity and T2D, suggesting that an underlying molecular mechanism is common to both conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low birth weight is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The fetal insulin hypothesis proposes that low birth weight might be mediated partly by genetic factors that impair insulin secretion/sensitivity during the fetal stage, as shown for glucokinase, the ATP-sensitive K+ channel subunit Kir6.2, and the small heterodimer partner genes. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene (GAD2) overexpression impairs insulin secretion in animals. Recently, polymorphisms in the GAD2 gene were associated with adult morbid obesity. In the present study, we investigated potential effects of the functional -243 A-->G polymorphism in the 5' promoter region of the GAD2 gene on fetal growth, insulin secretion, food intake, and risk of obesity in 635 French Caucasian severely obese children from three different medical centers. The case/control study confirmed the association between the GAD2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -243 A-->G and obesity (odds ratio, 1.25; P = 0.04). In addition, SNP -243 GG children carriers showed a 270 g lower birth weight and a 1.5 cm lower birth height compared with AA carriers (P = 0.009 and P = 0.013, respectively). The relation between birth weight and Z score of BMI was linear in AA carrier children (P = 0.00001) and quadratic (U-shaped curve) in AG/GG carrier children (P = 0.0009). G allele children carriers presented a trend toward lower insulinogenic index with 25% reduction of insulin secretion in response to glucose load compared with A carriers (P = 0.09). Eighteen percent of GG obese carriers vs. 5.7% of AA carriers reported binge eating phenotype (P = 0.04). These results confirm the association between GAD2-243 promoter SNP and the risk for obesity and suggest that GAD2 may be a polygenic component of the complex mechanisms linking birth weight to further risk for metabolic diseases, possibly involving the pleiotropic effect of insulin on fetal growth and later on feeding behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morbid obesity (BMI>40 kg/m(2)) affecting 0.5-5% of the adult population worldwide is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to elucidate the genetic bases of diabetes associated with obesity (diabesity), and to analyse the impact of corpulence on the effects of diabetes susceptibility genes.
We genotyped known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin-encoding adipocyte C1q and collagen-domain-containing (ACDC) gene (-11,391G>A, -11,377C>G, +45T>G and +276G>T), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) Pro12Ala SNP and ACDC exon 3 variants in 703 French morbidly obese subjects (BMI 47.6+/-7.4 kg/m(2)), 808 non-obese subjects (BMI<30 kg/m(2)) and 493 obese subjects (30< or =BMI<40 kg/m(2)).
Two 5'-ACDC SNPs -11,391G>A, -11,377C>G were associated with adiponectin levels (p=0.0003, p=0.008) and defined a "low-level" haplotype associated with decreased adiponectin levels (p=0.0002) and insulin sensitivity (p=0.01) and with a risk of type 2 diabetes that was twice as high (p=0.002). In contrast, the prevalence of the PPARG Pro12Ala was identical in diabetic and normoglycaemic morbidly obese subjects. The PPARG Pro12 allele only displayed a trend of association with type 2 diabetes in the non-obese group. ACDC exon 3 variants were associated with type 2 diabetes in the non-obese group only (odds ratio 7.85, p<0.0001). In contrast, the 5'-ACDC "low-level" haplotype was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese and morbidly obese subjects (odds ratio 1.73 and 1.92) but not in non-obese individuals.
These data clarify the contribution of the 5'-ACDC SNPs to the risk of diabesity. Their interaction with corpulence suggests for the first time a different genetic profile of type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese patients compared with in less obese individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population.
Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding.
CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positional candidate gene analysis of the obesity-linked chromosome Xq24 locus identified two obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the membrane amino acid transporter encoding the SLC6A14 (solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter], member 14) gene in the Finnish population. Since we previously reported a modest evidence of linkage for this region in French obese families, we analyzed these SNPs in 1,267 obese adult case and 649 lean control subjects. SNPs 20649 C>T (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.45; P = 0.013) and 22510 C>G (1.36, 1.16-1.59; P = 0.0001) were shown to be associated with obesity in the French population. In addition, pedigree disequilibrium test results showed a modest excess of both at-risk SNP alleles in affected offspring (P = 0.05 and P = 0.08 for SNPs 20649 C>T and 22510 C>G, respectively). The SNP 22510 C>G at-risk G allele was associated, both in adult women with moderate obesity and in 234 obese girls, with higher body fat and modified perception of hunger and satiety (0.003 < P < 0.06). In conclusion, these data confirm an association of the SLC6A14 gene locus with obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity has greatly risen worldwide. These changes have occurred among genetically stable populations, indicating that modifications of behavioral factors like dietary and physical activity must underlie the recent obesity epidemic. However, genetic factors undoubtedly have a great effect on individual predisposition, since 25 to 80 percent of the variation in body-mass index is heritable. Eating behavior, disordered eating behaviors and food preferences are in part heritable, and a family history of overeating is more frequent in obese individuals with binge-eating disorder than in the general population. The identification of genes causing both syndromic (Prader Willi) and rare monogenic (leptin / melanocortin pathways) forms of obesity, highlight the importance of genetic determinants in obesity. The common forms of obesity are, however, polygenic, and could modestly modulate behavior component. The recent identification of GAD2 gene variations modulating food intake and increasing the risk for severe obesity highlights the role of the GABA pathway in eating behavior. Other pathways involved in behavior, including Dopamine, serotonin and cannabinoid pathways are candidate for obese susceptibility genes. Modest individual effects of already identified at risk variants for abnormal food intake, may be amplified by gene-gene and geneenvironment interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene GAD2 encoding the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme (GAD65) is a positional candidate gene for obesity on Chromosome 10p11-12, a susceptibility locus for morbid obesity in four independent ethnic populations. GAD65 catalyzes the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which interacts with neuropeptide Y in the paraventricular nucleus to contribute to stimulate food intake. A case-control study (575 morbidly obese and 646 control subjects) analyzing GAD2 variants identified both a protective haplotype, including the most frequent alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) +61450 C>A and +83897 T>A (OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.681-0.972], p = 0.0049) and an at-risk SNP (-243 A>G) for morbid obesity (OR = 1.3, 95% CI [1.053-1.585], p = 0.014). Furthermore, familial-based analyses confirmed the association with the obesity of SNP +61450 C>A and +83897 T>A haplotype (chi(2) = 7.637, p = 0.02). In the murine insulinoma cell line betaTC3, the G at-risk allele of SNP -243 A>G increased six times GAD2 promoter activity (p < 0.0001) and induced a 6-fold higher affinity for nuclear extracts. The -243 A>G SNP was associated with higher hunger scores (p = 0.007) and disinhibition scores (p = 0.028), as assessed by the Stunkard Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. As GAD2 is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells, we analyzed GAD65 antibody level as a marker of beta-cell activity and of insulin secretion. In the control group, -243 A>G, +61450 C>A, and +83897 T>A SNPs were associated with lower GAD65 autoantibody levels (p values of 0.003, 0.047, and 0.006, respectively). SNP +83897 T>A was associated with lower fasting insulin and insulin secretion, as assessed by the HOMA-B% homeostasis model of beta-cell function (p = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively). These data support the hypothesis of the orexigenic effect of GABA in humans and of a contribution of genes involved in GABA metabolism in the modulation of food intake and in the development of morbid obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) controls the activity of glucokinase in liver but possibly also in some areas of the central nervous system, suggesting that it could play a role in body mass control. Its gene is located in a region (2p21-23) linked to serum leptin levels. Our goal was to investigate whether mutations in the GKRP gene were associated with obesity.
Mutations were sought in the GKRP gene of 57 patients from the families of the French genome-wide scan for obesity that contributed most to the positive LOD score with 2p21-23. The identified mutations were further sought in 720 unrelated obese individuals and 384 individuals of normal weight and their effect on the properties of recombinant GKRP were investigated.
The most frequent mutation (Pro446Leu) had a similar allele frequency in the obese (0.63) and normal weight (0.64) subjects and did not affect the properties of GKRP. Similarly, no effect on the properties of GKRP was observed with Arg590Tyr, found in 10 out of 720 obese subjects and in 2 out of 384 control subjects (p=0.18). Mutation Arg227Stop was found in one obese family and in 1 out of 384 control subjects and led to an insoluble protein. Mutation Arg518Gln, replacing a conserved residue, led to a marked decrease in the affinity of GKRP for both fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1-phosphate and to a destabilization of GKRP. However, this mutation did not co-segregate with obesity in the single family in which it was found.
Mutations that affect the properties of GKRP are found in the French population, but they do not seem to account for the linkage between the 2p23 locus and quantitative markers of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Islet-brain1 (IB1) or c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase interacting protein-1 (JIP-1), the product of the MAPK8IP1 gene, functions as a neuronal scaffold protein to allow signalling specificity. IB1/JIP-1 interacts with many cellular components including the reelin receptor ApoER2, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), kinesin and the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. Coexpression of IB1/JIP-1 with other components of the c-Jun NH2 terminal-kinase (JNK) pathway activates the JNK activity; conversely, selective disruption of IB1/JIP-1 in mice reduces the stress-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. We therefore hypothesized that IB1/JIP-1 is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). By immunocytochemistry, we first colocalized the presence of IB1/JIP-1 with JNK and phosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles. We next identified a -499A>G polymorphism in the 5' regulatory region of the MAPK8IP1 gene. In two separate French populations the -499A>G polymorphism of MAPK8IP1 was not associated with an increased risk to AD. However, when stratified on the +766C>T polymorphism of exon 3 of the LRP gene, the IB1/JIP-1 polymorphism was strongly associated with AD in subjects bearing the CC genotype in the LRP gene. The functional consequences of the -499A>G polymorphism of MAPK8IP1 was investigated in vitro. In neuronal cells, the G allele increased transcriptional activity and was associated with an enhanced binding activity. Taken together, these data indicate that the increased transcriptional activity in the presence of the G allele of MAPK8IP1 is a risk factor to the onset of in patients bearing the CC genotype of the LRP gene.