[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adiposity is highly heritable, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity in most humans are known. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with measures of adiposity.
We studied 355 genetic variants in 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in two groups of adult subjects: 1,982 unrelated European Americans living in the New York metropolitan area drawn from the extremes of their body mass index (BMI) distribution and 593 related Yup'ik Eskimos living in rural Alaska characterized for BMI, body composition, waist circumference, and skin fold thicknesses. Data were analyzed by using a mixed model in conjunction with a false discovery rate (FDR) procedure to correct for multiple testing.
After correcting for multiple testing, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ghrelin (GHRL) (rs35682 and rs35683) were associated with BMI in the New York European Americans. This association was not replicated in the Yup'ik participants. There was no evidence for gene x gene interactions among genes within the same molecular pathway after adjusting for multiple testing via FDR control procedure.
Genetic variation in GHRL may have a modest impact on BMI in European Americans.
Human Heredity 01/2009; 67(3):193-205. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbations in the functional integrity of the leptin axis are obvious candidates for mediation of altered adiposity. In a large number of genetic association studies in humans, the nonconservative LEPR Q223R allele has been inconsistently associated with adiposity. Subtle, long-term effects of such genetic variants can be obscured by effects of the environment and other confounders that render definitive inferences difficult to reach. We directly assessed the biological effects of this variant in 129P3/J mice segregating for the humanized Lepr allele at codon 223. No effects of this allele were detected on body weight, composition, or energy expenditure in animals fed diets of varying fat content over periods as long as 235 days. In vitro, Q223R did not affect leptin signaling as reflected by activation of STAT3. We conclude that Q223R is unlikely to play a significant role in regulation of human adiposity. This approach to vetting of human allelic variation might be more widely used.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the molecular mechanisms underlying GH secreting pituitary tumor formation are not well understood, mutations in the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G gene, GNAS, have been identified in up to 40%. As these mutations could play a role in tumor growth, we screened 60 GH secreting tumors for GNAS mutations and assessed whether mutation status correlated with their clinical and pathological characteristics. Tumor specimens obtained at surgery were snap frozen. Tumor DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to amplify regions containing 2 sites of recurrent activating somatic mutations in codons 201 and 227 in GNAS. Amplicons were bi-directionally sequenced and analyzed. GNAS mutations were present in 24/60 (40%) of tumors; these were arg201cys(n = 15), arg201ser(n = 2), arg201his(n = 2), gln227leu(n = 4), gln227arg(n = 1). Preoperative IGF-I levels (age-adjusted) were higher (p = 0.01), but GH levels were slightly higher (p = 0.18) in mutation positive vs. negative groups. Mutation positive tumors were somewhat smaller than negative tumors (p = 0.07). The proportion of tumors >2 cm was somewhat less among positive (8.3%) vs. negative tumors (25%) (p = 0.10). Neither mib proliferation index, the proportion of invasive tumors nor surgical remission rates differed in the groups. IGF-I normalization rate with somatostatin analog therapy was similar in positive (3 of 6) vs. negative (3 of 7) patients. GH secreting tumors harboring GNAS mutations had higher preoperative IGF-I levels, somewhat higher preoperative GH levels and tended to be smaller than tumors without mutations. Presence of a GNAS mutation did not predict a difference in a proliferation marker, surgical remission or response to somatostatin analog therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test for association of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) K121Q polymorphism with body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in a large sample of Caucasians and African-Americans by selectively genotyping individuals at the extremes of the phenotypic distribution.
Subsets comprising the extremes of the BMI distribution (10th-20th and above the 90th BMI percentile for Caucasians and between the 10th-30th and above the 80th percentile for African-Americans) from a group of 10,260 Caucasian and 2268 African-American adults participating in New York Cancer Project were studied.
Subjects were genotyped for the ENPP1 K121Q polymorphism by pyrosequencing and tested for association with BMI and diabetes by regression analysis.
Regression analysis with BMI as the dependent variable demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.02) of genotype at K121Q with BMI, with no significant race-by-genotype interaction (P = 0.30). Compared with Q/Q or Q/K individuals, the K/K individuals had a BMI approximately 1.3 kg/m2 higher, without effects of age, gender or race. By logistic regression analysis, the K121Q alleles had no significant effect on diabetes status (P = 0.37) in obese subjects.
In both Caucasians and African-Americans, the K121 polymorphism in ENPP1 was associated with increased BMI, but not with diabetes.
International Journal of Obesity 03/2006; 30(2):233-7. · 5.22 Impact Factor