Noriko Y. Yamasaki

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (246)296.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from deep Suzaku observations of the central region of the Perseus cluster. Bulbul et al. (2014) reported the detection by XMM-Newton instruments of an unidentified X-ray emission line at an energy around 3.5keV in spectra for the Perseus and other clusters. They argued for a possibility of the decay of sterile neutrino, a dark matter candidate. We examine Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) spectra of the Perseus cluster for evidence in the 3.5keV line and other possible dark matter features in the 2-6keV energy band. In order to search for and constrain a weak line feature with the XIS, observations of the Crab nebula are used to evaluate the system's effective area. We found no line feature at the claimed position with a systematic line flux upper limit at a half (1.5eV in line equivalent width) of the claimed best-fit value by Bulbul et al. We discuss this inconsistency in terms of instrumental calibration errors and modeling of continuum emission. Future prospects for high-energy resolution spectroscopy with ASTRO-H are presented.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu156 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), with a planned launch in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission is equipped with a suite of sensitive instruments with the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 3 keV and a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with the high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV of the micro-calorimeter, will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in scientific areas as diverse as the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behavior of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: This white paper addresses selected new (to X-ray astronomy) physics and data analysis issues that will impact ASTRO-H SWG observations as a result of its high-spectral-resolution X-ray microcalorimeter, the focussing hard X-ray optics and corresponding detectors, and the low background soft gamma-ray detector. We concentrate on issues of atomic and nuclear physics, including basic bound-bound and bound-free transitions as well as scattering and radiative transfer. The major topic categories include the physics of charge exchange, solar system X-ray sources, advanced spectral model, radiative transfer, and hard X-ray emission lines and sources.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the potential of high resolution imaging spectroscopy with the SXS on ASTRO-H to advance our understanding of the interstellar- and circumgalactic media of our own Galaxy, and other galaxies. Topics to be addressed range from absorption spectroscopy of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium, to observations to constrain the total mass-, metal-, and energy flow out of starburst galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a structural study of the hot ISM in the Galactic halo along the sight line toward the bright active galactic nucleus Mkn 421. The OVII and OVIII absorption lines were measured with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrograph aboard Chandra toward Mkn 421, and the OVII and OVIII emission lines were observed in the adjacent fields of the sight line with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer aboard Suzaku. We jointly analyzed the absorption and the emission spectra assuming exponential distributions of the gas temperature and density from the Galactic plane, and constrained the temperature and density at the plane to be $(3.2^{+0.6}_{-0.7})\times 10^6\,\mathrm{K}$ and $(1.2^{+0.5}_{-0.4})\times 10^{-3}\,\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$, with the scale heights of $1.6^{+1.7}_{-0.7}\,\mathrm{kpc}$ and $>2.8\,\mathrm{kpc}$ respectively. The results are consistent with those obtained in the LMC X-3 direction and the PKS 2155-304 direction, describing a thick disk-like hot gas with its height of a few kpc from the Galactic plane.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 08/2014; 66(4). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu058 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A four-pixel-array superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter with a mushroom-shaped absorber was developed for energy dispersive spectroscopy performed on a transmission electron microscope. The TES consists of a bilayer of Au/Ti with either a 120- or 50-nm thickness. The absorber is made from a Au layer and its stem is deposited in the center of the TES surface. A Ta \({_{2}}\) O \({_{5}}\) insulating layer of 100-nm thickness is inserted between the overhang region of the absorber and the TES surface. Two types of microcalorimeter were fabricated with differing absorber thicknesses of 0.5 and 5.0 \({\upmu }\) m. An energy resolution of 15 eV FWHM with 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained using the 0.5- \({\upmu }\) m-type microcalorimeter.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 08/2014; 176(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10909-014-1113-9 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) systems with baseband feedback for TES X-ray microcalorimeter arrays for use with the DIOS mission. To meet the requirement of limited cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures, we developed low-power and FDM-optmized dc-SQUIDs. To make maximum use of the SQUIDs, we also developed digital electronics using FPGA evaluation boards and ADC/DAC FMC daughter cards, and evaluated signal-to-noise ratios and gain-bandwidth products.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 08/2014; 176(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10909-013-1040-1 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed Ti/Au bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for future X-ray astrophysical satellite missions such as DIOS. One possible concern on the space use of TES microcalorimeters is its radiation tolerance. We have evaluated the performance of a Ti/Au bilayer (30/40 nm thick) TES microcalorimeter with 1.5 \(\upmu \) m thick Au absorber, before and after irradiation of 150 MeV proton beam with a total dose of 10 krad, corresponding to 10 years in the low Earth orbit. No significant changes on transition temperature, sensitivity, normal resistance, and critical current were observed. The energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-rays was 5.6 \(\pm \) 0.3 eV (FWHM) after the irradiation, which was slightly worse than 5.1 \(\pm \) 0.3 eV before the irradiation. We consider that our TES has sufficient radiation tolerance in orbit.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 08/2014; 176(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10909-013-1058-4 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) is a small satellite aiming for a launch around 2020 with JAXA's Epsilon rocket. Its main aim is a search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The superior energy resolution of TES microcalorimeters combined with a very wide field of view (30--50 arcmin diameter) will enable us to look into gas dynamics of cosmic plasmas in a wide range of spatial scales from Earth's magnetosphere to unvirialized regions of clusters of galaxies. Mechanical and thermal design of the spacecraft and development of the TES calorimeter system are described. We also consider revising the payload design to optimize the scientific capability allowed by the boundary conditions of the small mission.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in Abell~1246 to the virial radius ($r_{200}$) and further outside as observed with Suzaku. The ICM emission is clearly detected to $r_{200}$, and we derive profiles of electron temperature, density, entropy, and cluster mass based on the spectral analysis. The temperature shows variation from $\sim 7$ keV at the central region to $\sim 2.5$ keV around $r_{200}$. The total mass in $r_{500}$ is $(4.3 \pm 0.4) \times 10^{14}~M_{\odot}$, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. At $r>r_{500}$, the hydrostatic mass starts to decline and we, therefore, employ the total mass within $r_{200}$ based on weak-lens mass profile obtained from a sample of lower mass clusters. This yields the gas mass fraction at $r_{200}$ consistent with the cosmic baryon fraction, i.e. $\sim 17$%. The entropy profile indicates a flatter slope than that of the numerical simulation, particularly in $r>r_{500}$. These tendencies are similar to those of other clusters observed with Suzaku. We detect no significant ICM emission outside of $r_{200}$, and $2\sigma$ upper limits of redshifted OVII and OVIII line intensities are constrained to be less than 2.9 and $5.6\times 10^{-7}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ arcmin$^{-2}$, respectively. The OVII line upper limit indicates $n_{\rm H}< 4.7\times 10^{-5}$ cm$^{-3}$ ($Z/0.2~Z_{\odot}$)$^{-1/2}$ ($L/20~{\rm Mpc}$)$^{-1/2}$, which corresponds to an overdensity, $\delta<160$ ($Z/0.2~Z_{\odot}$)$^{-1/2}$ ($L/20~{\rm Mpc}$)$^{-1/2}$.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 06/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu061 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A dry 3He-4He dilution refrigerator (DR) was developed for a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter installed on a transmission electron microscope. This system could be used for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with an excellent energy resolution. A Gifford–McMahon (GM)-type mechanical cryocooler was used as a pre-cooler for the DR to ensure liquid helium was not consumed during operation. To reduce sound and vibrations generated by the GM cryocooler, the DR was separated from the GM cryocooler in a split system. The TES microcalorimeter was glued onto the top of a copper rod referred to as the snout, which was attached to the mixing chamber of the DR. The cooling power in the mixing chamber was 30 μW at 105 mK. The lowest temperature in the mixing chamber was 74 mK, and that at top of the snout was 86 mK. An energy resolution of 7.6 eV full width at half maximum for Si KαX-rays of 1.74 keV was obtained by TES microcalorimeter EDS performed with the transmission electron microscope.
    Cryogenics 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2014.03.002 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astro-H is the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite to be launched in 2015. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board Astro-H is a high energy resolution spectrometer utilizing an X-ray micro-calorimeter array, which is operated at 50 mK by the ADR with the 30 liter superfluid liquid helium. The mechanical cryocoolers, 4 K-class Joule Thomson (JT) cooler and 20 K-class double-staged Stirling (2ST) cooler, are key components of the SXS cooling system to extend the lifetime of LHe cryogen beyond 3 years as required. Higher reliability was therefore investigated with higher cooling capability based on the heritage of existing cryocoolers. As the task of assessing further reliability dealt with the pipe-choking phenomena by contaminant solidification of the on-orbit SMILES JT cryocooler, outgassing from materials and component parts used in the cryocoolers was measured quantitatively to verify the suppression of carbon dioxide gas by their storage process and predict the total accumulated carbon dioxide for long-term operation. A continuous running test to verify lifetime using the engineering model (EM) of the 4K-JT cooler is underway, having operated for a total of 720 days as of June 2013 and showing no remarkable change in cooling performance. During the current development phase, prototype models (PM) of the cryocoolers were installed to the test SXS dewar (EM) to verify the overall cooling performance from room temperature to 50 mK. During the EM dewar test, the requirement to reduce the transmitted vibration from the 2ST cooler compressor was recognized as mitigating the thermal instability of the SXS microcalorimeter at 50mK.
    Cryogenics 05/2014; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2014.04.022 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    Norio Sekiya, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Yoh Takei
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    ABSTRACT: The quantitative measurement of OVII line intensity is a powerful method for understanding the soft X-ray diffuse background. By systematically analyzing the OVII line intensity in 145 high-latitude Suzaku/XIS observations, the flux of OI fluorescent line in the XIS spectrum, contaminating the OVII line, is found to have an increasing trend with time especially after 2011. For these observations, the OVII line intensity would be overestimated unless taking into consideration the OI fluorescent line contamination. Since the OI line emission originates from solar X-rays, this increase suggests that incident solar X-rays at the OI fluorescence energy tend to be larger than the early phase of Suzaku observations (2005 - 2010).
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 02/2014; 66(2). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu007 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a promising approach to read out a large format transition-edge sensor (TES) array for future astrophysical missions. We constructed a four channel FDM readout system using baseband feedback in the MHz band. We demonstrated the principle of our FDM method with an actual TES array, a multiplexing SQUID and LC band-pass filters under 100 mK. The resonant frequencies of LC filters were consistent with the design value with an accuracy of better than 3 %. We successfully obtained X-ray pulses from two TESs simultaneously but the energy resolution was degraded to about 100 eV at 5.9 keV and crosstalk effects were observed. The origin of the crosstalk effects is investigated by modified setups. Based on comparative experiments and numerical calculations, we conclude that the non-linearity of the SQUID is the cause of some of the crosstalk effects. Unlike the regular crosstalk effect from the adjoining channels, the crosstalk effect due to non-linearity observed in this paper occurs in all channels. Solving these problems will help us to obtain FDM readout with sufficient energy resolution.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 01/2014; 176(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10909-014-1128-2 · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10948-014-2699-5 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from Suzaku observations of the Perseus galaxy cluster, which is relatively close, the brightest in the X-ray sky and a relaxed object with a cool core. A number of exposures of central regions and offset pointing with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer cover a region within radii of 20'-30'. The central data are used to evaluate the instrumental energy-scale calibration with accuracy confirmed to within around 300 km/s, by the spatial and temporal variation of the instruments. These deep and well-calibrated data are used to measure X-ray redshifts of the intracluster medium. A hint of gas bulk motion, with radial velocity of about -(150-300) km/s, relative to the main system was found at 2-4 arcmin (45-90kpc) west of the cluster center, where an X-ray excess and a cold front were found previously. No other velocity structure was discovered. Over spatial scales of 50-100kpc and within 200kpc radii of the center, the gas-radial-velocity variation is below 300 km/s, while over scales of 400 kpc within 600 kpc radii, the variation is below 600 km/s. These X-ray redshift distributions are compared spatially with those of optical member galaxies for the first time in galaxy clusters. Based on X-ray line widths gas turbulent velocities within these regions are also constrained within 1000-3000 km/s. These results of gas dynamics in the core and larger scales in association with cluster merger activities are discussed and future potential of high-energy resolution spectroscopy with ASTRO-H is considered.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 782(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/782/1/38 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were detected so far. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT~0.6-0.8 keV. Other three sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ~1 keV and ~4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as AGNs. All the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful mean to explore growing halos in a hierarchical structure undetected so far.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 783(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/137 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LiteBIRD is a next-generation satellite mission to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. On large angular scales the B-mode polarization of the CMB carries the imprint of primordial gravitational waves, and its precise measurement would provide a powerful probe of the epoch of inflation. The goal of LiteBIRD is to achieve a measurement of the characterizing tensor to scalar ratio $r$ to an uncertainty of $\delta r=0.001$. In order to achieve this goal we will employ a kilo-pixel superconducting detector array on a cryogenically cooled sub-Kelvin focal plane with an optical system at a temperature of 4~K. We are currently considering two detector array options; transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID). In this paper we give an overview of LiteBIRD and describe a TES-based polarimeter designed to achieve the target sensitivity of 2~$\mu$K$\cdot$arcmin over the frequency range 50 to 320~GHz.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent ASCA results on the distributions of METALLICITY and temperature are presented. Following the discovery of a large-scale gradient in the iron abundance in AWM7, Perseus cluster and A4059 also show very similar features. The close distribution of iron mass density with that of galaxies suggests that the metals are not significantly mixed or settled in the intracluster medium. The north-east and south regions of the Virgo cluster have been mapped with ASCA by more than 30 pointings. The energy spectrum shows a remarkable hardening in the region between M87 and M49. This feature is possibly related with the falling of M49 subcluster into the main M87 cluster.
    Advances in Space Research 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00807-8 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term time variabilities of the OVII (0.57 keV) emission in the soft X-ray diffuse background were studied using six Suzaku annual observations of blank sky towards the Lockman Hole made from 2006 to 2011. After time intervals in which the emission was enhanced on time scales of a few tens of ks were removed, the O VII intensity was found to be constant from 2006 to 2009 within the 90% statistical errors. The intensity in 2010 and 2011 was higher by 2-3 LU (photons/s/cm/sr) than the earlier values. The most plausible origin of the fast variable component is Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). The intensity increase is not positively correlated with the proton flux at the L1 point. Since all the observations were made in the same season of a year, the variation cannot be explained by parallax of the SWCX induced X-ray emission from the Heliosphere. We consider that it is related to the geometrical change of slow and fast solar wind structures associated with the 11 year solar activity. The observed variation was compared with that expected from the SWCX induced X-ray emission model.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 01/2013; DOI:10.1093/pasj/65.2.32 · 2.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
296.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
      • Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)
      Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1995–2013
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2010
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Physics
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Physics: Cavendish Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • Yamagata University
      • Faculty of Science
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
    • Iwate University
      • Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
      Morioka, Iwate, Japan