N Kimura

Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (18)22.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of feeding a low percentage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to yearling Holstein beef steers during the late stage of the fattening period on growth performance and carcass quality. Fifteen animals were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) feed plus a DDGS supplement equal to 10% of the total feed weight for 3 months (DDGS group). The other 15 animals were fed TMR with no DDGS (Control group). The vitamin E (VE) levels in the blood from the DDGS group showed a tendency to be higher in the DDGS group (P = 0.056). Blood urea nitrogen levels in the DDGS group were also higher (P < 0.05). The Beef Color Standard (BCS) number for the DDGS group was also higher than that for the Control group (P < 0.05). Forty-eight hours after cutting, the yellowness (b*) value for Longissimus muscle in the DDGS group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the redness (a*) value in the DDGS group tended to be higher than that in the Control group (P = 0.05). The study results show a potential for adding value to yearling beef by improving the ability to maintain meat color with an increase in VE content.
    Animal Science Journal 01/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the late stage of the fattening period of Holstein steers was studied in regard to the influence on meat quality. Sixteen Holstein steers approximately 18 months old were used in this study. Eight animals were fed commercial concentrated feed for the entire fattening period. The other eight animals were fed 15% DDGS in the concentrated feed for 3 months before slaughtering. The moisture, ether extract and crude protein from both groups was approximately the same. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA) value of storage for 7 days at 5°C from the animals fed DDGS showed a tendency to be lower (P = 0.059). The change in the TBA value during storage was also lower for the animals not fed DDGS (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the subcutaneous fat color between the two groups. The a*(measure of redness) and b*(measure of yellowness) of the M. longissimus from the animals fed DDGS showed a tendency to be lower (P = 0.051, 0.070). The fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus, subcutaneous and perirenal fat were not widely influenced by the feeding of DDGS. It is suggested that feeding 15% DDGS during the late stage of the fattening period for Holstein steers reduced the oxidation of the beef.
    Animal Science Journal 04/2012; 83(4):310-7. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is intimately related to adipose softness, melting point (MP) and flavor in beef. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a main gene involved in MUFA synthesis. Mature adipose tends to be highly saturated, whereas immature or maturing adipose is highly unsaturated when chronologically based, so the degree of non-saturation can be an index of adipose maturity. In this study, three different adipose tissues (coelomic (CL), perirenal (PR), and subcutaneous (SC)) from three beef breeds with differing slaughter ages (Japanese Black (29.5 months), Holstein (20.1 month), and F1 crossbreed (25.6 months)) were examined to: (i) determine adipose maturity level as indexed by MUFA %; and (ii) determine SCD and other lipogenic gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in relation to unsaturated fatty acid content. Fatty acid composition was significantly different between adipose tissues (P < 0.05). MUFA amount was high in the following order: SC > CL > PR. This pattern corresponded to SCD mRNA expression profile showing higher expression in SC than CL and PR. However, Japanese black cattle are an exception with CL adipose containing similar UFA % as SC adipose, yet having the lowest SCD mRNA expression level among all adipose tissues tested. Therefore, SCD mRNA expression and MUFA % appear to be directly related; however, differences in SCD mRNA expression among three adipose tissues may reflect differences in the fat development characteristics affected by chronological age of the cattle breeds.
    Animal Science Journal 10/2011; 82(5):689-97. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) on in vitro rumen fermentation by assessing pH, ammonia-N, total gas, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and DON degradation under the context of two different carbon sources (corn starch or cellulose). Fifty millilitre of ruminal fluid:buffer (1:1) was incubated for up to 6h with four possible treatments: corn starch 1.5g, corn starch 1.5g+DON at 40mg/kg dry matter (DM), cellulose 1.5g, and cellulose 1.5g+DON at 40mg/kg DM. Our results indicate that carbon source appears to markedly influence all rumen fermentative parameters (P
    Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2010; 162(3):144-148.
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    ABSTRACT: GPR39 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is thought to be involved in gastrointestinal and metabolic function. In this study, we cloned bovine GPR39 cDNA that encoded 462 amino acids showing high sequence homology to other mammalian GPR39 proteins. Real-time PCR showed expression of GPR39 mRNA in the liver, kidney, abomasums, small intestine, colon, rectum and uterus, with the highest level in the abomasums. Significant promoter activity was observed within the -2.3 kb 5'-upstream region of bovine GPR39 gene with human colon carcinoma-derived CACO-2 cells. These findings suggest that GPR39 may have important roles in gastrointestinal and metabolic functions in bovines as in other mammals.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 06/2009; 71(5):641-4. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) animal models have provided ample opportunity for investigating pathogenesis, as well as to evaluate novel treatment and prevention options for the disease. Because the domestic cat shares a similar environment with humans, it is also confronted with many similar risk factors for diabetes, such as physical inactivity and obesity. Obesity is a significant risk factor for diabetes in cats, and as such, the domestic cat may serve as an ideal model for investigating obesity induced insulin resistance. This study determined changes in insulin signaling genes within insulin sensitive tissues of obese felines. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to determine mRNA levels of three important insulin signaling genes which have been implicated with insulin resistance: insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2, and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) p85alpha. Obese cats had significantly lower IRS-2 and PI3-K p85alpha mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle as compared to control cats. This down regulation of insulin signaling genes in obese cats mirrors that of obese humans and rodents suffering from insulin resistance. Interestingly, preprandial blood tests indicated that our obese cats were no different from control cats with regards to glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, thus indicating that the obese cats used in our study had a moderate level of obesity. Therefore, insulin signaling gene alterations were occurring in insulin sensitive tissues of moderately obese felines before glucose intolerance was clinically evident. As such, the monitoring of key insulin signaling genes may have some important diagnostic value to determine the risk level and degree of obesity induced insulin resistance.
    Veterinary Research Communications 11/2008; 33(4):315-29. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma metabolite concentrations and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in plasma, peripheral leukocytes and liver of pregnant Romney ewes with restricted feeding were measured to assess those metabolites and enzymes as indicators for evaluating metabolic conditions in the ewes. The body weights and plasma lactate concentrations of the low-feeding ewes (about 1.0 times maintenance) were significantly lower than those of the high-feeding ewes (about 1.5 times maintenance). There were no significant differences in plasma protein, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, pyruvate and immunoreactive insulin concentrations and plasma and leukocyte enzyme activities between both groups. Hepatic malate dehydrogenase activities were significantly higher and hexokinase activities were significantly lower in the low-feeding ewes than in the high-feeding ewes. Restricted feeding could maintain pregnancy and some plasma metabolites and peripheral leukocyte enzymes may be useful indicators for evaluating metabolic changes in ewes.
    Research in Veterinary Science 09/2008; 85(1):17-21. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of metabolites and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism were measured in plasma of Korean and Japanese beef cattle, which were raised by the indoor feeding system programmed to feed larger amount of roughage in their growing periods and larger amount of concentrate diet in their finishing periods (Japanese feeding system), and grazing New Zealand beef cattle. By the Japanese beef grading system, Korean and Japanese beef cattle showed high beef quality score, average grade 3.3 and 3.6, respectively. The plasma free fatty acid and lactate concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in Korean beef cattle were significantly higher than those in Japanese beef cattle. The plasma lactate concentration in Korean beef cattle was 8.40 mmol/l, which was similar to the values observed in lactic acidosis. The higher activities of plasma LDH, MDH and AST may indicate slight liver damage by slightly acidotic conditions in Korean beef cattle. New Zealand beef cattle fed on pasture which they harvest by grazing showed significantly lower plasma glucose, cholesterol, lactate and IRI concentrations and enzyme activities than those in Korean and Japanese beef cattle fed on larger amount of concentrate diets. Plasma metabolite concentrations and energy metabolism-related enzyme activities may be good indicators for evaluating metabolic conditions of beef cattle raised by different feeding systems.
    Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 10/2007; 54(7):342-5. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Without Abstract
    Veterinary Research Communications 06/2007; 31(4):413-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of Agaricus mushroom meal on the energy metabolism in animal tissues; plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in plasma and peripheral leukocytes were measured in Japanese Black WagyuxHolstein F1 calves supplemented with Agaricus blazei Murill (A. blazei) extract in milk-replacer at the dose of 60g/head/day for 4 weeks. Activities of malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase in cytosol and glutamate dehydrogenase in mitochondria, and the malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase ratio in cytosol in peripheral leukocytes of calves with A. blazei were significantly higher than those in control calves without A. blazei. It was concluded that supplementation of Agaricus mushroom meal extract was effective in activation of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of calves.
    Research in Veterinary Science 03/2007; 82(1):7-10. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma metabolite and immunoreactive insulin concentrations and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes were measured in growing Holstein calves. A ratio of girth of abdomen divided by girth of thorax (A/T ratio) of calves was significantly elevated after weaning, and the A/T ratio maybe a good indicator to evaluate rumen development. Plasma glucose and free fatty acid concentrations were changed in calves accompanying change in feeding. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase with pyruvate as substrate (LDH-P) and hexokinase (HK) in cytosolic fractions of peripheral leukocytes decreased significantly after weaning the calves reflecting the change of energy source from milk replacer with high percentages of fat and glucose and lactose as absorbable carbohydrate to pelleted feed containing starch as less absorbable carbohydrate and roughage. Some peripheral leukocyte enzymes such as LDH and HK may be good indicators to evaluate changes in energy metabolism of growing calves.
    Research in Veterinary Science 09/2006; 81(1):19-23. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and isoenzyme patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in peripheral leukocytes and livers of Holstein dairy cows and Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. In dairy cow liver, activities of enzymes in glycolysis, malate-aspartate shuttle and lipogenesis were lower, but activities of glucose-6-phosphatase in gluconeogenesis were higher than those in mouse liver. Glucokinase activities were below detection limit in leukocytes and liver of the cows. Dairy cow leukocytes and liver showed the isoenzyme patterns with dominance of LDH-1, -2 and-3, whereas mouse leukocytes and liver showed that LDH-5 was dominant. The LDH isoenzyme patterns were very similar between leukocytes and liver in each animal species. Some enzymes in leukocytes may reflect those enzymes activities in liver and be a useful indicator for energy metabolism in animals.
    Veterinary Research Communications 02/2006; 30(1):29-38. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma metabolites and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations and enzyme activities of some types of peripheral leucocytes were measured to clarify one aspect of the differences in nutrient metabolism between dogs and cats. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acids and IRI between dogs and cats. Higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations were observed in feline plasma, and H/T ratio (HDL/total cholesterol concentrations) was significantly lower than that in canine plasma. The cytosolic activities of fructokinase (FK), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly higher and the activities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) were significantly lower in feline leucocytes than those in canine leucocytes. Higher activities of FK, PK and G6PD, which regulate the rate of biosynthesis of fatty acids, may reflect the different characteristics in nutrient metabolism in feline tissues from canine tissues.
    Research in Veterinary Science 03/2005; 78(1):21-4. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activities of the enzymes in the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured in peripheral leucocytes of spontaneous type 1 diabetic dogs and cats treated with insulin injections. In the diabetic dogs and cats, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were three- or fourfold greater than the control levels in spite of insulin injections and the activities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH), one of pivotal enzymes in the malate-aspartate shuttle, were remarkably lower than the controls. Depressed expression of cytosolic MDH mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis in the diabetic animals. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (M / L ratio) in leucocytes of the diabetic animals was significantly lower than that of normal control animals. The smaller M / L ratio appeared to reflect depression of energy metabolism in the diabetic animals. Intrinsically lower and further decreased MDH activities may be factors that induce insulin resistance observed in diabetic cats.
    Research in Veterinary Science 03/2005; 78(1):39-44. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations, some enzyme activities in plasma, and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes were measured in fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers fed on different diets at 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 months of age. The plasma IRI concentrations at 20 and 24 months of age were significantly higher than those at 8 months of age. Activities of hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cytosolic fractions, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), MDH and AST in mitochondrial fractions in peripheral leukocytes of steers at 24 months of age were significantly higher than those at 8 months. Increasing plasma insulin concentration was considered to induce acceleration of glucose utilization in leukocytes of fattening steers. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in leukocytes increased significantly in the fattening process and was considered to be a useful indicator for evaluating changes in energy metabolism in steers.
    Veterinary Research Communications 02/2005; 29(1):19-26. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • M Hosoya, A Inoue, N Kimura, T Arai
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride (TG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations in plasma and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in some types of peripheral leukocytes were measured in thoroughbred race horses before and after racing. Glucose, FFA, TG and IRI concentrations and enzyme activities did not change significantly in plasma. However, the activities of cytosolic hexokinase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), mitochondrial MDH and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in leukocytes of the horses after the races. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity (ML ratio) in leukocytes decreased significantly after racing, and the ratio may be a useful indicator to evaluate energy metabolism in race horses.
    Research in Veterinary Science 11/2004; 77(2):101-4. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acid (FFA) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in plasma and leukocytes were investigated in lactating Holstein cows (dairy cattle) and fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers (beef cattle). IRI concentrations and LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in the plasma of beef cattle were significantly higher than those in dairy cattle. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity in the leukocytes of beef cattle was significantly higher than that of dairy cattle. These findings might be associated with the different energy metabolism between dairy and beef cattle.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2003; 65(11):1241-3. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activities of the enzymes involved in the malate-aspartate shuttle and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the pattern of the isoenzymes of LDH were determined in plasma and peripheral leukocytes of lactating Holstein cows and thoroughbred riding horses as representative herbivorous animals. In the horse plasma, LDH activities were significantly lower and AST activities were significantly higher than those in the cow plasma. The specific activities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH), LDH and AST in the horse leukocytes were higher than those in the cows. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity (ML ratio) in the horse leukocytes was significantly lower than that in the cow leukocytes owing to significantly higher activities of LDH. The ML ratio was considered to reflect the difference in energy metabolism in leukocytes between cows and horses. The plasma LDH isoenzyme patterns of cow and horse showed the characteristic as herbivorous animals with dominance of LDH-1, -2 and -3. The LDH isoenzyme patterns with dominance of LDH-3 and -4 in the horse leukocytes were remarkably different from those in the cow leukocytes. There were significant differences in activities of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes, ML ratio and LDH isoenzyme patterns in the cytosolic fractions of leukocytes between the lactating cows and the riding horses.
    Research in Veterinary Science 09/2003; 75(1):15-9. · 1.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

90 Citations
22.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2003–2007
    • Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University
      • • Department of Animal Science
      • • Department of Veterinary Science
      • • Department of Veterinary Biochemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan