ABSTRACT: We report an autochthonous human case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in the Bordeaux area, southwestern France. The patient was a farmer who had severe encephalomyelitis. ELISA and neutralization assay of serum and cerebrospinal fluid established the diagnosis. This potential new endemic focus for TBE virus should be further investigated.
Emerging infectious diseases 08/2007; 13(7):1114-6. · 6.17 Impact Factor
American Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2005; 23(4):565-6. · 1.98 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe early signs at the onset of pneumonia occurring in the haematology ward which could be associated with a transfer to the ICU.
A 13-month preliminary prospective observational cohort study.
Department of haematology and (32-bed) medical intensive care unit (ICU).
Fifty-three of 302 patients hospitalised in the haematology ward who developed presumptive clinical evidence of pneumonia were enrolled.
At the onset of the clinical evidence of pneumonia (day 1), we compared variables between patients requiring an ICU admission and those who did not. Twenty-four patients (45%) required a transfer to the ICU. Factors associated with ICU admission were: numbers of involved quadrants: 2.3 vs 1, P=0.001 and oxygenation parameters (initial level of O(2) supplementation: 3.5 vs 0.9 l/min, P<0.05), the presence of hepatic failure (58% vs 10%, P<0.01), Gram-negative bacilli isolated in blood culture (7 vs 1, P=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, a decrease of 10% in the SaO(2) and the requirement of nasal supplementary O(2) at the onset of acute respiratory failure increased the risk of admission to MICU, respectively, by 18 and by 14. The overall 6-month mortality rate of the 53 patients was 28%.
Parameters of oxygenation and radiological score could be associated with this transfer on day 1 of the onset of pneumonia occurrence. A further study should evaluate an earlier selection of this type of patient, followed by an "early" admission to the MICU, in order to improve ICU outcome.
Intensive Care Medicine 05/2004; 30(5):965-71. · 5.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term effect of a program of rotating antibiotics on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and the susceptibilities of Gram-negative bacilli responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Prospective program for the surveillance of antibiotic susceptibilities of microorganisms responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Academic, university-based, medical intensive care unit (16 beds).
2,856 mechanically ventilated patients.
A new program of antibiotic use was introduced at the end of 1996 that involved the rotation of antibiotics in empirical and therapeutic use of the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The rotation concerned the beta-lactam and aminoglycoside classes, with a rotation interval of 1 month. The use of antibiotics was monitored monthly. No preference was given to any particular antibiotic. In a previous study, the period before the introduction of this protocol (1995-1996) was compared with the period 2 yrs after (1997-1998): The results indicated a decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, a lower incidence of potentially resistant Gram-negative bacilli, and increased sensitivities of Gram-negative bacilli, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. After 1998, we decided to continue a routine for this rotation. The long-term effect of this program was studied by comparing the incidence of Gram-negative bacilli responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia and their susceptibilities obtained in a third period: 1999-2001. The long-term effect (5 yrs) of such a strategy-2-yr protocol period (1997-1998) and 3-yr routine period (1999-2001)-could be evaluated.
During the 7-yr study period, 2,856 patients were mechanically ventilated for >48 hrs. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia remained significantly lower in period 3 (1999-2001): 23% (period 1, 1995-1996) vs. 15.7% (period 2, 1997-1998) vs. 16.3% (period 3, 1999-2001; p =.002). Late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred in 86.6% and 94% of cases, respectively, in periods 1 and 3 (p =.02). The decrease of the incidence of early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia was statistically significant during the 7-yr study period: 13% vs. 9% vs. 5.9% (p =.02). Combined with a higher incidence of late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia, the incidence of potentially resistant Gram-negative bacilli increased in period 3: 42.2% vs. 34.5% vs. 41.7% (nonsignificant), except for B. cepacia: 11.7% vs. 7.4% vs. 3.7% (p =.005). Nevertheless, the potential antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were more sensitive to most of the beta-lactams, especially piperacillin-tazobactam and cefepime.
Rotation of antibiotics could help to avoid ventilator-associated pneumonia. It could greatly improve the susceptibilities of the potentially antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacilli responsible for late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia. This program could be applied in routine with good results 5 yrs after its introduction. Further studies, especially multiple-center trials, are necessary to confirm this result and better define the rotation type and intervals.
Critical Care Medicine 08/2003; 31(7):1908-14. · 6.33 Impact Factor