[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce a new interproximal mineralisation model and to investigate the effectiveness of novel toothpaste and dual phase gel formulations to remineralise acid softened enamel in a simulated interproximal environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce a new interproximal mineralisation model and to investigate the effectiveness of novel toothpaste and dual phase gel formulations to remineralise acid softened enamel in a simulated interproximal environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if a stabilised, stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice provides greater enamel protection in situ against intraoral dietary erosive challenges compared with a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.
A single-centre, investigator blind, randomised, supervised, two-treatment, non-brushing, four-period crossover in situ study was undertaken, with each test period being 15 days. Thirty-five healthy adult subjects were recruited to participate in the study, which included four erosive acid challenges per day. Subjects were randomised to product treatment, which included either: (1) a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice (Oral-B(®) Pro-Expert Sensitive) or (2) a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice (Sensodyne(®) Pronamel(®) ). Each study subject wore an intraoral appliance retaining two sterilised, polished human enamel samples for 6 hours/day. Subjects swished with an allocated dentifrice slurry twice a day and with 250 ml of orange juice for 10 minutes (25 ml/minute over a 10-minute period) four times per day. The primary and secondary outcomes for this study were enamel loss measured using contact profilometry at days 15 and 5, respectively, using parametric analysis methods.
At day 15, a 38% lower enamel loss (P < 0.0001) was observed, with estimated medians of 2.03 μm (SE 0.247) and 3.30 μm (SE 0.379), in favour of the stannous-containing dentifrice. At day 5, specimens treated with the stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice demonstrated 25% less enamel loss than those treated with the sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. Treatment differences at day 5 were also statistically significant (P < 0.05), with estimated medians of 1.37 μm (SE 0.177) and 1.83 μm (SE 0.223), respectively.
Results of this in situ study suggest the stabilised, stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice could be used to provide significantly greater protection to enamel from erosive acid challenge compared with that provided by conventional fluoride-containing products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the erosion protection efficacy of a stabilised, stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) dentifrice versus a sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice using a modified in situ clinical model.
This study, a randomised parallel group in situ design with in vivo product use and ex vivo acid challenge, compared: A, a dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F as NaF; B, a dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F (1,100 ppm F as SnF2 + 350 ppm F as NaF); and T, tap water. Sample size was n = 4 per group (total of 12 subjects) and within each subject appliances were placed on each side of the mouth (left and right). Enamel specimens were placed in different positions of the mouth (front, mid-front, mid-rear, rear) in each appliance (total = 8 specimens per subject). Product treatment was twice per day (lingual brushing for 30 seconds followed by swishing for 90 seconds with the resultant product/saliva slurry) in vivo for 15 days, and ex vivo acid treatment (0.02 m citric acid 5 minutes four times per day; total exposure time = 300 minutes). Data were analysed using a general linear repeated measures model with treatment, side and position as fixed effects. Within subjects, correlations were modelled assuming a different correlation and variance for treatment B relative to the other groups. Pairwise treatment differences were performed using a 5% two-sided significance level.
Enamel loss (in μm) was significantly lower (P < 0.005) for treatment B versus treatments A and T. Treatment B reduced enamel surface loss by 86.9% relative to treatment A. There was no statistical difference in mean enamel loss (P = 0.51) between treatments A and T. Enamel loss was not statistically different for side (left vs. right; P = 0.44) or position (front, mid-front, mid-rear, rear; P = 0.36).
This modified in situ erosion model confirmed the enhanced erosion protection benefits of a stabilised SnF2 dentifrice versus a conventional NaF dentifrice, validating the ability of the model to safely and effectively demonstrate differences in the erosion protection potential of oral care products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To summarise the chemical, biological and host factors that impact enamel mineral loss, to highlight approaches to contemporary management of clinical conditions involving mineral loss and summarise emerging trends and challenges in this area.
“Medline” and “Scopus” databases were searched electronically with the principal key words tooth, enamel, *mineral*, caries and erosion. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and abstracts were excluded.
Enamel mineral loss leads to the degradation of the surface and subsurface structures of teeth. This can impact their shape, function, sensitivity and aesthetic qualities. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease caused by the simultaneous interplay of dietary sugars, dental plaque, the host and time. There is a steady decline in dental caries in developed countries and the clinical management of caries is moving towards a less invasive intervention, with risk assessment, prevention, control, restoration and recall. Tooth wear can be caused by erosion, abrasion and attrition. Dental erosion can be the result of acid from intrinsic sources, such as gastric acids, or extrinsic sources, in particular from the diet and consumption of acidic foods and drinks. Its prevalence is increasing and it increases with age. Clinical management requires diagnosis and risk assessment to understand the underlying aetiology, so that optimal preventative measures can be implemented. Overall, prevention of enamel mineral loss from caries and tooth wear should form the basis of lifelong dental management. Evidence based oral hygiene and dietary advice is imperative, alongside preventive therapy, to have a healthy lifestyle, whilst retaining hard tooth tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare three instruments for their ability to quantify enamel loss after acid erosion.
6 randomized parallel groups of bovine enamel samples were subjected to citric acid (higher acidity) or orange juice (lower acidity) erosion and remineralisation in a cycling model. Two protected shoulders were created on each of the samples using tape, to serve as reference for analysis. The time of exposure to each acid was varied, along with presence or absence of agitation. After treatment, samples were measured on 3 instruments capable of measuring step height: a contact profilometer (CP); a non-contact profilometer (NCP); and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by three different examiners. Additionally, 3D (volume) step height was also measured using the CLSM.
Increasing acid concentration and exposure time resulted in greater erosion, as did agitation of samples while in acid solution. All instruments/methods identified the same statistically significant (p<0.05) pair-wise differences between the treatments groups. Further, all four methods exhibited strong agreement (Intra-class correlation≥0.96) in erosion level and were highly correlated, with correlations of 0.99 or higher in all cases.
All instruments/methods used in this study produced very similar conclusions with regard to ranking of enamel loss, with data showing very high agreement between instruments. All instruments were found to be equally suited to the measurement of enamel erosion.
Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 10/2013; · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of oral pain from dentine hypersensitivity and significant risk factors: a European population-based cross-sectional study OBJECTIVES: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) manifests as a transient but arresting oral pain. The incidence is thought to be rising, particularly in young adults, due to increases in consumption of healthy, yet erosive, diets. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of risk factors, in 18-35 year old Europeans.
In 2011, 3187 adults were enrolled from general dental practices in France, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Finland, Latvia and Estonia. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no), accompanied by investigator pain rating (Schiff 0-3). Erosive toothwear (BEWE index 0-3) and gingival recession (mm) were recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire regarding the nature of their DH, erosive dietary intake and toothbrushing habits. Results: 41.9% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 56.8% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Clinical elicited sensitivity was closely related to Schiff score and to a lesser degree, questionnaire reported sensitivity (26.8%), possibly reflecting the transient nature of the pain, alongside good coping mechanisms. Significant associations were found between clinically elicited DH and erosive toothwear and gingival recession. The questionnaire showed marked associations between DH and risk factors including heartburn/acid reflux, vomiting, sleeping medications, energy drinks, smoking and acid dietary intake.
Overall, the prevalence of DH was high compared to many published findings, with a strong, progressive relationship between DH and erosive toothwear, which is important to recognise for patient preventive therapies and clinical management of DH pain.
Journal of dentistry 08/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common, painful dental condition with a multi-factorial aetiology. The hydrodynamic mechanism theory to explain dentine sensitivity also appears to fit DH: lesions exhibiting large numbers of open dentinal tubules at the surface and patent to the pulp. By definition, DH can only occur when dentine becomes exposed (lesion localisation) and tubules opened (lesion initiation), thus permitting increased fluid flow in tubules on stimulation. Erosion, particularly from dietary acids appears to play a dominant role in both processes. Toothbrushing with most toothpaste products alone cause clinically insignificant wear of enamel but are additive, even synergistic, to erosive enamel loss. Additionally, toothbrushing with toothpaste is implicated in 'healthy' gingival recession. Toothbrushing with most toothpastes removes the smear layer to expose tubules and again can exacerbate erosive loss of dentine. These findings thereby implicate toothbrushing with toothpaste in the aetiology of DH. Management of the condition should have secondary prevention at the core of treatment and therefore, must consider first and foremost the aetiology. Fluoride toothpaste at present appears to provide little primary or secondary preventive benefits to DH; additional ingredients can provide therapeutic benefits. Potassium-based products to block pulpal nerve response have caused much debate and are considered by many as unproven, which should not translate to ineffective. Several toothpaste technologies formulated to block tubules are from studies in vitro, in situ and controlled clinical trials considered proven for the treatment of DH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The paper's aim is to review dentin hypersensitivity (DHS), discussing pain mechanisms and aetiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was reviewed using search engines with MESH terms, DH pain mechanisms and aetiology (including abrasion, erosion and periodontal disease). RESULTS: The many hypotheses proposed for DHS attest to our lack of knowledge in understanding neurophysiologic mechanisms, the most widely accepted being the hydrodynamic theory. Dentin tubules must be patent from the oral environment to the pulp. Dentin exposure, usually at the cervical margin, is due to a variety of processes involving gingival recession or loss of enamel, predisposing factors being periodontal disease and treatment, limited alveolar bone, thin biotype, erosion and abrasion. CONCLUSIONS: The current pain mechanism of DHS is thought to be the hydrodynamic theory. The initiation and progression of DHS are influenced by characteristics of the teeth and periodontium as well as the oral environment and external influences. Risk factors are numerous often acting synergistically and always influenced by individual susceptibility. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Whilst the pain mechanism of DHS is not well understood, clinicians need to be mindful of the aetiology and risk factors in order to manage patients' pain and expectations and prevent further dentin exposure with subsequent sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 3 day randomised clinical study investigating the efficacy of two toothpastes, designed to occlude dentine tubules, for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVES: A product comparison study to compare the short term clinical efficacy of a strontium acetate/silica toothpaste with an arginine/calcium carbonate paste for pain reduction in dentine hypersensitivity. METHODS: The study was examiner blind of two arm parallel design. Eighty healthy adult subjects from general dental practice with ≥ 2 sensitive teeth but otherwise good oral health, were enrolled and randomised to 1 of 2 toothpaste treatments, schedule provided by the sponsor. Almost equal numbers received each treatment. Tooth sensitivity was measured in three ways; evaporative (Schiff score; Visual Analogue Scale) and tactile stimuli (Yeaple probe), prior to and immediately after subjects' self application of a single pea sized dose of toothpaste, and following subsequent twice daily brushing for three days with the paste. RESULTS: All 80 subjects completed the study. Results confirm that for both treatments, pain was reduced immediately and relief was sustained after 3 days use. For all 3 measures, benefit was similar between the two pastes, with no statistical or clinical difference demonstrated, apart from response to evaporative stimulus at 3 days, where Schiff scores were significantly lower in the arginine group, p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that both desensitising, occluding toothpastes provided reduction of pain from dentine hypersensitivity on a short term basis: toothpastes appearing to be clinically similarly effective both after a single subject dab on application and post twice daily brushing for three days. National Research Ethics Service register number 09/H020/57:
Journal of dentistry 11/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine in situ the relative abilities of two desensitising toothpastes to occlude dentinal tubules with or without acid challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was a single centre, randomised, split mouth crossover model examining four treatments over two periods. The primary outcome was the degree of occlusion proffered by two desensitising toothpastes [Sensodyne(®) Rapid Relief (8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride) and Colgate(®) Sensitive Pro-Relief(TM) daily (8% arginine, 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate)], a standard toothpaste (1450 ppm sodium fluoride) and water, after acid challenge. Healthy adult volunteers wore bi-lateral lower buccal appliances each with two dentine sections, receiving two treatments per study period. Samples were brushed twice a day with treatment, with two additional 3-min extra-oral acidic challenges applied ex vivo on days 3 and 4. A secondary outcome was the degree of occlusion attained in the absence of acid challenge. Examiners blinded to the study assessed occlusion by visual score of post-treatment scanning electron microscope images. RESULTS: All 28 participants completed the study. In the absence of acid challenge, occlusion scores for both desensitising toothpastes were similar and significantly better than control scores (p < 0.02). After acid challenge both desensitising toothpastes occluded more effectively than controls; however, occlusion scores for the strontium acetate paste were significantly greater than those of the arginine paste (p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The occluding properties of the strontium acetate toothpaste were significantly more robust after acid challenge than those of the arginine toothpaste. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patients with hypersensitivity, regularly imbibing dietary acidic drinks, should be advised that Sensodyne(®) Rapid Relief provides robust tubule occlusion despite repeated acidic challenges.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dentine hypersensitivity occurs when patent dentinal tubules are subjected to external stimuli, with pain being reduced by products that occlude tubules. This study compared the efficacy of a recently developed arginine-containing dentifrice, two established strontium-based products, and a fluoride control to occlude tubules when subjected to acid challenge. Dentine specimens with patent tubules were divided into four groups that were treated with a slurry consisting of one of the pastes mixed with stimulated human saliva. Treated specimens were further subdivided and soaked in 0.3% citric acid for 10 s, 30 s, 2 min, 5 min or 10 min. Tubule occlusion on representative scanning electron microscopy images was scored by blind review. All three desensitizing pastes offered good tubule occlusion, which was maintained to varying degrees following acidic challenge. After immersion in acid for 10 and 30 s, the strontium acetate- and arginine-containing pastes almost fully occluded tubules, but only the strontium acetate paste retained this level of occlusion after immersion in acid for 2 min, with strong statistical evidence that this paste occluded more tubules than the other pastes after immersion in acid for 2 or 5 min. This suggests that strontium acetate pastes may be the most effective at reducing dentine hypersensitivity.
European Journal Of Oral Sciences 12/2011; 119(6):497-503. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if brushing dentine with 2 moderate RDA desensitising toothpastes, results in a significant dentine wear difference and whether this difference continues to be relevant when preceded with an erosive challenge.
An in situ, single centre, single blind, randomised, split mouth study, evaluated the difference in abrasion of 2 toothpastes (SFM - Sensodyne Fresh Mint(®) RDA 70; CPHM - Crest Pro-Health Clean Mint(®) RDA 120) in 28 healthy volunteers. Two toothpaste treatments were administered 3×/day, for each of the two 15 day periods, subjects wearing bi-lateral, lower buccal appliances each with 4 dentine sections. A 2 min extra-oral acidic challenge preceded toothbrushing for 2 study arms. Contact profilometry measured samples at baseline, days 5, 10 and 15.
Brushing with SFM was significantly less abrasive than brushing with CPHM at all time points, with or without a preceding acidic challenge (p<0.0001). The additional dentine loss arising from the erosive challenge prior to brushing with each paste was linear with time and independent of abrasive effect.
The desensiting toothpastes' RDA, directly related to dentine loss with toothbrushing. An acidic challenge prior to brushing did not negate the benefits of reduced wear from the lower RDA paste compared to the higher RDA paste. When brushing eroded dentine, the additional wear appeared independent of abrasive effect. Dentine hypersensitivity sufferers should be recommended to use a low-moderate RDA toothpaste, not to brush more than 2×/day and not immediately following an acidic challenge.
Journal of dentistry 10/2011; 40(1):77-85. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the staining potential of two experimental amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouth rinses (A and B), a phenolic/essential oil rinse (C) and a negative control, water, rinse (D). The study was a single centre, randomized, single-blind, four treatment crossover study design among healthy participants. Prior to each study period, participants received a dental prophylaxis. On the Monday of each period, subjects suspended oral hygiene, and under supervision, rinsed with the allocated mouth rinse immediately followed by a warm black tea solution at hourly intervals eight times a day for 4 days. On Friday, the area and intensity of staining on the teeth, the primary outcome measure and dorsum of tongue were assessed. This regimen was repeated for all the three subsequent treatment periods. Rinse B produced less stain than rinse A, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.20). Rinse B produced significantly more stain than rinse C (p < 0.05) and D (p < 0.001). For tongue staining, rinse B produced significantly more staining than D (p < 0.01) but not A or C. Overall, all test rinses produced more staining than placebo with an overall pattern for more staining with stannous formulations. Individuals using stannous or phenolic/essential oil mouth rinse formulations should be advised of the possible staining side effect and that this can be easily removed by a professional dental cleaning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective was to determine the erosive effect of expectorated saliva, following chewing acidic gum, on enamel and dentine samples, using a non-acidic gum as a negative control. Secondary objectives were to determine the effect of brushing enamel and dentine samples and the effect of individual saliva pH and buffering.
A single-centre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study.
A clinical trial, involving healthy participants, undertaken at Bristol Dental School and Hospital. Methods: Eight healthy participants expectorated saliva onto prepared enamel and dentine samples while chewing gum (strawberry flavoured acidic gum [active] or peppermint flavoured non-acidic gum [control]). Half of the enamel and dentine samples were brushed before measurement by contact profilometry.
Mean enamel and dentine erosion, with and without brushing and the relationship to salivary buffering.Results At 10 days, mean depth of surface loss from dentine samples (95% CI), following chewing of acid-containing gum and subsequent brushing, was -11.34 μm (2.22 μm) and from un-brushed dentine samples was -11.02 μm (1.71 μm). No significant erosion was noted for other groups.
Frequent chewers of acid-containing gums are susceptible to dentine erosion even in the presence of good salivary buffering. Enamel erosion was insignificant within the time constraints of the present study but warrants further investigation.
British dental journal official journal of the British Dental Association: BDJ online 02/2011; 210(3):E3. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the difficulties in measuring erosion in vivo, a number of in vitro and in situ models have been developed and validated. These models are flexible and informative, allowing single as well as multiple variables to be examined under specific conditions using accurate measurement techniques over defined timelines, thus yielding useful data without harmful effects on individuals. This information, together with clinical findings, is essential for clinicians advising susceptible patients appropriately regarding the management of their condition. Little guidance is available, however, on the standardisation of in vitro and in situ protocols for erosive tooth wear studies, so it is difficult to make meaningful comparisons between investigations as experimental variables differ widely from study to study. The aim of this review was to collate the available data on models designed to assess erosive challenges which are severe enough to cause tissue loss as opposed to just softening of the surface structure. The different types of models, with their merits and pitfalls, are documented. Test substrates, disinfecting regimens and ethical considerations are discussed. The aims of this paper are to give guidance to the researcher on evidence-based in vitro and in situ erosive tooth wear methodology and to suggest best practice given current knowledge.
Caries Research 01/2011; 45 Suppl 1:43-52. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the ability of two new desensitizing toothpaste technologies (one a 5% NovaMin-based toothpaste and the other an 8% arginine-based toothpaste) to occlude patent dentin tubules in a clinical environment relative to a negative control of water and a control toothpaste after four days of twice-daily brushing and dietary acidic challenges.
The study design was a single-center, single-blind, randomized, split-mouth, four-treatment, two-period, crossover, in situ clinical study. Healthy subjects wore two lower intra-oral appliances, retaining four dentin samples for four treatment days for each period of the clinical study. Samples were brushed twice daily with a test product (days 1-4), with an additional acidic challenge introduced on two selective days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were taken of the dentin surface, and dentinal tubule occlusion assessed using a categorical scale.
The results demonstrated that the 5% NovaMin toothpaste was statistically superior at occluding patent dentin tubules compared to water (p = 0.009) and the control toothpaste (p = 0.02) at day 4. In contrast, the treatment effect resulting from the 8% arginine toothpaste did not demonstrate the same degree of occlusive propensity, showing no significant difference to the water and control toothpaste at the day 4 time point.
Application of the 5% NovaMin toothpaste to dentin showed better dentin tubule occlusion and retention abilities in an oral environment under dietary acid challenge conditions, more so than the 8% arginine toothpaste technology. Given modern dietary habits and practices, these results highlight differences in the acid resistance properties of occlusion technologies, and a potential impact on clinical performance.
The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2011; 22(3):82-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occlusion of patent dentine tubules may reduce or eliminate hypersensitivity by restricting dentinal fluid movement. The efficacy of a novel sol-gel nanobioglass and a melt-derived bioglass to occlude tubules and promote apatite formation was tested by mechanically brushing a slurry of bioglass powder and human saliva onto dentine possessing exposed tubules. Scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the powders and assess tubule occlusion. Melt-derived bioglass possessed an irregular particle morphology and had a mean size of 3.30 +/- 0.42 microm. The sol-gel bioglass particles were spherical, with a mean size of 0.65 +/- 0.19 microm. Dentine treated with melt-derived bioglass exhibited a tightly adherent continuous apatite layer. Treatment with nanobioglass resulted in particle deposition within tubules and formation of apatite rods which were tightly adherent to tubule walls and continuous to a measured depth of 270 microm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This in situ study compared the abrasive effect of repeated brushings (over 10 days) of a low relative abrasive dentine (RDA) toothpaste with moderate and high relative abrasive dentine (RDA) toothpastes, on human dentine in situ.
The study design was single centre, single blind, randomized, split mouth, two period, four-treatment cross-over, in situ study in 20 healthy subjects. Subjects wore bi-lateral lower buccal appliances each fitted with four dentine sections with treatment applied with a power toothbrush, during each 10 day study period. Samples were measured at baseline, day 5 and day 10 by contact profilometry, and baseline and day 10 with non-contact profilometry.
Nineteen subjects were included in the efficacy analysis. Results as measured by contact and non-contact profilometry from brushing with the moderate RDA paste and high RDA paste showed significantly (p<0.0001) more abrasion to dentine than brushing with the low RDA paste or water after 10 days. Dentine loss following tooth brushing with the low RDA paste was not significantly different from brushing with water, after 10 days.
The methodology successfully showed clear differentiation between the amount of dentine lost following toothbrushing with the low RDA paste compared to the moderate or high RDA pastes. Dentine loss following brushing with the low RDA paste showed a comparable degree of abrasion to brushing with water.
Journal of dentistry 03/2010; 38(6):509-16. · 3.20 Impact Factor