ABSTRACT: A patient with diabetes mellitus, who participated in a study with intravenous administration of GLP-1, was later found to have Cushing's disease (markedly elevated 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and inadequate suppression of fasting cortisol with 2 mg dexamethasone). His diabetic state disappeared (2 h plasma glucose after 75 g oral glucose 159 mg/dl=IGT) after successful pituitary surgery (normal 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and adequate cortisol suppression with 2 mg dexamethasone).
The present analysis was undertaken to compare GLP-1 actions on fasting glycemia in diabetes mellitus due to Cushing's disease with GLP-1 actions in typical type 2 diabetes.
GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg/min) and placebo had been infused into ten patients with diabetes mellitus over 4 h in the fasting state. The results from the patient with Cushing's disease (C) were compared to the data from the remaining nine patients with type 2 diabetes (D).
Within 4 h glucose decreased from basal (C: 12.9; D: 12.9+/-0.7 mmol/l) to normal fasting values (C: 5.0; D: 4.9+/-0.4 mmol/l). The stimulation of insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion was similar in the patient with Cushing's disease compared to those with type 2 diabetes.
The insulinotropic, glucagonostatic and glucose-lowering actions of GLP-1 in a patient with diabetes mellitus due to cortisol excess were similar to actions in typical type 2 diabetes. Therefore incretin mimetics might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus.
Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 03/2007; 115(2):146-50. · 1.69 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide I(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is a physiological incretin hormone that, in slightly supraphysiological doses, stimulates insulin secretion, lowers glucagon concentrations, and thereby normalizes elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations in type II diabetic patients. It is not known whether GLP-1 has effects also in fasting type I diabetic patients.
In 11 type I diabetic patients (HbA1c 9.1 +/- 2.1%; normal, 4.2-6.3%), fasting hyperglycemia was provoked by halving their usual evening NPH insulin dose. In random order on two occasions, 1.2 pmol . kg-1 . min-1 GLP-1 or placebo was infused intravenously in the morning (plasma glucose 13.7 +/- 0.9 mmol/l; plasma insulin 26 +/- 4 pmol/l). Glucose (glucose oxidase method), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, cortisol, growth hormone (immunoassays), triglycerides, cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acids (enzymatic tests) were measured.
Glucagon was reduced from approximately 8 to 4 pmol/l, and plasma glucose was lowered from 13.4 +/- 1.0 to 10.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l with GLP-1 administration (plasma concentrations approximately 100 pmol, P < 0.0001), but not with placebo (14.2 +/- 0.7 to 13.2 +/- 1.0). Transiently, C-peptide was stimulated from basal 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.06 nmol/l by GLP-1 (P < 0.0001), but not by placebo (0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.07 +/- 0.02). There was no significant effect on nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.34), triglycerides (P = 0.57), cholesterol (P = 0.64), cortisol (P = 0.40), or growth hormone (P = 0.53).
Therefore, exogenous GLP-1 is able to lower fasting glycemia also in type I diabetic patients, mainly by reducing glucagon concentrations. However, this alone is not sufficient to normalize fasting plasma glucose concentrations, as was previously observed in type II diabetic patients, in whom insulin secretion (C-peptide response) was stimulated 20-fold.
Diabetes Care 06/1996; 19(6):580-6. · 8.09 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) is a physiological incretin hormone that is released after nutrient intake from the lower gut and stimulates insulin secretion at elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Previous work has shown that even in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients GLP-1 (7-36 amide) retains much of its insulinotropic action. However, it is not known whether the magnitude of this response is sufficient to normalize plasma glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therefore, in 10 Type 2 diabetic patients with unsatisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c 11.6 +/- 1.7%) on diet and sulphonylurea therapy (in some patients supplemented by metformin or acarbose), 1.2 pmol x kg-1 x min-1 GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or placebo was infused intravenously in the fasting state (plasma glucose 13.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/l). In all patients, insulin (by 17.4 +/- 4.7 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0157) and C-peptide (by 228.0 +/- 39.1 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0019) increased significantly over basal levels, glucagon was reduced (by -1418 +/- 308 pmol x 1-1 x min) and plasma glucose reached normal fasting concentrations (4.9 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) within 4 h of GLP-1 (7-36 amide) administration, but not with placebo. When normal fasting plasma glucose concentrations were reached insulin returned towards basal levels and plasma glucose concentrations remained stable despite the ongoing infusion of GLP-1 (7-36 amide). Therefore, exogenous GLP-1 (7-36 amide) is an effective means of normalizing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in poorly-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Diabetologia 09/1993; 36(8):741-4. · 6.81 Impact Factor