[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), an essential protease for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, is a major drug target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a concern that inhibiting BACE1 could also affect several physiological functions. Here, we show that BACE1 is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a sugar modification highly expressed in brain, and demonstrate that AD patients have higher levels of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1. Analysis of knockout mice lacking the biosynthetic enzyme for bisecting GlcNAc, GnT-III (Mgat3), revealed that cleavage of Aβ-precursor protein (APP) by BACE1 is reduced in these mice, resulting in a decrease in Aβ plaques and improved cognitive function. The lack of this modification directs BACE1 to late endosomes/lysosomes where it is less colocalized with APP, leading to accelerated lysosomal degradation. Notably, other BACE1 substrates, CHL1 and contactin-2, are normally cleaved in GnT-III-deficient mice, suggesting that the effect of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1 is selective to APP. Considering that GnT-III-deficient mice remain healthy, GnT-III may be a novel and promising drug target for AD therapeutics.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 01/2015; · 7.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelial glycocalyx contains several anionic sugars, one of which is a sialic acid attached to both N- and O-glycans. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), a member of the Ig superfamily that plays multiple roles in cell adhesion, mechanical stress sensing, antiapoptosis, and angiogenesis, has recently been shown to recognize α2,6-sialic acid. In endothelial cells that lack α2,6-sialic acid because of sialyltransferase ST6Gal I deficiency, impairment of the homophilic PECAM interaction and PECAM-dependent cell survival signaling is observed. In this review, we will introduce part of the biological role of PECAM, and discuss how the lectin activity of PECAM is related to angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) III is a glycosyltransferase which produces bisected N-glycans by transferring GlcNAc to the 4-position of core mannose. Bisected N-glycans are involved in physiological and pathological processes through the functional regulation of their carrier proteins. An understanding of the biological functions of bisected glycans will be greatly accelerated by use of specific inhibitors of GnT-III. Thus far, however, such inhibitors have not been developed and even the substrate-binding mode of GnT-III is not fully understood. To gain insight into structural features required of the substrate, we systematically synthesized four N-glycan units, the branching parts of the bisected and non-bisected N-glycans. The series of syntheses were achieved from a common core trimannose, giving bisected tetra- and hexasaccharides as well as non-bisected tri- and pentasaccharides. A competitive GnT-III inhibition assay using the synthetic substrates revealed a vital role for the Manβ(1-4)GlcNAc moiety. In keeping with previous reports, GlcNAc at the α1,3-branch is also involved in the interaction. The structural requirements of GnT-III elucidated in this study will provide a basis for rational inhibitor design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The luminal sides of vascular endothelial cells are heavily covered with a so-called glycocalyx, but the precise role of the endothelial glycocalyx remains unclear. Our previous study showed that N-glycan α2,6-sialylation regulates the cell surface residency of an anti-apoptotic molecule, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), as well as the sensitivity of endothelial cells toward apoptotic stimuli. As PECAM itself was shown to be modified with biantennary N-glycans having α2,6-sialic acid, we expected that PECAM would possess lectin-like activity toward α2,6-sialic acid to ensure its homophilic interaction. To verify this, a series of oligosaccharides were initially added to observe their inhibitory effects on the homophilic PECAM interaction in vitro. We found that a longer α2,6-sialylated oligosaccharide exhibited strong inhibitory activity. Furthermore, we found that a cluster-type α2,6-sialyl N-glycan probe specifically bound to PECAM-immobilized beads. Moreover, addition of the α2,6-sialylated oligosaccharide to endothelial cells enhanced the internalization of PECAM as well as the sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Collectively, these findings suggest that PECAM is a sialic acid-binding lectin and that this binding property supports endothelial cell survival. Notably, our findings that α2,6-sialylated glycans influenced the susceptibility to endothelial cell apoptosis shed light on the possibility of using a glycan-based method to modulate angiogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who do not have Siglec-14 are less prone to exacerbation of the disease. Siglec-14 is a myeloid cell protein that recognizes bacteria and triggers inflammatory responses. Therefore, soluble mediators secreted by myeloid cells responding to Siglec-14 engagement could be involved in the pathogenesis of exacerbation and could potentially be utilized as biomarkers of exacerbation. To find out, we sought genes specifically induced in Siglec-14+ myeloid cells and evaluated their utility as biomarkers of COPD exacerbation. Using DNA microarray, we compared gene expression levels in Siglec-14+ and control myeloid cell lines stimulated with or without nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to select genes that were specifically induced in Siglec-14+ cells. The expressions of several cytokine and chemokine genes were specifically induced in Siglec-14+ cells. The concentrations of seven gene products were analyzed by multiplex bead array assays in paired COPD patient sera (n = 39) collected during exacerbation and stable disease states. Those gene products that increased during exacerbation were further tested using an independent set (n = 32) of paired patient sera. Serum concentration of interleukin-27 (IL-27) was elevated during exacerbation (discovery set: P = 0.0472; verification set: P = 0.0428; combined: P = 0.0104; one-sided Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test), particularly in exacerbations accompanied with sputum purulence and in exacerbations lasting more than a week. We concluded that IL-27 might be mechanistically involved in the exacerbation of COPD and could potentially serve as a systemic biomarker of exacerbation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrolein, a toxic unsaturated aldehyde generated as a result of oxidative stress, readily reacts with a variety of nucleophilic biomolecules. Polyamines, which produced acrolein in the presence of amine oxidase, were then found to react with acrolein to produce 1,5-diazacyclooctane, a previously unrecognized but significant downstream product of oxidative stress. Although diazacyclooctane formation effectively neutralized acrolein toxicity, the diazacyclooctane hydrogel produced through a sequential diazacyclooctane polymerization reaction was highly cytotoxic. This study suggests that diazacyclooctane formation is involved in the mechanism underlying acrolein-mediated oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelin, a multilamellar structure extended from oligodendrocytes or Schwann cells, plays a critical role in maintenance of neuronal function, and damage or loss of myelin causes demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. For precise alignment of the myelin sheath, there is a requirement for expression of galactosylceramide (GalCer), a major glycosphingolipid in myelin. Synthesis of GalCer is strictly limited in oligodendrocytes in a developmental stage-specific manner. Ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT), a key enzyme for biosynthesis of GalCer, exhibits restricted expression in oligodendrocytes but the mechanism is poorly understood. Based on our assumption that particular oligodendrocyte lineage-specific transcription factors regulate CGT expression, we co-expressed a series of candidate transcription factors with the human CGT promoter driving luciferase expression in oligodendroglioma cells to measure the promoter activity. We found that Nkx2.2 strongly activated the CGT promoter. In addition, we identified a novel repressive DNA element in the first intron of CGT and OLIG2, an oligodendrocyte-specific transcription factor, as a binding protein of this element. Moreover, overexpression of OLIG2 completely canceled the activating effect of Nkx2.2 on CGT promoter activity. Expression of CGT mRNA was also upregulated by Nkx2.2, but this upregulation was cancelled by co-expression of OLIG2 with Nkx2.2. Our study suggests that CGT expression is controlled by balanced expression of the negative modulator OLIG2 and positive regulator Nkx2.2, providing new insights into how expression of GalCer is tightly regulated in cell type- and stage-specific manners.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycans play key roles in a variety of protein functions under normal and pathological conditions, but several glycosyltransferase deficient mice exhibit no or only mild phenotypes due to redundancy or compensation of glycan functions. However, we have only a limited understanding of the underlying mechanism for these observations. Our previous studies indicated that 70% of Fut8 deficient (Fut8(-/-)) mice that lack core fucose structure die within 3 days after birth, but the remainder survive for up to several weeks even though they show growth retardation as well as emphysema. In this study, we show that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Fut8(-/-) mice, another N-glycan branching structure, bisecting GlcNAc, is specifically upregulated by enhanced gene expression of a responsible enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III). As candidate target glycoproteins for bisecting GlcNAc modification, we confirmed that level of bisecting GlcNAc on β1-integrin and N-cadherin was increased in Fut8(-/-) MEFs. Moreover using mass spectrometry, glycan analysis of IgG1 in Fut8(-/-) mouse serum demonstrated that bisecting GlcNAc contents were also increased by Fut8 deficiency in vivo.
As an underlying mechanism, we found that in Fut8(-/-) MEFs Wnt/β-catenin signaling is upregulated and an inhibitor against Wnt-signaling was found to abrogate GnT-III expression, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin is involved in GnT-III upregulation. Furthermore, various oxidative stress-related genes were also increased in Fut8(-/-) MEFs. These data suggest that Fut8(-/-) mice adapted to oxidative stress, both ex vivo and in vivo, by inducing various genes including GnT-III, which may compensate for the loss of core fucose functions.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of glycosyltransferase genes is essential for glycosylation. However, the detailed mechanisms of how glycosyltransferase gene expression is regulated in a specific tissue or during disease progression are poorly understood. In particular, epigenetic studies of glycosyltransferase genes are limited, although epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone and DNA modifications, are central to establish tissue-specific gene expression. We previously found that epigenetic histone activation is essential for brain-specific expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IX (GnT-IX, also designated GnT-Vb), but the mechanism of brain-specific chromatin activation around GnT-IX gene (Mgat5b) has not been clarified. To reveal the mechanisms regulating the chromatin surrounding GnT-IX, we have investigated the epigenetic factors that are specifically involved with the mouse GnT-IX locus by comparing their involvement with other glycosyltransferase loci. We first found that a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor enhanced the expression of GnT-IX but not of other glycosyltransferases tested. By overexpression and knockdown of a series of HDACs, we found that HDAC11 silenced GnT-IX. We also identified the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and ten-eleven translocation-3 (TET3) complex as a specific chromatin activator of GnT-IX gene. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis in combination with OGT- or TET3-knockdown showed that this OGT-TET3 complex facilitates the binding of a potent transactivator, NeuroD1, to the GnT-IX promoter, suggesting that epigenetic chromatin activation by the OGT-TET3 complex is a prerequisite for the efficient binding of NeuroD1. These results reveal a new epigenetic mechanism of brain-specific GnT-IX expression regulated by defined chromatin modifiers, providing new insights into the tissue-specific expression of glycosyltransferases.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A general probe designed to induce a cascading sequence of reactions on a target protein was efficiently synthesized. The cascading reaction sequence involved (i) ligand-directed azaelectrocyclization with lysine and (ii) the autooxidation-induced release of a fluorescence quencher from the labeled protein. The probe was linked to a cyclic RGDyK peptide to enable the selective visualization of integrin αVβ3 on the surfaces of live cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the nervous system, various unique glycans not found in other tissues are expressed on glycoproteins, and their expression/functions have been studied using specific antibodies/lectins. Among brain-specific glycans in mammals, we focus on human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) and related Cat-315 epitopes, which can be detected using specific antibodies. It is known that the HNK-1 epitope is expressed on N- and O-mannosylated glycans and that Cat-315 mAb preferentially recognizes the HNK-1 epitope on brain-specific "branched O-mannose glycan." The β1,6-branched O-mannose structure is synthesized by a brain-specific glycosyltransferase, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IX (GnT-IX, also designated as GnT-Vb). Using GnT-IX gene-deficient mice and specific antibodies/lectins, the function of GnT-IX was found to be quite different from that of its ubiquitous homologue, GnT-V. Using Cat-315 mAb, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta (RPTPβ) was identified as an in vivo target glycoprotein for GnT-IX. Analysis of the function of branched O-mannose glycan on RPTPβ indicated that its loss promoted the recovery process after myelin injury (called remyelination) in brain and that this phenomenon is probably caused in vivo by reduced activation of astrocytes in GnT-IX-deficient brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study, the CS-56 antibody, which recognizes a chondroitin sulfate moiety, labeled a subset of adult brain astrocytes, yielding a patchy extracellular matrix pattern. To explore the molecular nature of CS-56-labeled glycoproteins, we purified glycoproteins of the adult mouse cerebral cortex using a combination of anion exchange, charge-transfer, and size-exclusion chromatographies. One of the purified proteins was identified as tenascin-R (TNR) by mass spectrometric analysis. When we compared TNR mRNA expression patterns with the distribution patterns of CS-56-positive cells, TNR mRNA was detected in CS-56-positive astrocytes. To examine the functions of TNR in astrocytes, we first confirmed that cultured astrocytes also expressed TNR protein. TNR knockdown by siRNA expression significantly reduced glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes. Furthermore, expression of mRNA and protein of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (GLAST), which is a major component of astrocytic glutamate transporters, was reduced by TNR knockdown. Our results suggest that TNR is expressed in a subset of astrocytes and contributes to glutamate homeostasis by regulating astrocytic GLAST expression.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of the circadian rhythm is a contributory factor to clinical and pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, the metabolic syndrome, and inflammation. Chronic and systemic inflammation are a potential trigger of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and are caused by the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory macrophages into tissue. Although recent studies identified the circadian clock gene Rev-erbα, a member of the orphan nuclear receptors, as a key mediator between clockwork and inflammation, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Rev-erbα modulates the inflammatory function of macrophages through the direct regulation of Ccl2 expression. Clinical conditions associated with chronic and systemic inflammation, such as aging or obesity, dampened Rev-erbα gene expression in peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice. Rev-erbα agonists or overexpression of Rev-erbα in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264 suppressed the induction of Ccl2 following an LPS endotoxin challenge. We discovered that Rev-erbα represses Ccl2 expression directly through a Rev-erbα-binding motif in the Ccl2 promoter region. Rev-erbα also suppressed CCL2-activated signals, ERK and p38, which was recovered by the addition of exogenous CCL2. Further, Rev-erbα impaired cell adhesion and migration, which are inflammatory responses activated through the ERK- and p38-signaling pathways, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking Rev-erbα display increases in Ccl2 expression. These data suggest that Rev-erbα regulates the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages through the suppression of Ccl2 expression. Therefore, Rev-erbα may be a key link between aging- or obesity-associated impairment of clockwork and inflammation.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycolipid Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-pyrophosphate-dolichol serves as the precursor for asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation in mammals. The biosynthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (DLOs) is arrested in low-glucose environments via unknown mechanisms, resulting in abnormal N-glycosylation. Here, we show that under glucose deprivation, DLOs are prematurely degraded during the early stages of DLO biosynthesis by pyrophosphatase, leading to the release of singly phosphorylated oligosaccharides into the cytosol. We identified that the level of GDP-mannose (Man), which serves as a donor substrate for DLO biosynthesis, is substantially reduced under glucose deprivation. We provide evidence that the selective shutdown of the GDP-Man biosynthetic pathway is sufficient to induce the release of phosphorylated oligosaccharides. These results indicate that glucose-regulated metabolic changes in the GDP-Man biosynthetic pathway cause the biosynthetic arrest of DLOs and facilitate their premature degradation by pyrophosphatase. We propose that this degradation system may avoid abnormal N-glycosylation with premature oligosaccharides under conditions that impair efficient DLO biosynthesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heregulin signaling is involved in various tumor proliferations and invasions, thus receptors of heregulin are targets for the cancer therapy. In the present study, we prepared extracellular domains of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 (soluble ErbB = sErbB), and examined the suppressing effects on heregulin β signaling in human breast cancer cell line MCF7. It was found that sErbB3 suppresses ligand-induced activation of ErbB receptors, PI3K/Akt and Ras/Erk pathways most effectively; sErbB2 scarcely suppresses ligand-induced signaling, and sErbB4 suppresses receptor activation at around 10% efficiency of sErbB3. sErbB3 suppresses heregulin β signaling under a large excess of ligands, indicating that sErbB3 does not decrease the effective ligands but decreases the effective receptors. By using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for ErbB receptors, we determined that sErbB3 suppresses the heregulin β signaling by interfering ErbB3-containting heterodimers including ErbB2/ErbB3. The immunostaining study indicated that sErbB3 colocalized ErbB2 and ErbB3, suggesting that sErbB3 binds to ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimers. By introducing the mutation of N418Q to sErbB3, the signaling-inhibitory effects were increased by 2-3 folds. Moreover, the sErbB3 N418Q mutant enhanced anticancer effects of lapatinib more effectively than the wild type. We also determined the structures of N-glycan on Asn418. Results suggested that the N-glycan deleted mutant of sErbB3 suppresses heregulin signaling via ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimers more effectively than the wild type. Thus, we demonstrated that the sErbB3 N418Q mutant is a potent inhibitor for heregulin β signaling.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the aberrant assembly of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the molecular basis of SOD1 oligomerization remains undetermined. We investigated the roles of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), an endogenous cross-linker in mSOD1-linked ALS. TG2 interacted preferentially with mSOD1 and promoted its oligomerization in transfected cells. Purified TG2 directly oligomerized recombinant mutant SOD1 and the apo-form of the wild-type SOD1 proteins in a calcium-dependent manner, indicating that misfolded SOD1 is a substrate of TG2. Moreover, the non-cell-autonomous effect of extracellular TG2 on the neuroinflammation was suggested, since the TG2-mediated soluble SOD1 oligomers induced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide in microglial BV2 cells. TG2 was up-regulated in the spinal cord of presymptomatic G93A SOD1 transgenic mice and in the hypoglossal nuclei of mice suffering nerve ligation. Furthermore, inhibition of spinal TG2 by cystamine significantly delayed the progression and reduced SOD1 oligomers and microglial activation. These results indicate a novel role of TG2 in SOD1 oligomer-mediated neuroinflammation, as well as in the involvement in the intracellular aggregation of misfolded SOD1 in ALS.
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies on a β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, GnT-IX (GnT-Vb), a homolog of GnT-V, indicated that the enzyme has a broad GlcNAc-transfer activity toward N-linked and O-mannosyl glycan core structures and its brain-specific gene expression is regulated by epigenetic histone modifications. In this study, we demonstrate the existence of an endogenous inhibitory factor for GnT-IX that functions as a key regulator for GnT-IX enzymatic activity in Neuro2a (N2a) cells. We purified this factor from N2a cells and found that it is identical to ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3) as evidenced by mass spectrometry and on the knocking down and overexpression of ENPP3 in cultured cells. Kinetic analyses revealed that the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of GnT-IX caused by ENPP3 is the ENPP3-mediated hydrolysis of the nucleotide-sugar donor substrate, UDP-GlcNAc, with the resulting generation of UMP, a potent and competitive inhibitor of GnT-IX. Indeed, ENPP3-knockdown cells had significantly increased levels of intracellular nucleotide sugars and displayed changes in the total cellular glycosylation profile. In addition to chaperones or other known regulators of glycosyltransferases, the ENPP3-mediated hydrolysis of nucleotide sugars would have widespread and significant impacts on glycosyltransferase activities and would be responsible for altering the total cellular glycosylation profile and modulating cellular functions.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-QIT-TOF MS) was developed to structurally characterize four kinds of pyridylaminated (PA) oligosaccharides, i.e., lactose (Lac)-PA, globotriose (Gb3)-PA, globotetraose (Gb4)-PA, and IV(3) αGalNAc-Gb4 (Forssman antigen)-PA, derived from neutral glycosphingolipids. The CE-MS system included the head-column field-amplified sample stacking (HC-FASS) method for effective sample injection into a capillary column in CE, a sheathless interface between CE and a mass spectrometer, and MS and tandem MS (MS(2)) measurements with narrow mass range repeated high-speed switching. The total sensitivity of the developed CE-MS system was about 20 000 times higher than that of the conventional CE-MS system consisting of pressure injection, a sheath-flow interface, and a wide mass range measurement. The MS and MS(2) spectra of the four PA-oligosaccharides at a concentration of 25 amol/μL in mixtures (each 250 amol/10 μL in a tube) clearly showed protonated molecular ions ([M + H](+)) and the fragment ions responsible for the sequential elimination of saccharides. The developed CE-MS system is a powerful method for the structural characterization of glycosphingolipids extracted from very small amounts of biological materials and could be extended to the structural characterization of oligosaccharides derived from glycoproteins.