[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The principle to avoid surgery for haemorrhoids and/or anal fissure in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is still currently valid despite advances in medical and surgical treatments. In this study we report our prospectively recorded data on medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissures in CD patients over a period of 8 years. METHODS: Clinical data of patients affected by perianal disease were routinely and prospectively inserted in a database between October 2003 and October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. We reviewed and divided in two groups records on CD patients treated either medically or surgically according to the diagnosis of haemorrhoids or anal fissures. Moreover, we compared in each group the outcome in patients with prior diagnosis of CD and in patients diagnosed with CD only after perianal main treatment. RESULTS: Eighty-six CD patients were included in the study; 45 were treated for haemorrhoids and 41 presented with anal fissure. Conservative approach was initially adopted for all patients; in case of medical treatment failure, the presence of stable intestinal disease made them eligible for surgery. Fifteen patients underwent haemorrhoidectomy (open 11; closed 3; stapled 1), and two rubber band ligation. Fourteen patients required surgery for anal fissure (Botox +/- fissurectomy 8; LIS 6). In both groups we observed high complication rate, 41.2% for haemorrhoids and 57.1% for anal fissure. Patients who underwent haemorrhoidectomy without certain diagnosis of CD had significantly higher risk of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Conservative treatment of proctologic diseases in CD patients has been advocated given the high risk of complications and the evidence that spontaneous healing may also occur. From these preliminary results a role of surgery is conceivable in high selected patients, but definitve conclusions can't be made. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the efficacy of the surgical approach, giving therapeutic recommendations and guidelines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has proven to be a safe and effective surgical treatment for morbid obesity. It can be a simple, fast, reversible, anatomy-preserving procedure. Despite these advantages, its long-term efficacy came into question by the occurrence of complications such as intragastric band migration. Consistent information regarding this complication is still lacking. Treatment for migration is still being debated as well. Most of the inconsistencies of these data stem from the very low number of patients reported in single-center experiences or case reports. Lack of multicenter experience is evident. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of data on intragastric migration in a large multicenter cohort of patients who underwent LAGB. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study on LAGB patients was performed. Data had been entered into a prospective database of the Italian Group for LapBand(®) (GILB) since January 1997. Pars flaccida and perigastric positioning were considered along with different kinds of gastric bands by the same manufacturer. Time of diagnosis, mean body mass index (BMI), presentation symptoms, and conservative and surgical therapy of intragastric migration were considered. RESULTS: From January 1997 to December 2009, a total of 6,839 patients underwent LAGB and their data were recorded [5,660 females, 1,179 males; mean age 38.5 ± 18.2 years (range 21-62 years); mean BMI = 46.7 ± 7.7 kg/m(2) (range 37.3-68.3); excess weight (EW) 61.8 ± 25.4 kg (range 36-130); %EW 91.1 ± 32.4 % (range 21-112 %)]. A total of 177 of 6,839 (2.5 %) intragastric erosions were observed. According to the postoperative time of follow-up, the diagnosis of intragastric migration was made in 74 (41.8 %), 14 (7.9 %), 38 (21.4 %), 40 (22.6 %), 6 (3.4 %), and 4 (2.2 %) banded patients at 6-12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months after banding, respectively. Most of intragastric band migration during the first 2 years occurred in bands with no or a few milliliters of filling. In patients with late erosion, the bands were adjusted several times; no band was overfilled but one was filled to the maximum or submaximum with a maximum of two adjustments. Erosions diagnosed during the first 24 months were related to the experience of the surgical staff, while late erosions were not. CONCLUSIONS: Intragastric band migration or band erosion is a rare, disturbing, and usually not life-threatening complication of gastric banding. Its pathogenesis is probably linked to different mechanisms in early (technical failure in retrogastric passage) or late (band management) presentation. It is usually asymptomatic and there is no pathognomonic presentation. A wide range of therapeutic options are available, from simple endoscopic or laparoscopic removal to early or late band replacement or other bariatric procedure. More experience and more studies are needed to lower its presentation rate and definitively clarify its pathogenesis to address the right therapeutic option.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Conventional haemorrhoidectomy (CH) is well known to cause significant post-operative pain and delayed return to daily activities. Both surgical wounds and sphincterial apparatus spasms are likely responsible for the pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of glyceryl trinitrate ointment (GTN) in reducing post-operative pain, ameliorating wound healing and recovery after CH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 01/08 and 12/11, 203 patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids were enrolled in the study and received (103 patients) or not (100 patients) 0.4 % GTN ointment for 6 weeks after surgery. Pain was assessed using a 10-cm linear visual analogue scale (VAS). Data on post-operative pain, wound secretion and bleeding, return to normal activities and complications were recorded. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: GTN-treated group experienced significantly less pain during the first week after surgery (p < 0.0001). This difference was more evident starting from post-operative day 4 (p < 0.0001). A significant higher percentage of untreated patients experienced severe pain (mean VAS score > 7) (10 % vs 31 %). There were significant differences in terms of secretion time (p = 0.0052) and bleeding time (p = 0.02) in favor of GTN. In addition, the duration of itching was less in the GTN group (p = 0.0145). Patients treated with GTN were able to an early return to daily activities compared to untreated (p < 0.0001). Fifteen GTN-treated patients (14.6 %) discontinued the application because of local discomfort and headache. CONCLUSIONS: GTN ointment enhances significantly post-operative recovery, reducing pain in terms of duration and intensity. This effect might be secondary to a faster wound healing expressed by reduced secretion, bleeding and itching time.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 08/2012; · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various energy sources are available for tissue dissection and vessel sealing in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system (EBVS) and ultrasonic energy (UE) devices are widely used to provide hemostatic dissection in laparoscopic procedures. Nevertheless, available evidenced-based data comparing their operative results still are scarce. This study conducted a metaanalysis of controlled clinical trials comparing EBVS and UE in terms of operative time and intraoperative blood losses in laparoscopic colorectal surgery
The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched using medical subject headings and free text words. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using EBVS and UE in laparoscopic colorectal surgery were considered for inclusion in the study. Random effects models were used in case of heterogeneity to obtain summary statistics for the overall difference in operating time and blood loss between instruments.
Four studies comparing EBVS with UE for 397 patients (200 EBVS vs. 197 UE patients) were included in the study. The findings showed that EBVS was associated with a significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss than UE (p < 0.05).
The metaanalysis indicated that EBVS is associated with a shorter operative time and less blood loss than UE in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity of the included trials and the limited number of studies with a high level of evidence. More adequately designed RCTs with a larger number of patients are required to confirm the results of this metaanalysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and has lately reached epidemic proportions in western countries. Several epidemiological studies have consistently shown that both overweight and obesity are important risk factors for the development of various functional defaecatory disorders (DDs), including faecal incontinence and constipation. However, data on their prevalence as well as effectiveness of bariatric surgery on their correction are scant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the effect of morbid obesity on DDs in a cohort of patients listed for bariatric surgery. We also evaluated preliminary results of the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on these disorders.
A questionnaire-based study was proposed to morbidly obese patients having bariatric surgery. Data included demographics, past medical, surgical and obstetrics histories, as well as obesity related co-morbidities. Wexner Constipation Score (WCS) and the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) questionnaires were used to evaluate constipation and incontinence. For the purpose of this study, we considered clinically relevant a WCS ≥5 and a FISI score ≥10. The same questionnaires were completed at 3 and 6 months follow-up after surgery.
A total of 139 patients accepted the study and 68 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and fully satisfied our inclusion criteria with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Overall, mean body mass index (BMI) at listing was 47 ± 7 kg/m(2) (range 35-67 kg/m(2)). Mean WCS was 4.1 ± 4 (range 0-17), while mean FISI score (expressed as mean±standard deviation) was 9.5 ± 9 (range 0-38). Overall, 58.9% of the patients reported DDs according to the above-mentioned scores. Twenty-eight patients (20%) had WCS ≥5. Thirty-five patients (25%) had a FISI ≥10 while 19 patients (13.7%) reported combined abnormal scores. Overall, DDs were more evident with the increase of obesity grade: Mean BMI decreased significantly from 47 ± 7 to 36 ± 6 and to 29 ± 4 kg/m(2) respectively at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p < 0.0001). According to the BMI decrease, the mean WCS decreased from 3.7 ± 3 to 3.1 ± 4 and to 1.6 ± 3 respectively at 3 and 6 months (p = 0.02). Similarly, the FISI score decreased from 10 ± 8 to 3 ± 4 and to 1 ± 2 respectively at 3 and 6 months (p = 0.0001).
Defaecatory disorders are common in morbidly obese patients. The risk of DDs increases with BMI. Bariatric surgery reduces DDs, mainly faecal incontinence, and these findings correlated with BMI reduction.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2011; 16(1):62-6; discussion 66-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The understanding of surgical gesture, by means of measuring apparatus, can play a key role for a possible evaluation of the surgical performance and the human factors characterizing it. To this aim a neural network classification algorithm can be helpful, since combines good generalization performances along with a parsimonious architecture when dealing with high dimensional classification problems. So, here it is presented and proposed the development of an innovation in surgical training system, as a fundamental objective support for training of novice surgeons.
Medical Measurements and Applications Proceedings (MeMeA), 2011 IEEE International Workshop on; 07/2011
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate pain and other complications following inguinal hernioplasty performed by the Lichtenstein technique with mesh fixation by fibrin glue or sutures.
Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in this 12-month observational multicenter study and received either sutures or fibrin glue (Tissucol(®)/Tisseel(®)) based on the preference of the surgeon. Pain, numbness, discomfort, recurrence, and other complications were assessed postoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Pain intensity was assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS; 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain]).
One hundred and seventy-one patients received sutures and 349 received fibrin glue. During the early postoperative phase, 87.4% of patients in the fibrin glue group and 76.6% of patients in the sutures group were complication-free (P = 0.001). Patients who received fibrin glue were also less likely to experience hematoma/ecchymosis than those in the suture group (both P = 0.001). The mean pain score was significantly lower in the fibrin group than the sutures group (2.5 vs. 3.2, P < 0.001). At 1 month, significantly fewer patients in the fibrin glue group reported pain, numbness, and discomfort compared with patients in the sutures group (all P < 0.05). Fibrin glue patients also experienced less intense pain (0.6 vs. 1.2; P = 0.001). By 3 months, the between-group differences had disappeared, except for numbness, which was more prevalent in the sutures group. By 12 months, very few patients reported complications.
Tissucol fibrin glue for mesh fixation in the Lichtenstein repair of inguinal hernia shows advantages over sutures, including lower incidence of complications such as pain, numbness, and discomfort, and should be considered as a first-line option for mesh fixation in hernioplasty.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of magnetic fields to control operative devices has been recently described in endoluminal and transluminal surgical applications. The exponential decrease of magnetic field strength with distance has major implications for precision of the remote control. We aimed to assess the feasibility and functionality of a novel wireless miniaturized mechanism, based on magnetic forces, for precise orientation of the camera.
A remotely controllable endoscopic capsule was developed as proof of concept. Two intracapsular moveable permanent magnets allow fine positioning, and an externally applied magnetic field permits gross movement and stabilization. Performance was assessed in ex vivo and in vivo bench tests, using porcine upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts.
Fine control of capsule navigation and rotation was achieved in all tests with an external magnet held steadily about 15 cm from the capsule. The camera could be rotated in steps of 1.8 degrees . This was confirmed by ex vivo tests; the mechanism could adjust the capsule view at 40 different locations in a gastrointestinal tract phantom model. Full 360 degrees viewing was possible in the gastric cavity, while the maximal steering in the colon was 45 degrees in total. In vivo, a similar performance was verified, where the mechanism was successfully operated every 5 cm for 40 cm in the colon, visually sweeping from side to side of the lumen; 360 degrees views were obtained in the gastric fundus and body, while antrally the luminal walls prevented full rotation.
We report the feasibility and effectiveness of the combined use of external static magnetic fields and internal actuation to move small permanent intracapsular magnets to achieve wirelessly controllable and precise camera steering. The concept is applicable to capsule endoscopy as to other instrumentation for laparoscopic, endoluminal, or transluminal procedures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal perforations are conservatively managed at endoscopy by through-the-scope endoclips and covered self expandable stents, according to the size and tissue features of the perforation. This is believed to be the first report of successful closure of two gastro-cutaneous fistulas with over-the-scope clips (OTSCs). After laparoscopic gastric banding, a 45-year old woman presented with band erosion and penetration. Despite surgical band removal and gastric wall suturing, external drainage of enteric material persisted for 2 wk, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated two adjacent 10-mm and 15-mm fistulous orifices at the esophagogastric junction. After cauterization of the margins, the 10-mm fistulous tract was grasped by the OTSC anchor, invaginated into the applicator cap, and closed by a traumatic OTSC. The other 15-mm fistula was too large to be firmly grasped, and a fully-covered metal stent was temporarily placed. No leak occurred during the following 6 wk. At stent removal: the OTSC was completely embedded in hyperplastic overgrowth; the 15-mm fistula significantly reduced in diameter, and it was closed by another traumatic OTSC. After the procedure, no external fistula recurred and both OTSCs were lost spontaneously after 4 wk. The use of the anchor and the OTSC seem highly effective for successful closure of small chronic perforations.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2010; 16(13):1665-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective multicenter analysis of the results of two different approaches for band positioning: perigastric and pars flaccida.
Data were collected from the database of the Italian Group for LapBand (GILB). Patients operated from January 2001 to December 2004 were selected according to criteria of case-control studies to compare two different band positioning techniques: perigastric (PG group) and pars flaccida (PF group). Demographics, laparotomic conversion, postoperative complications, and weight loss parameters were considered. Data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation.
2,549 patients underwent the LapBand System procedure [age: 40 +/- 11.7 years; sex: 2,130 female, 419 male; body mass index (BMI): 46.4 +/- 6.9 kg/m(2); excess weight (EW): 60.1 +/- 23.6 kg; %EW: 90.1 +/- 32.4]. During this period 1,343/2,549 (52.7%) were operated via the pars flaccida (PF group) and 1,206/2,549 (47.3%) via the perigastric approach (PG group). Demographics for both groups were similar. Thirty-day mortality was absent in both groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the PG group (80 +/- 20 min versus 60 +/- 40 min; p < 0.05). Hospital stay was similar in the two groups (2 +/- 2 days). Laparotomic conversion was significantly higher in the PG group (6 versus 2 patients; p < 0.001). Overall postoperative complication rate was 172/2,549 (6.7%) and was linked to gastric pouch dilation/slippage (67/172), intragastric migration/erosion (17/172), and tube/port failure (88/172). Gastric pouch dilation and intragastric migration were significantly more frequent in the PG group: 47 versus 20 (p < 0.001) and 12 versus 5 (p < 0.001), respectively. Patients eligible for minimum 3-year follow-up were 1,118/1,206 (PG group) and 1,079/1,343 (PF group). Mean BMI was 33.8 +/- 12.1 kg/m(2) (PG group) and 32.4 +/- 11.7 kg/m(2) (PF group) (p = ns), and mean percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) was 47.2 +/- 25.4 and 48.9 +/- 13.2 in PG and PF groups, respectively (p = ns).
Significant improvement in LapBand System results with regard to laparotomic conversion and postoperative complication rate, with similar weight loss results, was observed in the pars flaccida group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been recently proposed as a sole bariatric procedure because of the resulting considerable weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Traditionally, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy requires 5-6 skin incisions to allow for placement of multiple trocars. With the introduction of single-incision laparoscopic surgery, multiple abdominal procedures have been performed using a sole umbilical incision, with good cosmetic outcomes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic single incision sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity.
A total of 8 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic single-incision sleeve gastrectomy at the Operative Unit of Bariatric Surgery of the University of Rome Tor Vergata from March 2009 to June 2009.
Of the 8 patients, 5 were women and 3 were men, with a mean age of 44.4 years. The mean preoperative body mass index was 56.2 kg/m(2). The mean operative time was 128 minutes. The mean postoperative stay was 2.4 days. The mean postoperative body mass index was 49.3 kg/m(2) at a mean follow-up period of 3.6 months. The mean percentage of excess weight loss was 33% for the same period.
Laparoscopic single-incision sleeve gastrectomy seems to be safe, technically feasible, and reproducible. A randomized trial comparing single-incision sleeve gastrectomy and conventional sleeve gastrectomy might be needed to evaluate the postoperative results in relation to the development of abdominal wall complications.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2010; 6(6):665-9. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure for end-stage liver disease. In liver transplant recipients, morbid obesity influences post-operative survival and graft function. In 1996, our patient underwent a successful liver transplantation because of a HCV-related liver failure (body mass index (BMI) 31). Follow-up showed a functional graft and the development of severe obesity up to a BMI of 61 in January 2006. In January 2007, he was submitted to intragastric balloon therapy for 6 months, reaching a BMI of 54. In September 2007, he underwent a biliopancreatic diversion. During follow-up to March 2008, he reached a BMI of 42 with ameliorations of comorbidities. In May 2008, during a hospital admission, he suddenly died of a heart attack. Post mortem study revealed a myocardial infarction. This is the first world case report for this approach. According to our opinion, patient's death was not related to bariatric surgery.
Obesity Surgery 07/2009; 19(10):1460-3. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malabsorptive bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for morbid obesity, but may be associated with complications and side effects. We have developed a new experimental approach to creating a gastric bypass through an intraluminal access. The goal is to reduce postoperative complications and to reduce mid-term side-effects of malabsorptive bypass food passage and to allow easy reversion of the procedure. The new procedure is based on an implantable gastric bypass device, installed by combined transoral flexible and minimally invasive abdominal access. The newly developed device and procedure were studied in a pilot experimental trial in the porcine animal model (n=8). Endpoints were the feasibility of the technical procedure, the ability of the animal to eat and digest food, the implant functionality over the survival period and the absence of major complications over a short-term follow-up (one week). The procedure was technically successful in all eight animals. Animals were able to take in food and water till sacrifice. Four animals had major complications (one abdominal wall dehiscence, one invagination ileus of the small bowel, one dehiscence of the gastro-jejunal anastomosis and one myocardial infarction) and did not complete follow-up. In two cases migration of the device into the stomach was observed. The difference between our experimental technique and the gold standard surgical methods for gastric bypass consists of the endoluminal approach by implanting an intraluminal gastric bypass device. This concept avoids gastric transsection and an additional anastomosis and enables an adjustable food passage between the bypass and the natural duodenal passage. Further long-term follow-up studies are required.
Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies: MITAT: official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy 02/2009; 18(5):273-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor