[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis Raised maternal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations predict small size at birth, which is a risk factor for type
2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the association between maternal vitamin B12, folate and tHcy status during pregnancy, and offspring adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years.
Methods In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study we studied 700 consecutive eligible pregnant women in six villages. We measured maternal
nutritional intake and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation. These were correlated with offspring anthropometry, body
composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
[HOMA-R]) at 6 years.
Results Two-thirds of mothers had low vitamin B12 (0.26 μmol/l) and 30% had raised tHcy concentrations (>10 μmol/l); only one had a low erythrocyte
folate concentration. Although short and thin (BMI), the 6-year-old children were relatively adipose compared with the UK
standards (skinfold thicknesses). Higher maternal erythrocyte folate concentrations at 28 weeks predicted higher offspring
adiposity and higher HOMA-R (both p 12 (18 weeks; p = 0.03) predicted higher HOMA-R in the children. The offspring of mothers with a combination of high folate and low vitamin
B12 concentrations were the most insulin resistant.
Conclusions/interpretation Low maternal vitamin B12 and high folate status may contribute to the epidemic of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in India.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study associations of size and body proportions at birth, and growth during infancy and childhood, to body composition and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at the age of 6 years.
The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, a prospective population-based study of maternal nutrition and CVD risk in rural Indian children.
Body composition and CVD risk factors measured in 698 children at 6 years were related to body proportions and growth from birth.
Anthropometry was performed every 6 months from birth. At 6 years, fat and lean mass (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and CVD risk factors (insulin resistance, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids) were measured.
Compared with international references (NCHS, WHO) the children were short, light and thin (mean weight <-1.0 s.d. at all ages). Larger size and faster growth in all body measurements from birth to 6 years predicted higher lean and fat mass at 6 years. Weight and height predicted lean mass more strongly than fat mass, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) predicted them both approximately equally and skinfolds predicted only fat mass. Neither birthweight nor the 'thin-fat' newborn phenotype, was related to CVD risk factors. Smaller MUAC at 6 months predicted higher insulin resistance (P<0.001) but larger MUAC at 1 year predicted higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001). After infancy, higher weight, height, MUAC and skinfolds, and faster growth of all these parameters were associated with increased CVD risk factors.
Slower muscle growth in infancy may increase insulin resistance but reduce blood pressure. After infancy larger size and faster growth of all body measurements are associated with a more adverse childhood CVD risk factor profile. These rural Indian children are growing below international 'norms' for body size and studies are required in other populations to determine the generalizability of the findings.
International Journal of Obesity 10/2007; 31(10):1534-44. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents.
Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P < 0.001 for all). The strength of these correlations was similar for fathers and mothers. Children of mothers who had a higher frequency of intake of calcium-rich foods during pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements.
Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.