Niranjan P Joshi

KEM Hospital Research Centre, Poona, Mahārāshtra, India

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Publications (4)7.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has highlighted the influence of maternal factors on the health of the offspring. Intrauterine experiences may program metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders. We have shown that maternal vitamin B12 status affects adiposity and insulin resistance in the child. Vitamin B12 is important for brain development and function. We investigated the relationship between maternal plasma vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and the child's cognitive function at 9 years of age. We studied children born in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Two groups of children were selected on the basis of maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 28 weeks of gestation: group 1 (n = 49) included children of mothers with low plasma vitamin B12 (lowest decile, < 77 pM) and group 2 (n = 59) children of mothers with high plasma vitamin B12 (highest decile, > 224 pM). Children from group 1 performed more slowly than those from group 2 on the Color Trail A test (sustained attention, 182 vs. 159 seconds; p < .05) and the Digit Span Backward test (short-term memory, p < .05), after appropriate adjustment for confounders. There were no differences between group 1 and group 2 on other tests of cognitive function (intelligence, visual agnosia). Maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy influences cognitive function in offspring.
    Food and nutrition bulletin 01/2009; 29(4):249-54. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (<150 pmol/L) and 24 had hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p <0.05) and reduced tHcy concentration (18.0 to 13.0 micromol/L, p <0.05) within first 2 weeks, both of which remained stable for the next 4 weeks. Plasma vitamin B12 and tHcy concentrations did not change in those who did not receive vitamin B12, and there was no change in plasma folate concentration in any of the groups. Blood haemoglobin concentration increased marginally within first two weeks in those women who received vitamin B12 (by 3 g/L, p <0.05) and the number of women with macrocytosis decreased from 2 to zero. There was no change in vibration sensory threshold during the period of the study. High-dose per oral vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced plasma tHcy within 2 weeks but did not achieve normal plasma tHcy concentration even after 6 weeks. People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2007; 16(1):103-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Early Human Development - EARLY HUM DEV. 01/2007; 83.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to study the effect of parity on maternal and neonatal characteristics. Maternal anthropometry, diet, micronutrient status, biochemistry, and physical activity were measured during pregnancy and detailed neonatal size recorded in 770 pregnancies in rural Maharashtra, India. Increasing parity was associated with larger offspring birth weight, skinfold thicknesses, and abdominal circumference, but not head circumference and length. Compared with primiparous women, multiparous women were older, less adipose, and more physically active but had similar education, socioeconomic status, nutritional intake, and weight gain during pregnancy. They had lower circulating concentrations of hemoglobin, albumin, ferritin, glucose, and insulin and lower total leucocyte counts at 18 and 28 weeks' gestation. There was no difference in their husbands' body size. The relationship between maternal parity and neonatal weight and adiposity was significant independent of the difference in maternal characteristics. Increasing maternal parity predicts increasing adiposity in the newborn infant. This may result from maternal nutritional, cardiovascular, or immunologic factors.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2005; 193(3 Pt 1):783-9. · 3.88 Impact Factor