[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether rhTGF-beta1 or a recombinant vector encoding a fusion protein comprising an extracellular domain of TGF-beta receptor II and an IgG Fc fragment) affects the regulation of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with rhTGF-beta1 or transfected with a recombinant vector, pIRES2-EGFP-TbetaRII-Fc. Expression of CXCR4 in these cells was then analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels by quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry assay, respectively. A transwell assay was used to measure the chemotactic response of these cells to SDF-1alpha.
CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in TGF-beta1-treated MCF-7 cells. These cells also demonstrated an enhanced chemotactic response to SDF-1alpha. In MCF-7 cells transiently transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-TbetaRII-Fc, a fusion protein named TbetaRII-Fc (approximately 41 kDa) was produced and secreted. In these transfected cells, there was a reduction in CXCR4 expression and in the SDF-1alpha-mediated chemotactic response.
TGF-beta1 upregulated CXCR4 expression in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently enhanced the SDF-1alpha-induced chemotactic response. The results suggest a link between TGF-beta1 and CXCR4 expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which may be one of the mechanisms of TGF-beta1-mediated enhancement of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma (MM) is a major public health problem. The development of effective, systemic therapies for MM is highly desired. We showed here that the transferrin receptor (TfR) was a suitable surface marker for targeting of gene therapy in MM and that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was an attractive therapeutic molecular target in MM. We observed that inhibition of HIF-1alpha blocked cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We then showed that a transferrin-polyethylenimine-HIF-1alpha-short-hairpin RNA (Tf-PEI-HIF-1alpha-shRNA) complex could target MM specifically and efficiently both in vivo and in vitro, exploiting the high expression of the TfR in MM. The systemic delivery of sequence-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA) against HIF-1alpha by the Tf- PEI-HIF-1alpha-shRNA complex dramatically inhibited tumor growth in the A375 MM xenograft model. The underlying concept of transfecting a HIF-1alpha shRNA expression vector complexed with Tf-PEI to block HIF-1alpha holds promise as a clinical approach to gene therapy for MM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells and contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes. The chaperone molecule, glucose-regulated proteins 78 (Grp78), is required to maintain ER function during toxic insults. In this study, we investigated the changes of Grp78 expression in different phases of streptozotocin (STZ)-affected beta-cells to explore the relationship between Grp78 and the response of beta-cells to ER stress. An insulinoma cell line (NIT-1) treated with STZ for different time periods and STZ-induced diabetic Balb/C mice at different time points were used as the model system. The level of Grp78 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and their protein by immunoblot. Apoptosis and necrosis was measured by flow cytometry. In addition, the changes of Grp78 protein in STZ-treated nondiabetic mice were also detected by immunoblot. Grp78 expression significantly increased in the early phase but decreased in the later phase of affected beta-cells, while CHOP was induced and apoptosis occurred along with the decrease of Grp78. Interestingly, the Grp78 protein of STZ-treated nondiabetic mice increased stably compared with that of the control. From the results, we can conclude that Grp78 may contribute to the response of beta-cells to ER stress, and more attention should be paid to Grp78 in the improvement of diabetes.
Cell Stress and Chaperones 08/2008; 14(1):43-8. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine CCL21 can effectively attract CCR7(+) dendritic cells (DCs), however its role in this event is poorly understood. In this report, we investigated the effect of exogenous CCL21 expressed in breast cancer MCF-7 on human monocyte-derived DCs. CCL21-transfected MCF-7 stimulation prompted DC functions: migration, antigen-uptake and presentation. The stimulated DCs facilitated Th1 type cytokines production, perforin-forming CD8(+) T cell transformation and final T cell-associated clearance of MCF-7. Moreover, the MCF-7-resourced CCL21 protected DCs from apoptosis significantly, involving up-regulations of Bcl-2 expression and NF-kappaB activity, and reduction of caspase-3. This study provides evidence that tumor-derived CCL21 increases the presentation and apoptosis resistance of DCs, suggesting such a mechanism may be useful for the improvement of tumor cell immunogenicity and anti-tumor response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4+/-2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For the first time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 354(4):864-71. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody-therapeutic agent conjugates to be delivered directly into the cytosol of tumour cells is required for many target-based therapeutic strategies. For this work, a large non-immune phage-display library was used to select internalizing scFv (single chain variable fragment) directed against EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), a tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a wide range of tumour cells. The CHO-EGFR-GFP1 (where CHO is Chinese-hamster ovary) cell line, a transfected cell line expressing EGFR-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein on membranes, and the untransfected cell line CHO-K1 were used as EGFR-positive cells and -negative cells respectively in the subtractive selection procedure. A novel human anti-EGFR scFv (F4-scFv) was isolated. F4-scFv bound native EGFR-bearing cell lines and could be internalized, but did not bind EGFR-negative cell lines. The K(D) value of F4-scFv was 472 nM as determined on A431 cells. F4-scFv could be used to target therapeutic agents into tumour cells and was expected to be non-immunogenic in humans. Use of a transfected cell line expressing GFP-tagged receptors allows selection and characterization of antibodies to native receptors without the need for protein expression and purification, significantly speeding up the generation of targeting antibodies.