N. Langer

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (408)1115.85 Total impact

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    Thomas Tauris · Norbert Langer · Philipp Podsiadlowski ·
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    ABSTRACT: The explosion of ultra-stripped stars in close binaries may explain new discoveries of weak and fast optical transients. We have demonstrated that helium star companions to neutron stars (NSs) may evolve into naked metal cores as low as ~1.5 Msun, barely above the Chandrasekhar mass limit, by the time they explode. Here we present a new systematic investigation of the progenitor evolution leading to such ultra-stripped supernovae (SNe), in some cases yielding pre-SN envelopes of less than 0.01 Msun. We discuss the nature of these SNe (electron-capture vs iron core-collapse) and their observational light-curve properties. Ultra-stripped SNe are highly relevant for binary pulsars, as well as gravitational wave detection of merging NSs by LIGO/VIRGO, since these events are expected to produce mainly low-kick NSs in the mass range 1.10-1.80 Msun.
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    ABSTRACT: A significant fraction of the envelope of low- and intermediate-mass stars is unstable to convection, leading to sub-surface turbulent motion. Here, we consider and include the effects of turbulence pressure in our stellar evolution calculations. In search of an observational signature, we compare the fractional contribution of turbulent pressure to the observed macroturbulent velocities in stars at different evolutionary stages. We find a strong correlation between the two quantities, similar to what was previously found for massive OB stars. We therefore argue that turbulent pressure fluctuations of finite amplitude may excite high-order, high-angular degree stellar oscillations, which manifest themselves at the surface an additional broadening of the spectral lines, i.e., macroturbulence, across most of the HR diagram. When considering the locations in the HR diagram where we expect high-order oscillations to be excited by stochastic turbulent pressure fluctuations, we find a close match with the observational $\gamma$ Doradus instability strip, which indeed contains high-order, non-radial pulsators. We suggest that turbulent pressure fluctuations on a percentual level may contribute to the $\gamma$ Dor phenomenon, calling for more detailed theoretical modelling in this direction.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201527289 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose that nebular Halpha emission as detected in the Type Ic superluminous supernova iPTF13ehe stems from matter which is stripped from a companion star when the supernova ejecta collide with it. The temporal evolution, the line broadening, and the overall blueshift of the emission are consistent with this interpretation. We scale the nebular Halpha luminosity predicted for Type Ia supernovae in single-degenerate systems to derive the stripped mass required to explain the Halpha luminosity of iPTF13ehe. We find a stripped mass of 0.1 - 0.9 solar masses, assuming that the supernova luminosity is powered by radioactivity or magnetar spin down. Because a central heating source is required to excite the Halpha emission, an interaction-powered model is not favored for iPTF13ehe. We derive a companion mass of more than 20 solar masses and a binary separation of less than about 20 companion radii based on the stripping efficiency during the collision, indicating that the supernova progenitor and the companion formed a massive close binary system. If Type Ic superluminous supernovae generally occur in massive close binary systems, the early brightening observed previously in several Type Ic superluminous supernovae may also be due to the collision with a close companion. Observations of nebular hydrogen emission in future Type Ic superluminous supernovae will enable us to test this interpretation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201527515 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contact phase expected to precede the coalescence of two massive stars is poorly characterized due to the paucity of observational constraints. Here we report on the discovery of VFTS 352, an O-type binary in the 30 Doradus region, as the most massive and earliest spectral type overcontact system known to date. We derived the 3D geometry of the system, its orbital period $P_{\rm orb}=1.1241452(4)$ d, components' effective temperatures -- $T_1=42\,540\pm280$ K and $T_2=41\,120\pm290$ K -- and dynamical masses -- $M_1=28.63\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$ and $M_2 = 28.85\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$. Compared to single-star evolutionary models, the VFTS 352 components are too hot for their dynamical masses by about 2700 and 1100 K, respectively. These results can be explained naturally as a result of enhanced mixing, theoretically predicted to occur in very short-period tidally-locked systems. The VFTS 352 components are two of the best candidates identified so far to undergo this so-called chemically homogeneous evolution. The future of VFTS 352 is uncertain. If the two stars merge, a very rapidly rotating star will be produced. Instead, if the stars continue to evolve homogeneously and keep shrinking within their Roche Lobes, coalescence can be avoided. In this case, tides may counteract the spin down by winds such that the VFTS 352 components may, at the end of their life, fulfill the requirements for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors in the collapsar scenario. Independently of whether the VFTS 352 components become GRB progenitors, this scenario makes VFTS 352 interesting as a progenitor of a black hole binary, hence as a potential gravitational wave source through black hole-black hole merger.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2015; 812(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/102 · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • I. Petermann · N. Langer · N. Castro · L. Fossati ·
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    ABSTRACT: About 10$\%$ of the massive main sequence stars have recently been found to host a strong, large scale magnetic field. Both, the origin and the evolutionary consequences of these fields are largely unknown. We argue that these fields may be sufficiently strong in the deep interior of the stars to suppress convection near the outer edge of their convective core. We performed parametrised stellar evolution calculations and assumed a reduced size of the convective core for stars in the mass range 16 M$_{\odot}$ to 28 M$_{\odot}$ from the zero age main sequence until core carbon depletion. We find that such models avoid the coolest part of the main sequence band, which is usually filled by evolutionary models that include convective core overshooting. Furthermore, our `magnetic' models populate the blue supergiant region during core helium burning, i.e., the post-main sequence gap left by ordinary single star models, and some of them end their life in a position near that of the progenitor of Supernova 1987A in the HR diagram. Further effects include a strongly reduced luminosity during the red supergiant stage, and downward shift of the limiting initial mass for white dwarf and neutron star formation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526302 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Jonathan Mackey · Norberto Castro · Luca Fossati · Norbert Langer ·
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    ABSTRACT: The massive red supergiant (RSG) W26 in Westerlund 1 is one of a growing number of RSGs shown to have winds that are ionized from the outside in. The fate of this dense wind material is important for models of second generation star formation in massive star clusters. Mackey et al. (2014) showed that external photoionization can stall the wind of RSGs and accumulate mass in a dense static shell. We use 1D R-HD simulations of an externally photoionized wind to predict the Halpha and [NII] emission arising from photoionized winds both with and without a dense shell. We analyse spectra of the Halpha and [NII] emission in the environment around W26 and compare them with predicted synthetic emission. Simulations of slow winds that are decelerated into a dense shell show strongly limb-brightened line emission, with line radial velocities that are independent of the wind speed. Faster winds (>22 km/s) do not form a dense shell, have less limb-brightening, and the line radial velocity is a good tracer of the wind speed. The brightness of the [NII] and Halpha lines as a function of distance from W26 agrees reasonably well with observations when only the line flux is considered. The radial velocity disagrees, however: the brightest observed emission is blueshifted by ~25 km/s relative to the radial velocity of the star, whereas a spherically symmetric wind has the brightest emission at zero radial velocity. Our results show that the bright nebula surrounding W26 must be asymmetric; we suggest it is confined by external ram pressure from the wind of the nearby supergiant W9. We obtain a lower limit on the nitrogen abundance within the nebula of 2.35 times solar. The line ratio strongly favours photoionization over shock ionization, and so even if the observed nebula is pressure confined there should still be an ionization front and a photoionization-confined shell closer to the star.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 582. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526159 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code cmfgen, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of ≈21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B − V) ≈ 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of MV = −6.8 ± 0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/L⊙ ≈ 5.42 ± 0.30, a mass-loss rate of ≈(2.8-4.5) × 10− 7 M⊙ yr− 1, and resides at a distance of ≈5.6$^{+1.5} _{-1.2}$ kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (Sher 25, HD 168625, [SBW2007] 1) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (Sk−69$\deg$202). The nitrogen abundances in these nebulae imply that blue supergiants can produce them from the main-sequence stage up to the pre-supernova stage. We also present a K-band spectrum of the candidate luminous blue variable MN56 (encircled by a ring-like nebula) and report the discovery of an OB star at ≈17 arcsec from MN18. The possible membership of MN18 and the OB star of the star cluster Lynga 3 is discussed.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2015; 454(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1995 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Debashis Sanyal · Takashi J. Moriya · Norbert Langer ·
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    ABSTRACT: Massive, luminous stars reaching the Eddington limit in their interiors develop very dilute, extended envelopes. This effect is called envelope inflation. If the progenitors of Type Ib/c supernovae, which are believed to be Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, have inflated envelopes then the shock breakout signals diffuse in them and can extend their rise times significantly. We show that our inflated, hydrogen-free, WR stellar models with a radius of ~Rsun can have shock breakout signals longer than ~60 s. The puzzlingly long shock breakout signal observed in the Type Ib SN 2008D can be explained by an inflated progenitor envelope, and more such events might argue in favour of existence of inflated envelopes in general.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the characteristics of two newly discovered short-period, double-lined, massive binary systems, VFTS 450 (O9.7$\;$II--Ib$\,$+$\,$O7::) and VFTS 652 (B1$\;$Ib$\,+\,$O9:$\;$III:). We perform model-atmosphere analyses to characterise the photospheric properties of both members of each binary (denoting the `primary' as the spectroscopically more conspicuous component). Radial velocities and optical photometry are used to estimate the binary-system parameters. We estimate $T_{\rm eff}=27$ kK, $\log{(g)}=2.9$ (cgs) for the VFTS 450 primary spectrum (34kK, 3.6: for the secondary spectrum); and $T_{\rm eff} = 22$kK, $\log{(g)}=2.8$ for the VFTS 652 primary spectrum (35kK, 3.7: for the secondary spectrum). Both primaries show surface nitrogen enrichments (of more than 1 dex for VFTS 652), and probable moderate oxygen depletions relative to reference LMC abundances. We determine orbital periods of 6.89d and 8.59d for VFTS 450 and VFTS 652, respectively, and argue that the primaries must be close to filling their Roche lobes. Supposing this to be the case, we estimate component masses in the range $\sim$20--50M$_\odot$. The secondary spectra are associated with the more massive components, suggesting that both systems are high-mass analogues of classical Algol systems, undergoing case-A mass transfer. Difficulties in reconciling the spectroscopic analyses with the light-curves and with evolutionary considerations suggest that the secondary spectra are contaminated by (or arise in) accretion disks.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 582. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526408 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Cepheids are key probes of both stellar astrophysics and cosmology as standard candles and pulsating variable stars. It is important to understand Cepheids in unprecedented detail in preparation for upcoming GAIA, JWST and extremely-large telescope observations. Cepheid eclipsing binary stars are ideal tools for achieving this goal, however there are currently only three known systems. One of those systems, OGLE-LMC-CEP1812, raises new questions about the evolution of classical Cepheids because of an apparent age discrepancy between the Cepheid and its red giant companion. We show that the Cepheid component is actually the product of a stellar merger of two main sequence stars that has since evolved across the Hertzsprung gap of the HR diagram. This post-merger product appears younger than the companion, hence the apparent age discrepancy is resolved. We discuss this idea and consequences for understanding Cepheid evolution.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 581. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526716 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Dorottya Szecsi · Norbert Langer ·

    IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2256954, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256954S; 08/2015
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    Dorottya Szecsi · Norbert Langer ·

    IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2256962, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256962S; 08/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars (BOB)", we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with the FORS instruments, we derived the magnetic field values with two completely independent reduction and analysis pipelines. We compare and discuss the results obtained from the two pipelines. We obtained a general good agreement, indicating that most of the discrepancies on magnetic field detections reported in the literature are caused by the interpretation of the significance of the results (i.e., 3-4 sigma detections considered as genuine, or not), instead of by significant differences in the derived magnetic field values. By combining our results with past FORS1 measurements of HD46328, we improve the estimate of the stellar rotation period, obtaining P = 2.17950+/-0.00009 days. For HD125823, our FORS2 measurements do not fit the available magnetic field model, based on magnetic field values obtained 30 years ago. We repeatedly detect a magnetic field for the O9.7V star HD54879, the HD164492C massive binary, and the He-rich star CPD -57 3509. We obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 6+/-4%, while by considering only the apparently slow rotators we derive a detection rate of 8+/-5%, both comparable with what was previously reported by other similar surveys. We are left with the intriguing result that, although the large majority of magnetic massive stars is rotating slowly, our detection rate is not a strong function of the stellar rotational velocity.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 582. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526725 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 1-D non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for supernovae (SNe) of type IIb, Ib, and Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Here, we select three ejecta with a total kinetic energy of ~1.2e51erg, but characterised by different ejecta masses (2-5Msun), composition, and chemical mixing. The type IIb/Ib models correspond to the progenitors that have retained their He-rich shell at the time of explosion. The type Ic model arises from a progenitor that has lost its helium shell, but retains 0.32Msun of helium in a CO-rich core of 5.11Msun. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties during the first 2-3 months after explosion, and connect these to their progenitor and ejecta properties including chemical stratification. For these three models, Arnett's rule overestimates the 56Ni mass by ~50% while the procedure of Katz et al., based on an energy argument, yields a more reliable estimate. The presence of strong CI lines around 9000A prior to maximum is an indicator that the pre-SN star was under-abundant in helium. As noted by others, the 1.08micron feature is a complex blend of CI, MgII, and HeI lines, which makes the identification of He uncertain in SNe Ibc unless other HeI lines can be identified. Our models show little scatter in (V-R) colour 10d after R-band maximum. We also address a number of radiative transfer properties of SNe Ibc, including the notion of a photosphere, the inference of a representative ejecta expansion rate, spectrum formation, blackbody fits and "correction factors".
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2015; 453(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1747 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major mass fraction of the envelope of hot luminous stars is radiatively stable. However, the partial ionisation of hydrogen, helium and iron gives rise to extended sub-surface convection zones in all of them. In this work, we investigate the effect of the pressure induced by the turbulent motion in these zones based on the mixing length theory, and search for observable consequences. We find that the turbulent pressure fraction can amount up to ~5% in OB supergiants, and to ~30% in cooler supergiants. The resulting structural changes are, however, not significantly affecting the evolutionary tracks compared to previous calculations. Instead, a comparison of macroturbulent velocities derived from high quality spectra of OB stars with the turbulent pressure fraction obtained in corresponding stellar models reveals a strong correlation of these two quantities. We discuss a possible physical connection, and conclude that turbulent pressure fluctuations may drive high-order oscillations, which - as conjectured earlier - manifest themselves as macroturbulence in the photospheres of hot luminous stars.
    07/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L31
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    ABSTRACT: The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability, enhancements/depletions of surface chemical abundances, and magnetic fields have been identified for low-mass B-stars, but for the O-type domain this is almost unexplored. Based on FORS2 and HARPS spectropolarimetric data, we present the first detection of a magnetic field in HD54879, a single slowly rotating O9.7 V star. Using two independent and different techniques we obtained the firm detection of a surface average longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 600 G, in modulus. A quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star with the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND results in an effective temperature and a surface gravity of 33000$\pm1000$ K and 4.0$\pm0.1$ dex. The abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium are found to be slightly lower than solar, but compatible within the errors. We investigate line-profile variability in HD54879 by complementing our spectra with spectroscopic data from other recent OB-star surveys. The photospheric lines remain constant in shape between 2009 and 2014, although H$\alpha$ shows a variable emission. The H$\alpha$ emission is too strong for a standard O9.7 V and is probably linked to the magnetic field and the presence of circumstellar material. Its normal chemical composition and the absence of photospheric line profile variations make HD54879 the most strongly magnetic, non-variable single O-star detected to date.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2015; 581. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425354 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are however found in multiple systems. By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary sub-populations with one another as well as with that of presumed single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the massive stars spin rates. We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (\vrot) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The \vrot\ values are derived from the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a set of spectral lines, using a FWHM vs. \vrot\ calibration that we derive based on previous line analysis methods applied to single O-type stars in the VFTS sample. The overall \vrot\ distribution of the primary stars resembles that of single O-type stars in the VFTS, featuring a low-velocity peak (at $\vrot < 200$ kms) and a shoulder at intermediate velocities ($200 < \vrot < 300$ kms). The distributions of binaries and single stars however differ in two ways. First, the main peak at $\vrot \sim$100 kms is broader and slightly shifted toward higher spin rates in the binary distribution compared to that of the presumed-single stars. Second, the \vrot distribution of primaries lacks a significant population of stars spinning faster than 300 kms while such a population is clearly present in the single star sample.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2015; 580. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425424 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars represent a very rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their spectra show strong emission lines of helium-burning products, in particular highly ionized carbon and oxygen. The properties of WO stars can be used to provide unique constraints on the (post-)helium burning evolution of massive stars, as well as their remaining lifetime and the expected properties of their supernovae. Aims. We aim to homogeneously analyse the currently known presumed-single WO stars to obtain the key stellar and outflow properties and to constrain their evolutionary state. Methods. We use the line-blanketed non-local thermal equilibrium atmosphere code cmfgen to model the X-Shooter spectra of the WO stars and deduce the atmospheric parameters. We calculate dedicated evolutionary models to determine the evolutionary state of the stars. Results. The WO stars have extremely high temperatures that range from 150 kK to 210 kK, and very low surface helium mass fractions that range from 44% down to 14%. Their properties can be reproduced by evolutionary models with helium zero-age main sequence masses of $M_{\mathrm{He, ini}} = 15-25 M_{\odot}$ that exhibit a fairly strong (on the order of a few times $10^{-5} M_{\odot} \mathrm{yr}^{-1}$), homogeneous ($f_\mathrm{c} > 0.3$) stellar wind. Conclusions. WO stars represent the final evolutionary stage of stars with estimated initial masses of $M_{\mathrm{ini}} = 40-60 M_{\odot}$. They are post core-helium burning and predicted to explode as type Ic supernovae within a few thousand years.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2015; 581. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425390 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massive rotating single stars with an initial metal composition appropriate for the dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 ([Fe/H]=$-$1.7) are modelled during hydrogen burning for initial masses of 9-300 M$_{\odot}$ and rotational velocities of 0-900 km s$^{-1}$. Internal mixing processes in these models were calibrated based on an observed sample of OB-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Even moderately fast rotators, which may be abundant at this metallicity, are found to undergo efficient mixing induced by rotation resulting in quasi chemically-homogeneous evolution. These homogeneously-evolving models reach effective temperatures of up to 90 kK during core hydrogen burning. This, together with their moderate mass-loss rates, make them Transparent Wind Ultraviolet INtense stars (TWUIN star), and their expected numbers might explain the observed HeII ionizing photon flux in I Zw 18 and other low-metallicity HeII galaxies. Our slowly rotating stars above $\sim$80 M$_{\odot}$ evolve into late B- to M-type supergiants during core hydrogen burning, with visual magnitudes up to 19$^{\mathrm{m}}$ at the distance of I Zw 18. Both types of stars, TWUIN stars and luminous late-type supergiants, are only predicted at low metallicity. Massive star evolution at low metallicity is shown to differ qualitatively from that in metal-rich environments. Our grid can be used to interpret observations of local star-forming dwarf galaxies and high-redshift galaxies, as well as the metal-poor components of our Milky Way and its globular clusters.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2015; 581. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526617 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve treatment of mass accretion, giving more accurate and robust near-surface profiles. A new MESA capability to calculate weak reaction rates "on-the-fly" from input nuclear data allows better simulation of accretion induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and the fate of some massive stars. We discuss the ongoing challenge of chemical diffusion in the strongly coupled plasma regime, and exhibit improvements in MESA that now allow for the simulation of radiative levitation of heavy elements in hot stars. We close by noting that the MESA software infrastructure provides bit-for-bit consistency for all results across all the supported platforms, a profound enabling capability for accelerating MESA's development.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 06/2015; 220(1). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/220/1/15 · 11.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,115.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2009-2015
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA)
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2014
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Cosmosciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2012
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
  • 2000-2012
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2009
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1997-2009
    • Universität Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group
      Los Alamos, California, United States
    • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2006
    • University of Delaware
      Ньюарк, Delaware, United States
    • Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute
      Box Elder, South Dakota, United States
  • 2003
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1995-1998
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      • Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
  • 1986-1989
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985-1986
    • American University of Beirut
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon