N. Langer

Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (369)906.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. A lack of cool binaries, possibly reflects the small sample size. Single star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for the N enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of N abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. The first comparative study of single and binary BSGs has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff=20000K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolution of BSGs. Full abstract in paper
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In stably stratified stars, numerical magneto-hydrodynamics simulations have shown that arbitrary initial magnetic fields evolve into stable equilibrium configurations, usually containing nearly axisymmetric, linked poloidal and toroidal fields that stabilize each other. In this work, we test the hypothesis that stable stratification is a requirement for the existence of such stable equilibria. For this purpose, we follow numerically the evolution of magnetic fields in barotropic (and thus neutrally stable) stars, starting from two different types of initial conditions, namely random disordered magnetic fields, as well as linked poloidal-toroidal configurations resembling the previously found equilibria. With many trials, we always find a decay of the magnetic field over a few Alfv\'en times, never a stable equilibrium. This strongly suggests that there are no stable equilibria in barotropic stars, thus clearly invalidating the assumption of barotropic equations of state often imposed on the search of magnetic equilibria. It also supports the hypothesis that, as dissipative processes erode the stable stratification, they might destabilize previously stable magnetic field configurations, leading to their decay.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60<Bd<230 G within 1 sigma), below what is typically found for other magnetic massive stars. For epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this star, we determine that the rotation period ranges between 1.3 and 24 days. Both stars are expected to have a dynamical magnetosphere. We also conclude that both stars are most likely core hydrogen burning and that they have spent more than 2/3 of their main sequence lifetime. A histogram of the distribution of the dipolar magnetic field strength for the magnetic massive stars known to date does not show the magnetic field "desert" observed instead for intermediate-mass stars. The biases involved in the detection of (weak) magnetic fields in massive stars with the currently available instrumentation and techniques imply that weak fields might be more common than currently observed. Our results show that, if present, even relatively weak magnetic fields are detectable in massive stars and that more observational effort is probably still needed to properly access the magnetic field incidence.
    11/2014;
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    Alina Istrate, Thomas Tauris, Norbert Langer
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    ABSTRACT: Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs) which have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion of matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). However, many details of this recycling scenario remain to be understood. Here we investigate binary evolution in close LMXBs to study the formation of radio MSPs with low-mass helium white dwarf companions (He WDs) in tight binaries with orbital periods P_orb = 2-9 hr. In particular, we examine: i) if such observed systems can be reproduced from theoretical modelling using standard prescriptions of orbital angular momentum losses (i.e. with respect to the nature and the strength of magnetic braking), ii) if our computations of the Roche-lobe detachments can match the observed orbital periods, and iii) if the correlation between WD mass and orbital period (M_WD, P_orb) is valid for systems with P_orb < 2 days. Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-transfer phase in ~ 400 close LMXB systems with different initial values of donor star mass, NS mass, orbital period and the so-called gamma-index of magnetic braking. Subsequently, we followed the orbital and the interior evolution of the detached low-mass (proto) He WDs, including stages with residual shell hydrogen burning. We find that a severe fine-tuning is necessary to reproduce the observed MSPs in tight binaries with He WD companions of mass < 0.20 M_sun, which suggests that something needs to be modified or is missing in the standard input physics of LMXB modelling. We demonstrate that the theoretically calculated (M_WD, P_orb)-relation is in general also valid for systems with P_orb < 2 days, although with a large scatter in He WD masses between 0.15-0.20 M_sun. The results of the thermal evolution of the (proto) He WDs are reported in a follow-up paper (Paper II).
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of low-mass (< 0.20 M_sun) helium white dwarfs (He WDs) have recently been discovered. The majority of these are orbiting another WD or a millisecond pulsar (MSP) in a close binary system; a few examples are found to show pulsations or to have a main-sequence star companion. There appear to be discrepancies between the current theoretical modelling of such low-mass He WDs and a number of key observed cases, indicating that their formation scenario remains to be fully understood. Here we investigate the formation of detached proto-He WDs in close-orbit low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Our prime focus is to examine the thermal evolution and the contraction phase towards the WD cooling track and investigate how this evolution depends on the WD mass. Our calculations are then compared to the most recent observational data. Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-transfer phase in a large number of close-orbit LMXBs. Subsequently, we followed the evolution of the detached low-mass proto-He WDs, including stages with residual shell hydrogen burning and vigorous flashes caused by unstable CNO burning. We find that the time between Roche-lobe detachment until the low-mass proto-He WD reaches the WD cooling track is typically Delta_t_proto = 0.5 - 2 Gyr, depending systematically on the WD mass and therefore on its luminosity. The lowest WD mass for developing shell flashes is ~0.21 M_sun for progenitor stars of mass M2 <= 1.5 M_sun (and ~0.18 M_sun for M2 = 1.6 M_sun). The long timescale of low-mass proto-He WD evolution can explain a number of recent observations, including some MSP systems hosting He WD companions with very low surface gravities and high effective temperatures. We find no evidence for Delta_t_proto to depend on the occurrence of flashes and thus question the suggested dichotomy in thermal evolution of proto-WDs.
    10/2014;
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    Takashi J. Moriya, Norbert Langer
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    ABSTRACT: Recent stellar evolution models show consistently that very massive metal-free stars evolve into red supergiants shortly before they explode. We argue that the envelopes of these stars, which will form pair-instability supernovae, become pulsationally unstable, and that this will lead to extreme mass-loss rates even though the metal content of the envelopes is very small. We investigate the pulsational properties of such models, and derive pulsationally induced mass-loss rates which take the damping effects of the mass loss on the pulsations selfconsistently into account. We find that the pulsations may induce mass-loss rates of ~ 1e-4 - 1e-2 Msun/yr shortly before the explosions, which may create a dense circumstellar medium. Our results show that very massive stars with dense circumstellar media may originate from a wider initial mass range than that of pulsational-pair instability supernovae. The extreme mass loss will cease when so much of the hydrogen-rich envelope is lost that the star becomes more compact and stops pulsating. Therefore, the helium core of these stars remains unaffected, and their fate as pair-instability supernovae remains unaltered. The existence of dense circumstellar media around metal-free pair-instability supernovae can make them brighter and bluer and they may be easier to detect at high redshifts than previously expected. We argue that the mass-loss enhancement in pair-instability supernova progenitors can naturally explain some observational properties of superluminous supernovae, namely, the energetic explosions of stars within hydrogen-rich dense circumstellar media with little 56Ni production and the lack of a hydrogen-rich envelope in pair-instability supernova candidates with large 56Ni production.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram narrates their evolutionary history and directly assesses their properties. Placing stars in this diagram however requires the knowledge of their distances and interstellar extinctions, which are often poorly known for Galactic stars. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (sHRD) tells similar evolutionary tales, but is independent of distance and extinction measurements. Based on spectroscopically derived effective temperatures and gravities of almost 600 stars, we derive for the first time the observational distribution of Galactic massive stars in the sHRD. While biases and statistical limitations in the data prevent detailed quantitative conclusions at this time, we see several clear qualitative trends. By comparing the observational sHRD with different state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary predictions, we conclude that convective core overshooting may be mass-dependent and, at high mass ($\geq 15\,M_\odot$), stronger than previously thought. Furthermore, we find evidence for an empirical upper limit in the sHRD for stars with $T_{\rm{eff}}$ between 10000 and 32000 K and, a strikingly large number of objects below this line. This over-density may be due to inflation expanding envelopes in massive main-sequence stars near the Eddington limit.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H II region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H II region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H II regions around massive stars moving through a dense (n=3000 cm^{-3}), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km/s. The H II region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H II regions (we find filling factors of 10-20%), at least for a main sequence star with mass M~30 Msun. Furthermore, even for supersonic velocities the wind bow shock does not significantly trap the ionization front. X-ray emission from the wind bubble is soft, faint, and comes mainly from the turbulent mixing layer between the wind bubble and the H II region. The wind bubble radiates <1 per cent of its energy in X-rays; it loses most of its energy by turbulent mixing with cooler photoionized gas. Comparison of the simulations with the H II region RCW 120 shows that its dynamical age is <=0.4 Myr and that stellar motion <=4 km/s is allowed, implying that the ionizing source is unlikely to be a runaway star but more likely formed in situ. The region's youth, and apparent isolation from other O or B stars, makes it very interesting for studies of massive star formation and of initial mass functions.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, $v_e\sin i$, of $\sim$330 O-type objects, i.e. $\sim$210 spectroscopic single stars and $\sim$110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30\,Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the $v_e\sin i$ distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part -- and could potentially be completely due -- to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Powerful telescopes equipped with multi-fibre or integral field spectrographs combined with detailed models of stellar atmospheres and automated fitting techniques allow for the analysis of large number of stars. These datasets contain a wealth of information that require new analysis techniques to bridge the gap between observations and stellar evolution models. To that end, we develop BONNSAI (BONN Stellar Astrophysics Interface), a Bayesian statistical method, that is capable of comparing all available observables simultaneously to stellar models while taking observed uncertainties and prior knowledge such as initial mass functions and distributions of stellar rotational velocities into account. BONNSAI can be used to (1) determine probability distributions of fundamental stellar parameters such as initial masses and stellar ages from complex datasets, (2) predict stellar parameters that were not yet observationally determined and (3) test stellar models to further advance our understanding of stellar evolution. An important aspect of BONNSAI is that it singles out stars that cannot be reproduced by stellar models through $\chi^{2}$ hypothesis tests and posterior predictive checks. BONNSAI can be used with any set of stellar models and currently supports massive main-sequence single star models of Milky Way and Large and Small Magellanic Cloud composition. We apply our new method to mock stars to demonstrate its functionality and capabilities. In a first application, we use BONNSAI to test the stellar models of Brott et al. (2011a) by comparing the stellar ages inferred for the primary and secondary stars of eclipsing Milky Way binaries. Ages are determined from dynamical masses and radii that are known to better than 3%. We find that the stellar models reproduce the Milky Way binaries well. BONNSAI is available through a web-interface at http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/stars/bonnsai.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [OIII]. The Ha emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The H$\alpha$ emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically-thin radiation mainly comes from the shocked ISM material. All bow shock models are brighter in the infrared, i.e. the infrared is the most appropriate waveband to search for bow shocks. Our study suggests that the infrared emission comes from near the contact discontinuity for bow shocks of hot stars and from the inner region of shocked wind for bow shocks around cool stars. We predict that, in the Galactic plane, the brightest, i.e. the most easily detectable bow shocks are produced by high-mass stars moving with small space velocities.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Betelgeuse, a nearby red supergiant, is a runaway star with a powerful stellar wind that drives a bow shock into its surroundings. This picture has been challenged by the discovery of a dense and almost static shell that is three times closer to the star than the bow shock and has been decelerated by some external force. The two physically distinct structures cannot both be formed by the hydrodynamic interaction of the wind with the interstellar medium. Here we report that a model in which Betelgeuse's wind is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the static shell without requiring a new understanding of the bow shock. Pressure from the photoionized wind generates a standing shock in the neutral part of the wind and forms an almost static, photoionization-confined shell. Other red supergiants should have significantly more massive shells than Betelgeuse, because the photoionization-confined shell traps up to 35 per cent of all mass lost during the red supergiant phase, confining this gas close to the star until it explodes. After the supernova explosion, massive shells dramatically affect the supernova lightcurve, providing a natural explanation for the many supernovae that have signatures of circumstellar interaction.
    Nature. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New spectroscopic observations of the LBV/WR multiple system HD5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud are used to address the question of the masses and evolutionary status of the two very luminous stars in the 19.3d eclipsing binary system. Two distinct components of the N V 4944 A line are detected in emission and their radial velocity variations are used to derive masses of 61 and 66 Mo, under the assumption that binary interaction effects on this atomic transition are negligible. We propose that this binary system is the product of quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution with little or no mass transfer. Thus, both of these binary stars may be candidates for gamma-ray burst progenitors or even pair instability supernovae. Analysis of the photospheric absorption lines belonging to the third-light object in the system confirm that it consists of an O-type star in a 96.56d eccentric orbit (e=0.82) around an unseen companion. The 5:1 period ratio and high eccentricities of the two binaries suggest that they may constitute a hierarchical quadruple system.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2014; 148(4). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss two important effects for the astrospheres of runaway stars: the propagation of ionizing photons far beyond the astropause, and the rapid evolution of massive stars (and their winds) near the end of their lives. Hot stars emit ionizing photons with associated photoheating that has a significant dynamical effect on their surroundings. 3D simulations show that HII regions around runaway O stars drive expanding conical shells and leave underdense wakes in the medium they pass through. For late O stars this feedback to the interstellar medium is more important than that from stellar winds. Late in life, O stars evolve to cool red supergiants more rapidly than their environment can react, producing transient circumstellar structures such as double bow shocks. This provides an explanation for the bow shock and linear bar-shaped structure observed around Betelgeuse.
    ASTRA Proceedings. 07/2014; 1(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The most massive stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), so called super-AGB stars, are thought to produce supernovae (SNe) triggered by electron captures in their degenerate O+Ne+Mg cores. Super-AGB stars are expected to have slow winds with high mass-loss rates, so their wind density is high. The explosions of super-AGB stars are therefore presumed to occur in this dense wind. We provide the first synthetic light curves (LCs) for such events by exploding realistic electron-capture supernova (ecSN) progenitors within their super-AGB winds. We find that the early LC, i.e. before the recombination wave reaches the bottom of the H-rich envelope of SN ejecta (the plateau phase), is not affected by the dense wind. However, after the plateau phase, the luminosity remains higher when the super-AGB wind is taken into account. We compare our results to the historical LC of SN 1054, the progenitor of the Crab Nebula, and show that the explosion of an ecSN within an ordinary super-AGB wind can explain the LC features. We conclude that SN 1054 could have been a Type IIn SN without any extra extreme mass loss which was previously suggested to be necessary to account for its early high luminosity. We also show that our LCs match Type IIn SNe with an early plateau phase (`Type IIn-P') and suggest that they are ecSNe within super-AGB winds. Although some ecSNe can be bright in the optical spectral range due to the large progenitor radius, their X-ray luminosity from the interaction does not necessarily get as bright as other Type IIn SNe whose optical luminosities are also powered by the interaction. Thus, we suggest that optically-bright X-ray-faint Type IIn SNe can emerge from ecSNe. Optically-faint Type IIn SNe, such as SN 2008S, can also originate from ecSNe if their H-rich envelope masses are small. Some of them can be observed as `Type IIn-b' SNe due to the small H-rich envelope mass.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 569. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant Hii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O to denser WNh star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O and optically thick WNh star winds. Our results suggest the existence of a kink between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent MC simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the Eddington factor from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the MS near a luminosity of 10^6.1Lsun, or a mass of 80...90Msun. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with f = 0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and shaping their environments.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enigmatic oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars represent a very late stage in massive star evolution, although their exact nature is still under debate. The spectra of most of the WO stars have never been analysed through detailed modelling with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium expanding atmosphere code. Here we present preliminary results of the first homogeneous analysis of the (apparently) single WOs.
    IAUS 307: New windows on massive stars: asteroseismology, interferometry, and spectropolarimetry, Geneva, Switzerland; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.
    06/2014;

Publication Stats

3k Citations
906.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Cosmosciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2009–2014
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institute of Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2011
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1997–2009
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Institute of Physics and Astronomy
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group
      Los Alamos, California, United States
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
    • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1995–1999
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1986
    • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985–1986
    • American University of Beirut
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon