N. Langer

Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan

Are you N. Langer?

Claim your profile

Publications (357)863.68 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, $v_e\sin i$, of $\sim$330 O-type objects, i.e. $\sim$210 spectroscopic single stars and $\sim$110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30\,Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the $v_e\sin i$ distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300\,$\rm{km s^{-1}}$, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part -- and could potentially be completely due -- to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
    09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Powerful telescopes equipped with multi-fibre or integral field spectrographs combined with detailed models of stellar atmospheres and automated fitting techniques allow for the analysis of large number of stars. These datasets contain a wealth of information that require new analysis techniques to bridge the gap between observations and stellar evolution models. To that end, we develop BONNSAI (BONN Stellar Astrophysics Interface), a Bayesian statistical method, that is capable of comparing all available observables simultaneously to stellar models while taking observed uncertainties and prior knowledge such as initial mass functions and distributions of stellar rotational velocities into account. BONNSAI can be used to (1) determine probability distributions of fundamental stellar parameters such as initial masses and stellar ages from complex datasets, (2) predict stellar parameters that were not yet observationally determined and (3) test stellar models to further advance our understanding of stellar evolution. An important aspect of BONNSAI is that it singles out stars that cannot be reproduced by stellar models through $\chi^{2}$ hypothesis tests and posterior predictive checks. BONNSAI can be used with any set of stellar models and currently supports massive main-sequence single star models of Milky Way and Large and Small Magellanic Cloud composition. We apply our new method to mock stars to demonstrate its functionality and capabilities. In a first application, we use BONNSAI to test the stellar models of Brott et al. (2011a) by comparing the stellar ages inferred for the primary and secondary stars of eclipsing Milky Way binaries. Ages are determined from dynamical masses and radii that are known to better than 3%. We find that the stellar models reproduce the Milky Way binaries well. BONNSAI is available through a web-interface at http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/stars/bonnsai.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [OIII]. The Ha emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The H$\alpha$ emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically-thin radiation mainly comes from the shocked ISM material. All bow shock models are brighter in the infrared, i.e. the infrared is the most appropriate waveband to search for bow shocks. Our study suggests that the infrared emission comes from near the contact discontinuity for bow shocks of hot stars and from the inner region of shocked wind for bow shocks around cool stars. We predict that, in the Galactic plane, the brightest, i.e. the most easily detectable bow shocks are produced by high-mass stars moving with small space velocities.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Betelgeuse, a nearby red supergiant, is a runaway star with a powerful stellar wind that drives a bow shock into its surroundings. This picture has been challenged by the discovery of a dense and almost static shell that is three times closer to the star than the bow shock and has been decelerated by some external force. The two physically distinct structures cannot both be formed by the hydrodynamic interaction of the wind with the interstellar medium. Here we report that a model in which Betelgeuse's wind is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the static shell without requiring a new understanding of the bow shock. Pressure from the photoionized wind generates a standing shock in the neutral part of the wind and forms an almost static, photoionization-confined shell. Other red supergiants should have significantly more massive shells than Betelgeuse, because the photoionization-confined shell traps up to 35 per cent of all mass lost during the red supergiant phase, confining this gas close to the star until it explodes. After the supernova explosion, massive shells dramatically affect the supernova lightcurve, providing a natural explanation for the many supernovae that have signatures of circumstellar interaction.
    Nature. 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
    08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New spectroscopic observations of the LBV/WR multiple system HD5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud are used to address the question of the masses and evolutionary status of the two very luminous stars in the 19.3d eclipsing binary system. Two distinct components of the N V 4944 A line are detected in emission and their radial velocity variations are used to derive masses of 61 and 66 Mo, under the assumption that binary interaction effects on this atomic transition are negligible. We propose that this binary system is the product of quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution with little or no mass transfer. Thus, both of these binary stars may be candidates for gamma-ray burst progenitors or even pair instability supernovae. Analysis of the photospheric absorption lines belonging to the third-light object in the system confirm that it consists of an O-type star in a 96.56d eccentric orbit (e=0.82) around an unseen companion. The 5:1 period ratio and high eccentricities of the two binaries suggest that they may constitute a hierarchical quadruple system.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2014; 148(4). · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We discuss two important effects for the astrospheres of runaway stars: the propagation of ionizing photons far beyond the astropause, and the rapid evolution of massive stars (and their winds) near the end of their lives. Hot stars emit ionizing photons with associated photoheating that has a significant dynamical effect on their surroundings. 3D simulations show that HII regions around runaway O stars drive expanding conical shells and leave underdense wakes in the medium they pass through. For late O stars this feedback to the interstellar medium is more important than that from stellar winds. Late in life, O stars evolve to cool red supergiants more rapidly than their environment can react, producing transient circumstellar structures such as double bow shocks. This provides an explanation for the bow shock and linear bar-shaped structure observed around Betelgeuse.
    07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The most massive stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), so called super-AGB stars, are thought to produce supernovae (SNe) triggered by electron captures in their degenerate O+Ne+Mg cores. Super-AGB stars are expected to have slow winds with high mass-loss rates, so their wind density is high. The explosions of super-AGB stars are therefore presumed to occur in this dense wind. We provide the first synthetic light curves (LCs) for such events by exploding realistic electron-capture supernova (ecSN) progenitors within their super-AGB winds. We find that the early LC, i.e. before the recombination wave reaches the bottom of the H-rich envelope of SN ejecta (the plateau phase), is not affected by the dense wind. However, after the plateau phase, the luminosity remains higher when the super-AGB wind is taken into account. We compare our results to the historical LC of SN 1054, the progenitor of the Crab Nebula, and show that the explosion of an ecSN within an ordinary super-AGB wind can explain the LC features. We conclude that SN 1054 could have been a Type IIn SN without any extra extreme mass loss which was previously suggested to be necessary to account for its early high luminosity. We also show that our LCs match Type IIn SNe with an early plateau phase (`Type IIn-P') and suggest that they are ecSNe within super-AGB winds. Although some ecSNe can be bright in the optical spectral range due to the large progenitor radius, their X-ray luminosity from the interaction does not necessarily get as bright as other Type IIn SNe whose optical luminosities are also powered by the interaction. Thus, we suggest that optically-bright X-ray-faint Type IIn SNe can emerge from ecSNe. Optically-faint Type IIn SNe, such as SN 2008S, can also originate from ecSNe if their H-rich envelope masses are small. Some of them can be observed as `Type IIn-b' SNe due to the small H-rich envelope mass.
    07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant Hii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O to denser WNh star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O and optically thick WNh star winds. Our results suggest the existence of a kink between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent MC simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the Eddington factor from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the MS near a luminosity of 10^6.1Lsun, or a mass of 80...90Msun. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with f = 0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and shaping their environments.
    07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The enigmatic oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars represent a very late stage in massive star evolution, although their exact nature is still under debate. The spectra of most of the WO stars have never been analysed through detailed modelling with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium expanding atmosphere code. Here we present preliminary results of the first homogeneous analysis of the (apparently) single WOs.
    IAUS 307: New windows on massive stars: asteroseismology, interferometry, and spectropolarimetry, Geneva, Switzerland; 06/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.
    06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both recent observations and stellar evolution models suggest that pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) could occur in the local Universe, at metallicities below Z_Sun/3. Previous PISN models were mostly produced at very low metallicities in the context of the early Universe. We present new PISNe models at a metallicity of Z=0.001, which are relevant for the local Universe. We take the self-consistent stellar evolutionary models of pair-instability progenitors with initial masses of 150 and 250 solar masses at metallicity of Z=0.001 by Langer et al. (2007) and follow the evolution of these models through the supernova explosions, using a hydrodynamics stellar evolution code with an extensive nuclear network including 200 isotopes. Both models explode as PISNe without leaving a compact stellar remnant. Our models produce a nucleosynthetic pattern that is generally similar to that of Population III PISN models, which is mainly characterized by the production of large amounts of alpha-elements and a strong deficiency of the odd-charged elements. However, the odd-even effect in our models is significantly weaker than that found in Population III models. The comparison with the nucleosynthetic yields from core-collapse supernovae at a similar metallicity (Z=0.002) indicates that PISNe could have strongly influenced the chemical evolution below Z=0.002, assuming a standard initial mass function. The odd-even effect is predicted to be most prominent for the intermediate mass elements between silicon and calcium. With future observations of chemical abundances in Population II stars, our result can be used to constrain the number of PISNe that occurred during the past evolution of our Galaxy.
    05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first soft gamma-ray repeater was discovered over three decades ago, and subsequently identified as a magnetar. However there is currently no consenus on the formation channel(s) of these objects. The presence of a magnetar in the starburst cluster Westerlund 1 implies a >40Msun progenitor, favouring formation in a binary that was disrupted at supernova. To test this hypothesis we searched for the putative pre-SN companion via a radial velocity survey to identify high-velocity runaways, with subsequent atmospheric analysis of the resultant candidate, Wd1-5. Wd1-5 appears overluminous for its spectroscopic mass and we find evidence of He- and N-enrichment, O-depletion, and critically C-enrichment, a combination of properties that is difficult to explain for a single star. We infer a pre-SN history for Wd1-5 which supposes an initial close binary comprising two stars of comparable (~41Msun+35Msun) masses. Efficient mass transfer from the initially more massive component leads to the mass-gainer evolving more rapidly, initiating luminous blue variable/common envelope evolution. Reverse, wind-driven mass transfer during its subsequent WC Wolf-Rayet phase leads to the carbon pollution of Wd1-5, before a type Ibc supernova disrupts the binary system. Under the assumption of a physical association between Wd1-5 and J1647-45, the secondary is identified as the magnetar progenitor; its common envelope evolutionary phase prevents spin-down of its core prior to SN and the seed magnetic field for the magnetar forms either in this phase or during the earlier episode of mass transfer in which it was spun-up. Our results suggest that binarity is a key ingredient in the formation of at least a subset of magnetars by preventing spin-down via core-coupling and potentially generating a seed magnetic field.
    05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the formation of dust in a stellar wind during the red-supergiant (RSG) phase of a very massive Population III star with a zero-age main sequence mass of 500 M ☉. We show that, in a carbon-rich wind with a constant velocity, carbon grains can form with a lognormal-like size distribution, and that all of the carbon available for dust formation finally condenses into dust for wide ranges of the mass-loss rate ((0.1-3) × 10–3M ☉ yr–1) and wind velocity (1-100 km s–1). We also find that the acceleration of the wind, driven by newly formed dust, suppresses the grain growth but still allows more than half of the gas-phase carbon to finally be locked up in dust grains. These results indicate that, at most, 1.7 M ☉ of carbon grains can form during the RSG phase of 500 M ☉ Population III stars. Such a high dust yield could place very massive primordial stars as important sources of dust at the very early epoch of the universe if the initial mass function of Population III stars was top-heavy. We also briefly discuss a new formation scenario of carbon-rich ultra-metal-poor stars, considering feedback from very massive Population III stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2014; 787(2):L17. · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The blue supergiant Sher25 is surrounded by an asymmetric, hourglass-shaped circumstellar nebula, which shows similarities to the triple-ring structure seen around SN1987A. From optical spectroscopy over six consecutive nights, we detect periodic radial velocity variations in the stellar spectrum of Sher25 with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~12 km/s on a timescale of about 6 days, confirming the tentative detec-tion of similar variations by Hendry et al. From consideration of the amplitude and timescale of the signal, coupled with observed line profile variations, we propose that the physical origin of these variations is related to pulsations in the stellar atmosphere, rejecting the previous hypothesis of a massive, short-period binary companion. The radial velocities of two other blue supergiants with similar bipolar nebulae, SBW1 and HD 168625, were also monitored over the course of six nights, but these did not display any significant radial velocity variations.
    05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the first-ever discovery of a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the Large Magellanic Cloud via detection of a circular shell with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up observations with Gemini-South resolved the central star of the shell into two components separated from each other by approx 2 arcsec (or approx 0.5 pc in projection). One of these components turns out to be a WN3 star with H and He lines both in emission and absorption (we named it BAT99 3a using the numbering system based on extending the Breysacher et al. catalogue). Spectroscopy of the second component showed that it is a B0 V star. Subsequent spectroscopic observations of BAT99 3a with the du Pont 2.5-m telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope revealed that it is a close, eccentric binary system, and that the absorption lines are associated with an O companion star. We analyzed the spectrum of the binary system using the non-LTE Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code, confirming that the WR component is a very hot (approx 90 kK) WN star. For this star, we derived a luminosity of log L/Lsun =5.45 and a mass-loss rate of 10^{-5.8} Msun/yr, and found that the stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with 20 per cent of hydrogen. Spectroscopy of the shell revealed an He iii region centred on BAT99 3a and having the same angular radius (approx 15 arcsec) as the shell. We thereby add a new example to a rare class of high-excitation nebulae photoionized by WR stars. Analysis of the nebular spectrum showed that the shell is composed of unprocessed material, implying that the shell was swept-up from the local interstellar medium. We discuss the physical relationship between the newly identified massive stars and their possible membership of a previously unrecognized star cluster.
    05/2014; 442(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context. The first soft gamma-ray repeater was discovered over three decades ago, and was subsequently identified as a magnetar, a class of highly magnetised neutron star. It has been hypothesised that these stars power some of the brightest supernovae known, and that they may form the central engines of some long duration gamma-ray bursts. However there is currently no consenus on the formation channel(s) of these objects. Aims: The presence of a magnetar in the starburst cluster Westerlund 1 implies a progenitor with a mass ≥40 M☉, which favours its formation in a binary that was disrupted at supernova. To test this hypothesis we conducted a search for the putative pre-SN companion. Methods: This was accomplished via a radial velocity survey to identify high-velocity runaways, with subsequent non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of the resultant candidate, Wd1-5. Results: Wd1-5 closely resembles the primaries in the short-period binaries, Wd1-13 and 44, suggesting a similar evolutionary history, although it currently appears single. It is overluminous for its spectroscopic mass and we find evidence of He- and N-enrichement, O-depletion, and critically C-enrichment, a combination of properties that is difficult to explain under single star evolutionary paradigms. We infer a pre-SN history for Wd1-5 which supposes an initial close binary comprising two stars of comparable (~ 41 M☉ + 35 M☉) masses. Efficient mass transfer from the initially more massive component leads to the mass-gainer evolving more rapidly, initiating luminous blue variable/common envelope evolution. Reverse, wind-driven mass transfer during its subsequent WC Wolf-Rayet phase leads to the carbon pollution of Wd1-5, before a type Ibc supernova disrupts the binary system. Under the assumption of a physical association between Wd1-5 and J1647-45, the secondary is identified as the magnetar progenitor; its common envelope evolutionary phase prevents spin-down of its core prior to SN and the seed magnetic field for the magnetar forms either in this phase or during the earlier episode of mass transfer in which it was spun-up. Conclusions: Our results suggest that binarity is a key ingredient in the formation of at least a subset of magnetars by preventing spin-down via core-coupling and potentially generating a seed magnetic field. The apparent formation of a magnetar in a Type Ibc supernova is consistent with recent suggestions that superluminous Type Ibc supernovae are powered by the rapid spin-down of these objects.Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programmes ESO 81.D-0324, 383.D-0633, 087.D-0440, and 087.D-0673.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    04/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the formation of dust in a stellar wind during the red-supergiant (RSG) phase of a very massive Population III star with the zero-age main sequence mass of 500 M_sun. We show that, in a carbon-rich wind with a constant velocity, carbon grains can form with a lognormal-like size distribution, and that all of the carbon available for dust formation finally condense into dust for wide ranges of the mass-loss rate ((0.1-3)x10^{-3} M_sun yr^{-1}) and wind velocity (1-100 km s^{-1}). We also find that the acceleration of the wind driven by newly formed dust suppresses the grain growth but still allows more than half of gas-phase carbon to be finally locked up in dust grains. These results indicate that at most 1.7 M_sun of carbon grains can form in total during the RSG phase of 500 M_sun Population III stars. Such a high dust yield could place very massive primordial stars as important sources of dust at the very early epoch of the universe if the initial mass function of Population III stars was top-heavy. We also briefly discuss a new formation scenario of carbon-rich ultra-metal-poor stars considering the feedback from very massive Population III stars.
    04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.
    03/2014;

Publication Stats

3k Citations
863.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Cosmosciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2009–2014
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institute of Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2011
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1997–2009
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Institute of Physics and Astronomy
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group
      Los Alamos, California, United States
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
    • Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1995–1999
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1986–1989
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • American University of Beirut
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon
  • 1985
    • Lebanese American University
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon