Manuel Hidalgo

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States

Are you Manuel Hidalgo?

Claim your profile

Publications (257)1713.98 Total impact

  • San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 12/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the deadliest carcinomas and is characterized by highly tumorigenic and metastatic cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs evade available therapies, which preferentially target highly proliferative and more differentiated progenies leaving behind CSCs as a putative source for disease relapse. Thus, to identify potentially more effective treatment regimens we screened established and new compounds for their ability to eliminate CSCs in primary pancreatic cancer (stem) cells in vitro and corresponding patient-derived pancreatic cancer tissue xenografts in vivo. Intriguingly, we found that in vitro treatment with the anti-malarial agent chloroquine significantly decreased CSCs translating into diminished in vivo tumorigenicity and invasiveness in a large panel of pancreatic cancers. In vivo treatment in combination with Gemcitabine was capable of more effectively eliminating established tumors and improved overall survival. The inhibitory effect of chloroquine was not related to inhibition of autophagy, but was due to inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling resulting in reduced phosphorylation of ERK and STAT3. Furthermore, chloroquine showed potent inhibition of hedgehog signaling by decreasing the production of Smoothened, translating into a significant reduction in sonic hedgehog-induced chemotaxis and down-regulation of downstream targets in CSCs and the surrounding stroma. Our study demonstrates that via to date unreported effects chloroquine is a effective adjuvant therapy to chemotherapy, offering more efficient tumor elimination and improved cure rates. Chloroquine should be further explored in the clinical setting as its success may help to more rapidly improve the poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 04/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Engraftment of primary pancreas ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) in mice to generate patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models is a promising platform for biological and therapeutic studies in this disease. However, these models are still incompletely characterized. Here, we measured the impact of the murine tumor environment on the gene expression of the engrafted human tumoral cells. We have analyzed gene expression profiles from 35 new PDX models and compared them with previously published microarray data of 18 PDX models, 53 primary tumors and 41 cell lines from PDAC. The results obtained in the PDAC system were further compared with public available microarray data from 42 PDX models, 108 primary tumors and 32 cell lines from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We developed a robust analysis protocol to explore the gene expression space. In addition, we completed the analysis with a functional characterization of PDX models, including if changes were caused by murine environment or by serial passing. Our results showed that PDX models derived from PDAC, or HCC, were clearly different to the cell lines derived from the same cancer tissues. Indeed, PDAC- and HCC-derived cell lines are indistinguishable one from the other based on their gene expression profiles. In contrast, the transcriptomes of PDAC and HCC PDX models can be separated into two different groups that share some partial similarity with their corresponding original primary tumors. Our results point to the lack of human stromal involvement in PDXs as a major factor contributing to their differences with the original primary tumors. The main functional differences between pancreatic PDX models and human PDAC are the lower expression of genes involved in pathways related to extracellular matrix and hemostasis and the up regulation of cell cycle genes. Importantly, most of these differences are detected in the first passages after the tumor engraftment. Our results suggest that PDX models of PDAC and HCC retain, to some extent, a gene expression memory of the original primary tumors, while this pattern is not detected in conventional cancer cell lines. Expression changes in PDXs are mainly related to pathways reflecting the lack of human infiltrating cells and the adaptation to a new environment. We also provide evidence of the stability of gene expression patterns over subsequent passages, indicating early phases of the adaptation process.
    Genome Medicine 04/2014; 6(4):27. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Current technology permits an unbiased massive analysis of so-matic genetic alterations from tumor DNA as well as the generation of individu-alized mouse xenografts (Avatar models). This work aimed to evaluate our ex-perience integrating these two strategies to personalize the treatment of cancer patients. Methods: We performed whole exome sequencing analysis of 25 patients with advanced solid tumors to identify putatively actionable tumor-specific genomic alterations. Avatar models were used as an in vivo platform to test proposed treatment strategies. Successful exome sequencing analyses has been obtained for 23 patients. Tumor specific mutations and copy number variations were identified All samples profiled contained relevant genomic alterations. Tumor was implanted to create an Avatar model from 14 patients and 10 succeeded. In occasions actionable alterations such as mutations in NF1, PI3KA and DDR2 failed to provide any benefit when a targeted drug was tested in the Avatar and accordingly treatment of the patients with these drugs was not effective. To date, 13 patients have received a personalized treatment and 6 achieved durable partial remissions. Prior testing of candidate treatments in Avatar models correlated with clinical response and helped to select empirical treatments in some patients with no actionable mutations. The use of full genomic analysis for cancer care is promising but presents important challenges that will need to be solved for broad clinical application. Avatar models are a promising investigational platform for therapeutic decision making. While limitations still exist, this strategy should be further tested.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This phase I trial determined the recommended dose for phase II trials (RD) of carboplatin 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion followed by PM00104 1-h i.v. infusion on Day 1 every 3 weeks (q3wk) in adult patients with advanced solid tumors. A toxicity-guided, dose-escalation design was used. Patients were stratified and divided into heavily (n = 6) or mildly pretreated (n = 14) groups. Transient grade 4 thrombocytopenia (in one heavily and three mildly pretreated patients) was the only dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observed. Carboplatin AUC3-PM00104 2.0 mg/m(2) was the RD in both groups. At this RD, the carboplatin AUC was equal to ~60 % the target AUC used in other combinations, and the PM00104 dose intensity was 56-67 % of the value achieved at the RD for single-agent PM00104 given as 1-h infusion q3wk. Most treatment-related adverse events were grade 1/2. They mainly consisted of gastrointestinal and general symptoms, such as fatigue, anorexia, mucosal inflammation or nausea. Transient neutropenia (50 % of patients) and thrombocytopenia (33-38 %) were the most common severe hematological abnormalities; their incidence was higher than with single-agent PM00104. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug alterations occurred. Partial response was found in one patient with triple negative breast cancer pretreated with paclitaxel/bevacizumab. Three patients with colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, and tumor of unknown origin had disease stabilization for ≥3 months. In conclusion, no optimal dose was reached due to overlapping myelosuppression despite stratification according to prior treatment. Therefore, this carboplatin plus PM00104 combination was not selected for further clinical research.
    Investigational New Drugs 02/2014; · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of personalizing treatment of patients with advanced untreated colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with untreated metastatic CRC, performance status 0-1, and candidates for systemic chemotherapy were eligible. Tumor tissues were analyzed for KRAS, BRAF, and PI3K mutations and expression of topoisomerase-1 (Topo-1), excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), thymidylate synthase (TS), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP). Patients with Topo-1 expression received irinotecan, whereas patients with negative Topo-1 and ERCC1 expression received oxaliplatin. Otherwise, patients received physician's choice of treatment. If TS was positive, no fluoropyrimidine was administered and if negative, 5-flurorouracil if TP was negative, or capecitabine if TP was positive. KRAS-mutated patients were treated with bevacizumab, whereas KRAS-native received cetuximab. The primary endpoint of the study was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 74 patients were enrolled and 67 received personalized treatment including irinotecan (n=27), oxaliplatin (n=16), FOLFIRI (n=12), and FOLFOX (n=12). Thirty-eight patients received cetuximab and 29 bevacizumab. With a median follow-up time of 18.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4-36), the overall median PFS was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.9-9.7), representing a 12-month PFS rate of 36.5% (95% CI, 25-48). Overall clinical benefit, including response rate and disease stabilization, was 86% (95% CI, 73%-97%). The overall median survival was 21 months (95% CI, 11-40). Real-time target-guided personalized first-line treatment of patients with advanced CRC is feasible but, with the approached used, did not result in a clear improvement in PFS to warrant phase III testing.
    American journal of clinical oncology 02/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2013; 87(3):458-9. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In a phase 1-2 trial of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus gemcitabine, substantial clinical activity was noted in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. We conducted a phase 3 study of the efficacy and safety of the combination versus gemcitabine monotherapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Methods We randomly assigned patients with a Karnofsky performance-status score of 70 or more (on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better performance status) to nab-paclitaxel (125 mg per square meter of body-surface area) followed by gemcitabine (1000 mg per square meter) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or gemcitabine monotherapy (1000 mg per square meter) weekly for 7 of 8 weeks (cycle 1) and then on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks (cycle 2 and subsequent cycles). Patients received the study treatment until disease progression. The primary end point was overall survival; secondary end points were progression-free survival and overall response rate. Results A total of 861 patients were randomly assigned to nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (431 patients) or gemcitabine (430). The median overall survival was 8.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group as compared with 6.7 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.83; P<0.001). The survival rate was 35% in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group versus 22% in the gemcitabine group at 1 year, and 9% versus 4% at 2 years. The median progression-free survival was 5.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group, as compared with 3.7 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82; P<0.001); the response rate according to independent review was 23% versus 7% in the two groups (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (38% in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group vs. 27% in the gemcitabine group), fatigue (17% vs. 7%), and neuropathy (17% vs. 1%). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 3% versus 1% of the patients in the two groups. In the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group, neuropathy of grade 3 or higher improved to grade 1 or lower in a median of 29 days. Conclusions In patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and response rate, but rates of peripheral neuropathy and myelosuppression were increased. (Funded by Celgene; number, NCT00844649 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have highlighted the importance of an appropriate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) evaluation for the proper identification of patients eligible for treatment with anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Today, the relationship remains unclear between the level of HER2 amplification and the outcome of HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of HER2 gene amplification determined by the HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number could significantly predict some benefit in overall survival and response to therapy in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. Ninety patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were studied. The optimal cutoff values for HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number (GCN) for discriminating positive results in terms of response and prolonged survival were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves analyses. In this study, a median HER2/CEP17 ratio of 6.11 (95% CI, 2.27 to 21.90) and a median HER2 gene copy number of 11.90 (95% CI, 3.30 to 43.80) were found. A mean HER2/CEP17 ratio of 4.7 was identified as the optimal cutoff value discriminating sensitive and refractory patients (P = .005). Similarly, the optimal cutoff for predicting survival longer than 12 months was 4.45 (P = .005), and for survival longer than 16 months was 5.15 (P = .004). For HER2 GCN, the optimal cutoff values were 9.4, 10.0, and 9.5, respectively (P = .02). The level of HER2 gene amplification significantly predicts sensitivity to therapy and overall survival in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Wen Wee Ma, Manuel Hidalgo
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel has wide application in anti-cancer therapy but was never considered an efficacious agent in pancreatic cancer. A review of the experience with the Cremaphor (Cre) formulation hinted paclitaxel's activity in pancreatic cancer but the early development was hampered by significant toxicities such as neutropenia and infection at clinically tolerable doses. However, such efficacy was confirmed in the recently completed phase III MPACT trial where the addition of nab-paclitaxel to gemcitabine significantly improved the survival of metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. Several other Cremaphor-free formulations of paclitaxel had also been evaluated in pancreatic cancer and the reasons for the success of the albumin nanoparticulate are examined here. In the era of biological and molecularly-targeted agents, the success of nab-paclitaxel in the recalcitrant pancreatic cancer is a timely reminder of the importance and relevance of pharmacology and novel drug delivery technology in the development of anti-cancer drugs.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine have demonstrated a survival benefit over gemcitabine alone in advanced pancreatic cancer (PDA). This study aimed to investigate the clinical, biological, and imaging effects of the regimen in patients with operable PDA.Methods:Patients with operable PDA received two cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine before surgical resection. FDG-PET and CA19.9 tumour marker levels were used to measure clinical activity. Effects on tumour stroma were determined by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography. The collagen content and architecture as well as density of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were determined in the resected surgical specimen and compared with a group of untreated and treated with conventional chemoradiation therapy controls. A co-clinical study in a mouse model of PDA was conducted to differentiate between the effects of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine.Results:A total of 16 patients were enrolled. Treatment resulted in significant antitumour effects with 50% of patients achieving a >75% decrease in circulating CA19.9 tumour marker and a response by FDG-PET. There was also a significant decrement in tumour stiffness as measured by EUS elastography. Seven of 12 patients who completed treatment and were operated had major pathological regressions. Analysis of residual tumours showed a marked disorganised collagen with a very low density of CAF, which was not observed in the untreated or conventionally treated control groups. The preclinical co-clinical study showed that these effects were specific of nab-paclitaxel and not gemcitabine.Conclusion:These data suggest that nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine decreases CAF content inducing a marked alteration in cancer stroma that results in tumour softening. This regimen should be studied in patients with operable PDA.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 1 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.415
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long-term survival rates for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have stagnated at 20% for more than a decade, demonstrating the need to develop novel adjuvant therapies. Gemcitabine-erlotinib therapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with metastatic PDAC. Here we report the first phase 2 study of erlotinib in combination with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy for resected PDAC. Forty-eight patients with resected PDAC received adjuvant erlotinib (100 mg daily) and capecitabine (800 mg/m(2) twice daily Monday-Friday) concurrently with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions followed by 4 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) and erlotinib (100 mg daily). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). The median follow-up time was 18.2 months (interquartile range, 13.8-27.1). Lymph nodes were positive in 85% of patients, and margins were positive in 17%. The median RFS was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-17.9), and the median overall survival (OS) was 24.4 months (95% CI, 18.9-29.7). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for known prognostic factors showed that tumor diameter >3 cm was predictive for inferior RFS (hazard ratio, 4.01; P=.001) and OS (HR, 4.98; P=.02), and the development of dermatitis was associated with improved RFS (HR, 0.27; P=.009). During CRT and post-CRT chemotherapy, the rates of grade 3/4 toxicity were 31%/2% and 35%/8%, respectively. Erlotinib can be safely administered with adjuvant IMRT-based CRT and chemotherapy. The efficacy of this regimen appears comparable to that of existing adjuvant regimens. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0848 will ultimately determine whether erlotinib produces a survival benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 07/2013; 86(4):678-85. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The number of therapeutic options for lung and pancreatic cancer is increasing because of the identification of new druggable molecular targets and development of new drug combinations. Reproducible, biologically relevant in vivo pre-clinical models are critical for this effort. The generation of patient-derived tumor xenografts has proven useful for integrating drug screening with biomarker discovery, discovering fundamental information in tumor biology, prioritizing drugs for clinical investigation, and personalizing treatments for these tumors. The protocol described in this unit details how to establish a direct in vivo subcutaneous primary tumorgraft and maintenance passages. The predictive value of a tumorgraft platform to guide personalized medicine is illustrated with the case of a patient with refractory advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The outcome of a patient for whom their own pancreatic tumorgraft revealed a remarkable sensitivity to mitomycin C based on a PALB2 mutation is also detailed. Curr. Protoc. Pharmacol. 61:14.26.1-14.26.21 © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Current protocols in pharmacology 06/2013; Chapter 14:Unit14.26.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a lethal human malignancy with historically limited success in treatment. The role of aberrant Notch signaling, which requires the constitutive activation of γ-secretase, in the initiation and progression of PDA is well defined and inhibitors of this pathway are currently in clinical trials. Here we investigated the in vivo therapeutic effect of PF-03084014, a selective γ-secretase inhibitor, alone and in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer xenografts. PF-03084014 treatment inhibited the cleavage of nuclear Notch 1 intracellular domain and Notch targets Hes-1 and Hey-1. Gemcitabine treatment showed good response but not capable of inducing tumor regressions and targeting the tumor-resident cancer stem cells (CD24(+)CD44(+) and ALDH(+) tumor cells). A combination of PF-03084014 and gemcitabine treatment resulted tumor regression in 3 of 4 subcutaneously implanted xenograft models. PF-03084014, and in combination with gemcitabine reduced putative cancer stem cells, indicating that PF-03084014 target the especially dangerous and resilient cancer stem cells within pancreatic tumors. Tumor re-growth curves plotted after drug treatments demonstrated that the effect of the combination therapy was sustainable than that of gemcitabine. Notably, in a highly aggressive orthotopic model, PF-03084014 and gemcitabine combination was effective in inducing apoptosis, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, resulting in the attenuation of primary tumor growth as well as controlling metastatic dissemination, compared to gemcitabine treatment. In summary, our preclinical data suggest that PF-03084014 has greater anti-tumor activity in combination with gemcitabine in PDA and provides rationale for further investigation of this combination in PDA.
    Cancer letters 02/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The arrival of targeted therapies has presented both a conceptual and a practical challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). The relationship of these treatments with specific histologies and predictive biomarkers has made the handling of biopsies the key factor for success. In this study, we highlight the balance between precise histological diagnosis and the practice of conducting multiple predictive assays simultaneously. This can only be achieved where there is a commitment to multidisciplinary working by the tumor board to ensure that a sensible protocol is applied. This proposal for prioritizing samples includes both recent technological advances and the some of the latest discoveries in the molecular classification of NSCLCs.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 01/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: High-throughput chemosensitivity testing of low-passage cancer cell lines can be used to prioritize agents for personalized chemotherapy. However, generating cell lines from primary cancers is difficult, because contaminating stromal cells overgrow the malignant cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We produced a series of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt)-null immunodeficient mice. During growth of human cancers in these mice, hprt-null murine stromal cells replace their human counterparts. RESULTS: Pancreatic and ovarian cancers explanted from these mice were grown in selection media to produce pure human cancer cell lines. We screened one cell line with a 3,131-drug panel and identified seventy-seven FDA approved drugs with activity, including two novel drugs to which the cell line was uniquely sensitive. Xenografts of this carcinoma were selectively responsive to both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy can be personalized using patient-specific cell lines derived in biochemically selectable mice.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas contain a subset of exclusively tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are capable of repopulating the entire heterogeneous cancer cell populations and are highly resistant to standard chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate that metformin selectively ablated pancreatic CSCs as evidenced by diminished expression of pluripotency-associated genes and CSC-associated surface markers. Subsequently, the ability of metformin-treated CSCs to clonally expand in vitro was irreversibly abrogated by inducing apoptosis. In contrast, non-CSCs preferentially responded by cell cycle arrest, but were not eliminated by metformin treatment. Mechanistically, metformin increased reactive oxygen species production in CSC and reduced their mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The subsequent induction of lethal energy crisis in CSCs was independent of AMPK/mTOR. Finally, in primary cancer tissue xenograft models metformin effectively reduced tumor burden and prevented disease progression; if combined with a stroma-targeting smoothened inhibitor for enhanced tissue penetration, while gemcitabine actually appeared dispensable.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76518. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,713.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2013
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas
      • Clinical Research Programme
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • University Foundation San Pablo CEU
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Colorado
      • Division of Medical Oncology
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Hospital Universitario Madrid Sanchinarro
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Hospital 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009–2011
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2002–2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1996–2010
    • Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007–2009
    • ALS Therapy Development Institute
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Oncology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1998–2005
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Cancer Therapy & Research Center
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2001
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 2000
    • Brooke Army Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States