Tatsuhiro Miyagi

Hiroshima University, Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan

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Publications (6)16.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: G-protein coupled receptor 3 (GPR3), GPR6, and GPR12 belong to a family of constitutively active Gs-coupled receptors that activate 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and are highly expressed in the brain. Among these receptors, the endogenous expression of GPR3 in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) is increased following development. GPR3 is important for neurite outgrowth and neural maturation; however, the physiological functions of GPR3 remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the survival and antiapoptotic functions of GPR3 under normal and apoptosis-inducing culture conditions. Under normal culture conditions, CGNs from GPR3-knockout mice demonstrated lower survival than did CGNs from wild-type or GPR3-heterozygous mice. Cerebellar sections from GPR3 -/- mice at P7, P14, and P21 revealed more caspase-3-positive neurons in the internal granular layer than in cerebellar sections from wild-type mice. Conversely, in a potassium-deprivation model of apoptosis, increased expression of these three receptors promoted neuronal survival. The antiapoptotic effect of GPR3 was also observed under hypoxic (1% O2/5% CO2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptotic conditions. We further investigated the signaling pathways involved in the GPR3-mediated antiapoptotic effect. The addition of the PKA inhibitor KT5720, the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126, and the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the GPR3-mediated antiapoptotic effect in a potassium-deprivation model of apoptosis, whereas the PKC inhibitor Gö6976 did not affect the antiapoptotic function of GPR3. Furthermore, downregulation of endogenous GPR3 expression in CGNs resulted in a marked reduction in the basal levels of ERK and Akt phosphorylation under normal culture conditions. Finally, we used a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in wild-type and GPR3-knockout mice to determine whether GPR3 expression modulates neuronal survival after brain ischemia. After tMCAO, GPR3-knockout mice exhibited a significantly larger infarct area than did wild-type mice. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the developmental expression of constitutively active Gs-coupled GPR3 activates the ERK and Akt signaling pathways at the basal level, thereby protecting neurons from apoptosis that is induced by various stimuli.
    Neurobiology of Disease 08/2014; 68. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.04.007 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serotonin transporter (SERT) is involved in various psychiatric disorders, including depression and autism. Recently, chemical chaperones have been focused as potential therapeutic drugs that can improve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related pathology. In this study, we used SERT-transfected COS-7 cells to investigate whether 4-phenylbutylate (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone, affects the membrane trafficking and uptake activity of SERT. Treatment with 4-PBA for 24 h dose-dependently increased the uptake activity of SERT. In accordance with increased SERT activity, the expression of maturely glycosylated SERT was increased, while the expression of immaturely glycosylated SERT was decreased. This finding suggests that 4-PBA increased the functional SERT with mature glycosylation via accelerating its folding and trafficking. 4-PBA also increased the activity of the C-terminus-deleted mutant SERT (SERTΔCT), which was stacked in the ER, and decreased SERTΔCT-induced ER stress, further supporting the idea that 4-PBA acts as a chemical chaperone for SERT. Imaging studies showed that fluorescence-labeled SERT was gradually and significantly translocated to the plasma membrane by 4-PBA. These results suggest that 4-PBA and related drugs can potentially affect serotonergic neural transmission by functioning as chaperones, thereby providing a novel therapeutic approach for SERT-related diseases.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 05/2013; 122(2). DOI:10.1254/jphs.12194FP · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a conserved mechanism responsible for the continuous clearance of unnecessary organelles or misfolded proteins in lysosomes. Three types of autophagy have been reported in the difference of substrate delivery to lysosome: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Among these types, CMA is a unique autophagy system that selectively degrades substrates detected by heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70). Recently, autophagic cell death has been reported to be involved in neuronal death following brain ischemia; however, the contribution of CMA to neuronal death/survival after ischemic stress has not been addressed. In the present study, we determined whether quantitative alterations in LAMP-2A, which is the key molecule in CMA, would modulate neuronal cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Incubation of Neuro2A cells in a hypoxic chamber (1% O(2), 5% CO(2)) increased the level of LAMP-2A and induced accumulation of LAMP-2A-positive lysosomes in the perinuclear area, which is a hallmark of CMA activation. The activation of CMA in response to hypoxia was also confirmed by the GAPDH-HaloTag CMA indicator system at the single cell level. Next, we asked whether CMA was involved in cell survival during hypoxia. Blocking LAMP-2A expression with siRNA increased the level of cleaved caspase-3 and the number of propidium iodide-positive cells after hypoxic stress regardless of whether macroautophagy could occur, whereas the administration of mycophenolic acid, a potent CMA activator, rescued hypoxia-mediated cell death. Finally, we asked whether CMA was activated in the neurons after middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. The expression of LAMP-2A was significantly increased in the ischemic hemisphere seven days after brain ischemia. These results indicate that CMA is activated during hypoxia and contributes to the survival of cells under these conditions.
    Neurochemistry International 01/2012; 60(4):431-42. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2012.01.020 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a conserved mechanism responsible for the continuous clearance of unnecessary organelles or misfolded proteins in lysosomes. Three types of autophagy have been reported in the difference of substrate delivery to lysosome: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Among these types, CMA is a unique autophagy system that selectively degrades substrates detected by heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70). Recently, autophagic cell death has been reported to be involved in neuronal death following brain ischemia; however, the contribution of CMA to neuronal death/survival after ischemic stress has not been addressed. In the present study, we determined whether quantitative alterations in LAMP-2A, which is the key molecule in CMA, would modulate neuronal cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Incubation of Neuro2A cells in a hypoxic chamber (1% O(2), 5% CO(2)) increased the level of LAMP-2A and induced accumulation of LAMP-2A-positive lysosomes in the perinuclear area, which is a hallmark of CMA activation. The activation of CMA in response to hypoxia was also confirmed by the GAPDH-HaloTag CMA indicator system at the single cell level. Next, we asked whether CMA was involved in cell survival during hypoxia. Blocking LAMP-2A expression with siRNA increased the level of cleaved caspase-3 and the number of propidium iodide-positive cells after hypoxic stress regardless of whether macroautophagy could occur, whereas the administration of mycophenolic acid, a potent CMA activator, rescued hypoxia-mediated cell death. Finally, we asked whether CMA was activated in the neurons after middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. The expression of LAMP-2A was significantly increased in the ischemic hemisphere seven days after brain ischemia. These results indicate that CMA is activated during hypoxia and contributes to the survival of cells under these conditions.
    Neurochemistry International 01/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research 09/2011; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2011.07.1501 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Neuroscience Research 01/2010; 68:e207. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2010.07.2487 · 2.15 Impact Factor