W. L. Holzapfel

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

Are you W. L. Holzapfel?

Claim your profile

Publications (280)938.25 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-wavelength study of 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster, based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O II] emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available, finding 7 systems with SFR > 100 Msun/yr. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 Msun/yr in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 < z < 1.25, compared to ~1-5% at z ~ 0 from the literature. At z > 1, this fraction increases to 92(+6)(-31)%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific star formation rate in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z > 0.6, the correlation between cluster central entropy and BCG star formation - which is well established at z ~ 0 - is not present. Instead, we find that the most star-forming BCGs at high-z are found in the cores of dynamically unrelaxed clusters. We investigate the rest-frame near-UV morphology of a subsample of the most star-forming BCGs using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, finding complex, highly asymmetric UV morphologies on scales as large as ~50-60 kpc. The high fraction of star-forming BCGs hosted in unrelaxed, non-cool core clusters at early times suggests that the dominant mode of fueling star formation in BCGs may have recently transitioned from galaxy-galaxy interactions to ICM cooling.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range $0.2 < z < 1.2$, a cross-correlation signal is detected at $6 \sigma$ and $4\sigma$ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant ($>$$2 \sigma$) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the $z<1.2$ universe is $0.73 \pm 0.16$ times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a $1.7\sigma$ deviation.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg$^2$ of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between $0.1\lesssim z\lesssim 0.8$ in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness $\lambda$-mass relation with the following function $\langle\ln\lambda|M_{500}\rangle\propto B_\lambda\ln M_{500}+C_\lambda\ln E(z)$ and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses $\lambda$ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\lambda= 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\lambda=0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\sigma_{\ln M|\lambda} = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness $\lambda=70$. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a sub-dominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalog with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalog threshold significance $\xi=4.5$, using the RM catalog to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for additional low-$\xi$ SPT-SZ candidates.In this way, we identify 15 additional clusters with $\xi\in [4,4.5]$ over the redshift regime explored by RM in the overlapping region between DES science verification data and the SPT-SZ survey.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements, and find that the polarization fraction of atmospheric emission is below 1.0 percent. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. The net magnitude of the systematic shift to lower cluster mass is approximately the size of our statistical error bar, and we do not attempt to correct for it. We apply the maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their SZ signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.0$\sigma$. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: $M_{200,\rm{lens}} = 0.76^{+0.37}_{-0.36} M_{200,\rm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/247 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential using data from the first two seasons of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100 deg$^2$ of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. Using a quadratic estimator, we make maps of the CMB lensing potential from combinations of CMB temperature and polarization maps. We combine these lensing potential maps to form a minimum-variance (MV) map. The lensing potential is measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than one for angular multipoles between $100< L <250$. This is the highest signal-to-noise mass map made from the CMB to date and will be powerful in cross-correlation with other tracers of large-scale structure. We calculate the power spectrum of the lensing potential for each estimator, and we report the value of the MV power spectrum between $100< L <2000$ as our primary result. We constrain the ratio of the spectrum to a fiducial $\Lambda$CDM model to be $A_{\rm MV}=0.92 \pm 0.14 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.08 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. Restricting ourselves to polarized data only, we find $A_{\rm POL}=0.93 \pm 0.25 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.11 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of no lensing at $5.8 \sigma$ using polarization data alone, and at $14 \sigma$ using both temperature and polarization data.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 810(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/50 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of $E$-mode polarization and temperature-$E$-mode correlation in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using data from the first season of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100~\sqdeg\ of sky with arcminute resolution at $150\,$GHz. We report the $E$-mode angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and the temperature-$E$-mode angular cross-power spectrum ($TE$) over the multipole range $500 < \ell \leq5000$. These power spectra improve on previous measurements in the high-$\ell$ (small-scale) regime. We fit the combination of the SPTpol power spectra, data from \planck\, and previous SPT measurements with a six-parameter \LCDM cosmological model. We find that the best-fit parameters are consistent with previous results. The improvement in high-$\ell$ sensitivity over previous measurements leads to a significant improvement in the limit on polarized point-source power: after masking sources brighter than 50\,mJy in unpolarized flux at 150\,GHz, we find a 95\% confidence upper limit on unclustered point-source power in the $EE$ spectrum of $D_\ell = \ell (\ell+1) C_\ell / 2 \pi < 0.40 \ \mu{\mbox{K}}^2$ at $\ell=3000$, indicating that future $EE$ measurements will not be limited by power from unclustered point sources in the multipole range $\ell < 3600$, and possibly much higher in $\ell.$
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 805(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/36 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.
  • Source
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 794(2):171. · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of $\xi$ =4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the $\xi$>4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the $\xi$>5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above $z$~0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is $M_{\scriptsize 500c}(\rho_\mathrm{crit})$ ~ 3.5 x 10$^{14} M_\odot h^{-1}$, the median redshift is $z_{med}$ =0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at $z$>1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2014; 216(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/27 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of the design and development of the POLARBEAR-2 experiment. The POLARBEAR-2 experiment is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment, which aims to characterize the small angular scale B-mode signal due to gravitational lensing and search for the large angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The experiment will have a 365 mm diameter multi-chroic focal plane filled with 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor bolometers and will observe at 95 and 150 GHz. The focal plane is cooled to 250 mK. The bolometers will be read-out by SQUIDs with frequency domain multiplexing. The experiment will utilize high purity alumina lenses and thermal filters to achieve the required high optical throughput. A continuously rotating, cooled half-wave plate will be used to give stringent control over systematic errors. The experiment is designed to achieve a noise equivalent temperature of 5.7 K, and this allows us to constrain the signal from the inflationary primordial gravitational corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of (). POLARBEAR-2 will also be able to put a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses to 90 meV () with POLARBEAR-2 data alone and 65 meV () when combined with the Planck satellite. We plan to start observations in 2014 in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 09/2014; 176(5-6):719-725. DOI:10.1007/s10909-014-1112-x · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The polarbear cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment has been observing since early 2012 from its 5,200 m site in the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. polarbear’s measurements will characterize the expected CMB polarization due to gravitational lensing by large scale structure, and search for the possible B-mode polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves. polarbear’s 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter and contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. The status of the polarbear instrument, its focal plane, and the analysis of its measurements are presented.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 09/2014; 176(5-6):726-732. DOI:10.1007/s10909-013-1065-5 · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 sq.deg. SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ell < 11000 (angular scales 5' > \theta > 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ell > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 sq.deg. of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143 GHz to be DtSZ = 4.08 +0.58 -0.67 \mu K^2 and the kSZ power to be DkSZ = 2.9 +- 1.3 \mu K^2. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of \xi = 0.113 +0.057 -0.054 between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with \xi < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration \Delta z < 5.4 at 95% CL.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/177 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We use 95, 150, and 220GHz observations from the SPT to examine the SZE signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg^2 of the XMM-BCS. These systems extend to redshift z=1.02, have characteristic masses ~3x lower than clusters detected directly in the SPT data and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>10^42 erg s^-1) yet. We develop an analysis tool that combines the SZE information for the full ensemble of X-ray-selected clusters. Using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, we extract selection-bias corrected constraints on the SZE significance- and Y_500-mass relations. The SZE significance- mass relation is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high mass clusters. However, the fit to the Y_500-mass relation at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from high mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the constraints from the Planck sample. We examine the tension with the Planck relation, discussing sample differences and biases that could contribute. We also present an analysis of the radio galaxy point source population in this ensemble of X-ray selected systems. We find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz SUMSS sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8$\sigma$ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17+-9) per cent in this sample of low mass systems.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 448(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv080 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2014; 113(2):021301. · 7.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\sigma$ level, with the $\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\sigma_8(\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\sum m_\nu=0.06$ eV, we find the datasets to be consistent at the 1.0$\sigma$ level for WMAP9 and 1.5$\sigma$ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger $\sum m_\nu$ further reconciles the results. When we combine the cluster and Planck+WP datasets with BAO and SNIa, the preferred cluster masses are $1.9\sigma$ higher than the Yx calibration and $0.8\sigma$ higher than the $\sigma_v$ calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (~44% and ~23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness of fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe dataset, we measure $\Omega_ m=0.299\pm0.009$ and $\sigma_8=0.829\pm0.011$. Within a $\nu$CDM model we find $\sum m_\nu = 0.148\pm0.081$ eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate. Allowing both the growth index $\gamma$ and the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$ to vary, we find $\gamma=0.73\pm0.28$ and $w=-1.007\pm0.065$, demonstrating that the expansion and the growth histories are consistent with a LCDM model ($\gamma=0.55; \,w=-1$).
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/214 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the design of a new polarization sensitive receiver, SPT-3G, for the 10-meter South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT-3G receiver will deliver a factor of ~20 improvement in mapping speed over the current receiver, SPTpol. The sensitivity of the SPT-3G receiver will enable the advance from statistical detection of B-mode polarization anisotropy power to high signal-to-noise measurements of the individual modes, i.e., maps. This will lead to precise (~0.06 eV) constraints on the sum of neutrino masses with the potential to directly address the neutrino mass hierarchy. It will allow a separation of the lensing and inflationary B-mode power spectra, improving constraints on the amplitude and shape of the primordial signal, either through SPT-3G data alone or in combination with BICEP-2/KECK, which is observing the same area of sky. The measurement of small-scale temperature anisotropy will provide new constraints on the epoch of reionization. Additional science from the SPT-3G survey will be significantly enhanced by the synergy with the ongoing optical Dark Energy Survey (DES), including: a 1% constraint on the bias of optical tracers of large-scale structure, a measurement of the differential Doppler signal from pairs of galaxy clusters that will test General Relativity on ~200 Mpc scales, and improved cosmological constraints from the abundance of clusters of galaxies.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) measurements for 42 galaxy clusters observed at 150 GHz with the APEX-SZ experiment. For each cluster, we model the pressure profile and calculate the integrated Comptonization $Y$ to estimate the total thermal energy of the intracluster medium (ICM). We compare the measured $Y$ values to X-ray observables of the ICM from the literature (cluster gas mass $M_{gas}$, temperature $T_X$, and $Y_X =M_{gas}T_X$) that relate to total cluster mass. We measure power law scaling relations, including an intrinsic scatter, between the SZE and X-ray observables for both the X-ray selected and uniform REFLEX-DXL cluster sample and the full ad hoc APEX-SZ sample. We observe that the lack of uniform X-ray analysis for the full cluster sample introduces significant variability into the measured scaling relations and dominates the level of intrinsic scatter. For the REFLEX-DXL sample, we find results consistent with a self-similar model of cluster evolution dominated by gravitational effects. Comparing to predictions from numerical simulations, these scaling relations prefer models that include cooling and feedback in the ICM. Lastly, we find that the $Y-Y_X$ scaling relation has the lowest measured intrinsic scatter.

Publication Stats

6k Citations
938.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Yale University
      • Department of Physics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Enrico Fermi Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2001
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States