Michael Farzan

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (143)978.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Enveloped viruses exploit the endomembrane system to enter host cells. Through a cascade of membrane-trafficking events, virus-bearing vesicles fuse with acidic endosomes and/or lysosomes mediated by SNAREs triggering viral fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we found that UV-radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagic tumor suppressor, is required for the entry of the prototypic negative-strand RNA virus, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, by a mechanism independent of IFN and autophagy. UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)], leading to the assembly of a fusogenic trans-SNARE complex involving vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP8), but not VAMP7. Indeed, UVRAG stimulates VAMP8 translocation to virus-bearing endosomes. Inhibition of VAMP8, but not VAMP7, significantly reduces viral entry. Our data indicate that UVRAG, in concert with C-Vps, regulates viral entry by assembling a specific fusogenic SNARE complex. Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; 111(7):2716-21. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein binds cooperatively to its cellular receptor CD4 and a coreceptor, principally CXCR4 or CCR5. We have previously improved a natural amino-acid form of a scorpion toxin derived CD4-mimetic peptide, and in parallel generated sulfopeptide mimetics of the CCR5 amino-terminus. Here we show that some fusions of these CCR5- and CD4-mimetic peptides, expressed as immunoadhesins, neutralize HIV-1 more efficiently than CD4-Fc or equimolar mixtures of immunoadhesin forms of each peptide. Specifically, double-mimetic peptides with linkers of 11 amino acids or greater, and with the CCR5-mimetic component preceding the CD4-mimetic component, were more efficient than constructs with shorter linkers or in a reverse orientation. The potency of these constructs derives from (1) their ability to simultaneously and cooperatively bind the CD4- and CCR5-binding sites of a single gp120 monomer of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer, and (2) the ability of the CCR5-mimetic component to prevent the CD4-mimetic peptide from promoting infection when cellular CD4 is limiting. Thus there is a significant advantage to simultaneously targeting both conserved regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.
    Journal of Virology 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The IFITM3 polymorphism rs12252-C, which encodes an IFITM3 isoform (Δ21 IFITM3) lacking 21 amino acids at the amino terminus, has been controversially associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In vitro studies have shown that Δ21 IFITM3 loses its ability to restrict H1N1 IAV. Subsequent research has also revealed that tyrosine 20 is the key determinant for IFITM3 endocytic trafficking, which is essential for the efficient anti-viral activity of IFITM3. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrated that both Δ21 IFITM3 and an IFITM3 variant (Y20A IFITM3), in which tyrosine 20 is substituted with alanine, strongly restricted entry mediated by IAV H1, H3, H5, and H7 proteins. Δ21 IFITM3 also efficiently suppressed replication of H1N1 and, to a lesser extent, H3N2 IAV. Δ21 IFITM3 and Y20A IFITM3 had broader subcellular distributions than full-length IFITM3 but an abundant amount of both IFITM3 variants still localized to late endosomes and lysosomes. Our data indicate that tyrosine 20 partially regulates the subcellular localization of IFITM3 but is not functionally essential for IFITM3-mediated IAV restriction. They also suggested that mechanisms, other than viral entry restriction, might contribute to variations in clinical outcomes of H1N1 influenza associated with rs12252-C.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e110096. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (IFN-α and β) induce dynamic host defense mechanisms to inhibit viral infections. It has been recently recognized that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITM) 1, 2 and 3 can block entry of a broad spectrum of RNA viruses. However, no study to date has focused on the role of IFITM proteins in DNA virus restriction. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-α or -β treatment of keratinocytes substantially decreases human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection while robustly inducing IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. However, IFITM1, 2 and 3 overexpression did not inhibit HPV16 infection; rather, IFITM1 and IFITM3 modestly enhanced HPV16 infection in various cell types including primary keratinocytes. Moreover, IFITM1, 2 and 3 did not inhibit infection by two other DNA viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Taken together, we reveal that the entry of several DNA viruses, including HPV, HCMV, and Ad5 is not affected by IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. These results imply that HPV, and other DNA viruses, may bypass IFITM restriction during intracellular trafficking.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96579. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are a family of small membrane proteins that inhibit the cellular entry of several genera of viruses. These proteins had been predicted to adopt a two pass, type III transmembrane topology with an intracellular loop, two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2), and extracellular N- and C- termini. Recent work, however, supports an intramembrane topology for the helices with cytosolic orientation of both termini. Here we determined the topology of murine Ifitm3. We found that the N-terminus of Ifitm3 could be stained by antibodies at the cell surface but that this conformation was cell type-dependent and represented a minority of the total plasma membrane pool. In contrast, the C-terminus was readily accessible to antibodies at the cell surface and extracellular C-termini comprised most or all of those present at the plasma membrane. The addition of a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention motif to Ifitm3 resulted in sequestration of Ifitm3 in the ER, demonstrating an ER-luminal orientation of the C-terminus. C-terminal, but not N-terminal, epitope tags were also degraded within lysosomes, consistent with their luminal orientation. Furthermore, epitope-tagged Ifitm3 TM2 functioned as a signal anchor sequence when expressed in isolation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a type II transmembrane topology for Ifitm3 and will provide insight into its interaction with potential targets and cofactors.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-associated protein A (VAPA) and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) are key molecules to regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, necessary for the ordered cytosolic release of infectious virions. Thus, perturbation of VAPA-OSBP function can lead to dramatic effects on viral replication, especially at the entry step. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are intrinsic antiviral effectors that restrict the replication of numerous pathogenic viruses. Here we report that IFITM3 antagonizes VAPA-OSBP function to disturb intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, resulting in the inhibition of viral entry. IFITM3 interaction with VAPA promoted a marked accumulation of cholesterol in multivesicular bodies and late endosomes, suppressing the fusion of intraluminal virion-containing vesicles with the endosomal limiting membrane, and thereby blocking the cytosolic release of virions. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of the VAPA gene profoundly affected IFITM3-mediated inhibition of viral entry. These data demonstrate a novel anti-viral strategy that IFITM3 disturbs intracellular cholesterol homeostasis to block viral entry.
    The 32nd American Society for Virology (ASV) Annual Meeting; 07/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We show that interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) -1, -2 and -3, exhibit a broad-spectrum of antiviral activity against several members of the Bunyaviridae family, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), La Crosse virus, Andes virus and Hantaan virus, all of which can cause severe disease in humans and animals. We found that RVFV was restricted by IFITM-2 and -3 but not by IFITM-1, whereas the remaining viruses were equally restricted by all IFITMs. Indeed, at low doses of IFN-α, IFITM-2 and -3 mediated more than half of the antiviral activity of IFN-α against RVFV. IFITM-2 and -3 restricted RVFV infection mostly by preventing virus membrane fusion with endosomes, while having no effect on virion attachment to cells, endocytosis or viral replication kinetics. We found that a large fraction of IFITM-2 and IFITM-3 occupy vesicular compartments that are distinct from the vesicles coated by IFITM-1. In addition, although overexpression of all IFITMs expanded vesicular and acidified compartments within cells, there were marked phenotypic differences among the vesicular compartments occupied by IFITMs. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the possible mechanisms by which the IFITM family members restrict distinct viruses.
    Journal of Virology 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phage display is a key technology for the identification and maturation of high affinity peptides, antibodies, and other proteins. However limitations of bacterial expression restrict the range and sensitivity of assays that can be used to evaluate phage-selected variants. To address this problem, selected genes are typically transferred to mammalian expression vectors, a major rate-limiting step in the iterative improvement of peptides and proteins. Here we describe a system which combines phage-display and efficient mammalian expression in a single vector, pDQ1. This system permits immediate expression of phage-selected genes as IgG1-Fc fusions in mammalian cells, facilitating the rapid, sensitive characterization of a large number of library outputs for their biochemical and functional properties. We demonstrate the utility of this system by improving the ability of a CD4-mimetic peptide to bind the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and neutralize HIV-1 entry. We further improved the potency of the resulting peptide, CD4mim6, by limiting its ability to induce the CD4-bound conformation of the envelope glycoprotein. Thus CD4mim6 and its variants can be used to investigate the properties of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and pDQ1 can accelerate the discovery of new peptides and proteins through phage display.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transferrin Receptor (TfR1) is the cell-surface receptor that regulates iron uptake into cells, a process that is fundamental to life. However, TfR1 also facilitates the cellular entry of multiple mammalian viruses. We use evolutionary and functional analyses of TfR1 in the rodent clade, where two families of viruses bind this receptor, to mechanistically dissect how essential housekeeping genes like TFR1 successfully balance the opposing selective pressures exerted by host and virus. We find that while the sequence of rodent TfR1 is generally conserved, a small set of TfR1 residue positions has evolved rapidly over the speciation of rodents. Remarkably, all of these residues correspond to the two virus binding surfaces of TfR1. We show that naturally occurring mutations at these positions block virus entry while simultaneously preserving iron-uptake functionalities, both in rodent and human TfR1. Thus, by constantly replacing the amino acids encoded at just a few residue positions, TFR1 divorces adaptation to ever-changing viruses from preservation of key cellular functions. These dynamics have driven genetic divergence at the TFR1 locus that now enforces species-specific barriers to virus transmission, limiting both the cross-species and zoonotic transmission of these viruses.
    PLoS Biology 05/2013; 11(5):e1001571. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicle-membrane-protein-associated protein A (VAPA) and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, which is required for many virus infections. During entry, viruses or virus-containing vesicles can fuse with endosomal membranes to mediate the cytosolic release of virions, and alterations in endosomal cholesterol can inhibit this invasion step. We show that the antiviral effector protein interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) interacts with VAPA and prevents its association with OSBP, thereby disrupting intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibiting viral entry. By altering VAPA-OSBP function, IFITM3 induces a marked accumulation of cholesterol in multivesicular bodies and late endosomes, which inhibits the fusion of intraluminal virion-containing vesicles with endosomal membranes and thereby blocks virus release into the cytosol. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of the VAPA gene profoundly affects IFITM3-mediated inhibition of viral entry. Thus, IFITM3 disrupts intracellular cholesterol homeostasis to block viral entry, further underscoring the importance of cholesterol in virus infection.
    Cell host & microbe 04/2013; 13(4):452-64. · 13.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4) specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS). TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2013; 9(3):e1003232. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active infections. Our findings confirm our hypothesis that the pressure of infectious diseases may have contributed in part to evolutionary selection of MBL mutant haplotypes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60838. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Michael S Diamond, Michael Farzan
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, several groups have identified new genes that are transcriptionally induced downstream of type I interferon (IFN) signalling and that inhibit infection by individual or multiple families of viruses. Among these IFN-stimulated genes with antiviral activity are two genetically and functionally distinct families - the IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) family and the IFN-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family. This Review focuses on recent advances in identifying the unique mechanisms of action of IFIT and IFITM proteins, which explain their broad-spectrum activity against the replication, spread and pathogenesis of a range of human viruses.
    Nature Reviews Immunology 12/2012; · 32.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are a family of viral restriction factors that inhibit the entry processes of several pathogenic viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), in vitro. Here we report that IAV-infected knockout mice lacking the Ifitm locus on chromosome 7 exhibited accelerated disease progression, greater mortality, and higher pulmonary and systemic viral burdens as compared to wild type controls. We further observed that the phenotype of Ifitm3-specific knockout mice was indistinguishable from that of mice lacking the entire Ifitm locus. Ifitm3 was expressed by IAV target cells including alveolar type II pneumocytes and tracheal/bronchial respiratory epithelial cells. Robust Ifitm3 expression was also observed in several tissues in the absence of infection. Among murine Ifitm promoters, only that of Ifitm3 could be induced by type I and II interferons. Ifitm3 could also be upregulated by the gp130 cytokines IL-6 and oncostatin M on cells expressing appropriate receptors, suggesting that multiple cytokine signals could contribute to Ifitm3 expression in a cell or tissue-specific manner. Collectively, these findings establish a central role for Ifitm3 in limiting acute influenza in vivo, and provide further insight into Ifitm3 expression and regulation.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2012; 8(9):e1002909. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A tyrosine-sulfated CCR5-mimetic peptide, CCR5mim1, inhibits HIV-1 infection more efficiently than sulfopeptides based on the CCR5 amino terminus. Here we characterized sulfopeptide chimeras of CCR5mim1 and the heavy-chain CDR3 of the antibody PG16. Two chimeras bound a range of envelope glycoproteins and neutralized HIV-1 more efficiently than CCR5mim1. An immunoadhesin form of one of these, CCR5mim2-Ig, synergized with CD4-Ig to neutralize HIV-1. These sulfopeptides are among the broadest and most potent CCR5-mimetic peptides described to date.
    Journal of Virology 08/2012; 86(22):12417-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Ann Demogines, Michael Farzan, Sara L Sawyer
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    ABSTRACT: In 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV) appeared as a novel human virus with high similarity to bat coronaviruses. However, while SARS-CoV uses the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for cellular entry, no coronavirus isolated from bats appears to use ACE2. Here we show that signatures of recurrent positive selection in the bat ACE2 gene map almost perfectly to known SARS-CoV interaction surfaces. Our data indicate that ACE2 utilization preceded the emergence of SARS-CoV-like viruses from bats.
    Journal of Virology 03/2012; 86(11):6350-3. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause human hemorrhagic fevers. Four of these arenaviruses are known to enter cells by binding human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1). Here we show that the fifth arenavirus, Chapare virus, similarly uses hTfR1. We also identify an anti-hTfR1 antibody, ch128.1, which efficiently inhibits entry mediated by the glycoproteins of all five viruses, as well as replication of infectious Junín virus. Our data indicate that all NW hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses utilize a common hTfR1 apical-domain epitope and suggest that therapeutic agents targeting this epitope, including ch128.1 itself, can be broadly effective in treating South American hemorrhagic fevers.
    Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(7):4024-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Ying Kai Chan, I-Chueh Huang, Michael Farzan
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins restrict the entry processes of several pathogenic viruses, including the flaviviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus (DENV). DENV infects cells directly or via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process thought to contribute to severe disease in a secondary infection. Here we investigated whether ADE-mediated DENV infection bypasses IFITM-mediated restriction or whether IFITM proteins can be protective in a secondary infection. We observed that IFITM proteins restricted ADE-mediated and direct infection with comparable efficiencies in a myelogenous leukemia cell line. Our data suggest that IFITM proteins can contribute to control of secondary DENV infections.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34508. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At least five New World arenaviruses cause severe human hemorrhagic fevers. These viruses are transmitted to humans through contact with their respective South American rodent hosts. Each uses human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as its obligate receptor. Accidental similarities between human TfR1 and TfR1 orthologs of arenaviral host species enable zoonoses, whereas mice and rats are not infectable because they lack these TfR1 determinants of infection. All pathogenic New World arenaviruses bind to a common region of the apical domain of TfR1. The ability of a New World arenavirus to use human TfR1 is absolutely predictive of its ability to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Nonpathogenic arenaviruses, closely related to hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses, cannot utilize human TfR1 but efficiently enter cells through TfR1 orthologs of their native rodent hosts. Mutagenesis studies suggest that minor changes in the entry glycoproteins of these nonpathogenic viruses may allow human transmission. TfR1 is upregulated as a result of iron sequestration during the acute-phase response to infection, and the severity of disease may result from amplification of viral replication during this response.
    Current opinion in microbiology 08/2011; 14(4):476-82. · 7.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the exception of Reston and Lloviu viruses, filoviruses (marburgviruses, ebolaviruses, and "cuevaviruses") cause severe viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Filoviruses use a class I fusion protein, GP(1,2), to bind to an unknown, but shared, cell surface receptor to initiate virus-cell fusion. In addition to GP(1,2), ebolaviruses and cuevaviruses, but not marburgviruses, express two secreted glycoproteins, soluble GP (sGP) and small soluble GP (ssGP). All three glycoproteins have identical N termini that include the receptor-binding region (RBR) but differ in their C termini. We evaluated the effect of the secreted ebolavirus glycoproteins on marburgvirus and ebolavirus cell entry, using Fc-tagged recombinant proteins. Neither sGP-Fc nor ssGP-Fc bound to filovirus-permissive cells or inhibited GP(1,2)-mediated cell entry of pseudotyped retroviruses. Surprisingly, several Fc-tagged Δ-peptides, which are small C-terminal cleavage products of sGP secreted by ebolavirus-infected cells, inhibited entry of retroviruses pseudotyped with Marburg virus GP(1,2), as well as Marburg virus and Ebola virus infection in a dose-dependent manner and at low molarity despite absence of sequence similarity to filovirus RBRs. Fc-tagged Δ-peptides from three ebolaviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) inhibited GP(1,2)-mediated entry and infection of viruses comparably to or better than the Fc-tagged RBRs, whereas the Δ-peptide-Fc of an ebolavirus nonpathogenic for humans (Reston virus) and that of an ebolavirus with lower lethality for humans (Bundibugyo virus) had little effect. These data indicate that Δ-peptides are functional components of ebolavirus proteomes. They join cathepsins and integrins as novel modulators of filovirus cell entry, might play important roles in pathogenesis, and could be exploited for the synthesis of powerful new antivirals.
    Journal of Virology 06/2011; 85(17):8502-13. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
978.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • University of Buenos Aires
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2011
    • U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 2004
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States