Masahiro Yamamoto

Tsumura & Co., Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (173)1241.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a major form of brain injury among preterm infants, which is characterized by extensive loss and dysfunction of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Therapeutic hypothermia, which is a standard treatment for term infants with HI encephalopathy, is not indicated for preterm infants because its safety and effect have not been established. Here we investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of hypothermia for the inhibition of pre-OLs damage in PVL. For in vivo studies, 6-day-old rats underwent left carotid artery ligation, followed by exposure to 6% oxygen for 1 hr under hypothermic or normothermic conditions. The loss of myelin basic protein (MBP) was inhibited by hypothermia. For in vitro studies, primary pre-OLs cultures were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) under normothermic or hypothermic conditions, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were subsequently added. Hypothermia inhibited apoptosis of pre-OLs, and, despite specific downregulation of 21.5- and 17-kDa MBP mRNA expression during hypothermia, recovery of the expression after OGD was superior compared with normothermia. OGD caused disarrangement of MBP distribution, decreased the levels of phosphorylated 21.5-kDa MBP, and disturbed the capacity to contact with neurons, all of which were restored by hypothermia. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 during and after OGD significantly reduced the protective effects of hypothermia on apoptosis and myelination, respectively. These data suggest that phosphorylated exon 2-containing (21.5- and possibly 17-kDa) MBP isoforms may play critical roles in myelination and that hypothermia attenuates apoptosis and preserves the contact between OLs and neurons via ERK1/2 phosphorylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 05/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria is sensed in the host cell cytoplasm by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that ultimately results in caspase-11 activation and cell death. In mouse macrophages, activation of this pathway requires the production of type-I interferons, indicating that interferon-induced genes have a critical role in initiating this pathway. Here we report that a cluster of small interferon-inducible GTPases, the so-called guanylate-binding proteins, is required for the full activity of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome during infections with vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria. We show that guanylate-binding proteins are recruited to intracellular bacterial pathogens and are necessary to induce the lysis of the pathogen-containing vacuole. Lysis of the vacuole releases bacteria into the cytosol, thus allowing the detection of their lipopolysaccharide by a yet unknown lipopolysaccharide sensor. Moreover, recognition of the lysed vacuole by the danger sensor galectin-8 initiates the uptake of bacteria into autophagosomes, which results in a reduction of caspase-11 activation. These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol.
    Nature 04/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IFN-γ mediates cellular innate immunity against an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, by inducing immunity-related GTPases such as p47 IFN-γ-regulated GTPases (IRGs) and p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), which also participate in antibacterial responses via autophagy. An essential autophagy protein, Atg5, was previously shown to play a critical role in anti-T. gondii cell-autonomous immunity. However, the involvement of other autophagy proteins remains unknown. In this study, we show that essential autophagy proteins differentially participate in anti-T. gondii cellular immunity by recruiting IFN-γ-inducible GTPases. IFN-γ-induced suppression of T. gondii proliferation and recruitment of an IRG Irgb6 and GBPs are profoundly impaired in Atg7- or Atg16L1-deficient cells. In contrast, cells lacking other essential autophagy proteins, Atg9a and Atg14, are capable of mediating the anti-T. gondii response and recruiting Irgb6 and GBPs to the parasites. Although IFN-γ also stimulates anti-T. gondii cellular immunity in humans, whether this response requires GBPs and human autophagy proteins remains to be seen. To analyze the role of human ATG16L1 and GBPs in IFN-γ-mediated anti-T. gondii responses, human cells lacking ATG16L1 or GBPs were generated by the Cas9/CRISPR genome-editing technique. Although both ATG16L1 and GBPs are dispensable for IFN-γ-induced inhibition of T. gondii proliferation in the human cells, human ATG16L1 is also required for the recruitment of GBPs. Taken together, human ATG16L1 and mouse autophagy components Atg7 and Atg16L1, but not Atg9a and Atg14, participate in the IFN-γ-induced recruitment of the immunity-related GTPases to the intracellular pathogen.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myelin basic protein (MBP) isoforms in the myelin sheath are known to have distinct intracellular expression patterns, which are profoundly related to functional specificity. Determining the differential localization of MBP isoforms is therefore important for understanding their pathophysiological roles. In this study, we have developed a new method for phase separation of myelin. The nonionic detergent Triton X-114 is used to solubilize myelin sheath which then undergoes phase separation to yield 4 fractions. The lipid raft-associated proteins and lipids in each fraction were analyzed by immunoblotting and lipid analysis, respectively. The present method gives two lipid raft-enriched fractions, one of them was found to contain only lipid raft-associated galactocerebroside and cholesterol as the major lipids. The 21.5-kDa MBP isoforms (21.5 MBP), both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated, were exclusively contained in this fraction. Phosphorylated 21.5 MBP (21.5 pMBP) has been shown to specifically disappear from demyelinated loci. The present analytical method clearly indicated that disappearance of 21.5 pMBP corresponded to demyelination and its reappearance corresponded to prevention of demyelination. Demyelination was also associated with aging and was prevented by the myelin-protecting herbal medicine, Chinpi, a type of dried citrus peel.
    Journal of Biochemistry 01/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ free (GF) mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97456. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of post-inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction, after resolution of acute symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal infection, is largely unknown, however, a possible involvement of T cells is suggested. Using the mouse model of T cell activation-induced enteritis, we investigated whether enhancement of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction by interleukin (IL)-17A is involved in postinflammatory GI hypermotility. Activation of CD3 induces temporal enteritis with GI hypomotility in the midst of, and hypermotility after resolution of, intestinal inflammation. Prolonged upregulation of IL-17A was prominent and IL-17A injection directly enhanced GI transit and contractility of intestinal strips. Postinflammatory hypermotility was not observed in IL-17A-deficient mice. Incubation of a muscle strip and SMCs with IL-17A in vitro resulted in enhanced contractility with increased phosphorylation of Ser19 in myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC), a surrogate marker as well as a critical mechanistic factor of SMC contractility. Using primary cultured murine and human intestinal SMCs, IκBζ- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated downregulation of the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), which suppresses muscarinic signaling of contraction by promoting inactivation/desensitization of Gαq/11 protein, has been suggested to be involved in IL-17A-induced hypercontractility. The opposite effect of L-1β was mediated by IκBζ and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We propose and discuss the possible involvement of IL-17A and its downstream signaling cascade in SMCs in diarrheal hypermotility in various GI disorders.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e92960. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) has been widely used to achieve a high level of foreign gene expression in insect cells, as well as for efficient gene transduction into mammalian cells without any replication. In addition to permitting efficient gene delivery, baculovirus has been shown to induce host innate immune responses in various mammalian cells and in mice. In this study, we examined the effects of the innate immune responses on the gene expression by recombinant baculoviruses in cultured cells. The reporter gene expression in IRF3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by the infection with the recombinant baculovirus was shown to be enhanced in accordance with the suppression of IFN-β production. Furthermore, efficient gene transduction by the recombinant baculovirus was achieved in MEFs deficient for STING, TBK1, IRF3 or IPS-1, but not in those deficient for IRF7, MyD88 or ZBP1/DAI. An enhancement of gene expression by the recombinant baculovirus was also observed in human hepatoma cell lines replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV), in which innate immunity was impaired by the cleavage of IPS-1 by the viral protease. In addition, infection with the recombinant baculovirus expressing the BH3-only protein, BIMS, a potent inducer of apoptosis, resulted in a selective cell death in the HCV replicon cells. These results indicate that innate immune responses induced by infection with baculovirus attenuate transgene expression, and this characteristic might be useful for a selective gene transduction into cells with impaired innate immunity arisen from infection with various viruses.
    Journal of Virology 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interferon-inducible protein with tetratricopeptide (IFIT) family proteins inhibit replication of some viruses by recognizing several types of RNAs including 5' -triphosphate RNA and 5' capped 2' -O unmethylated mRNA. However, it remains unclear how IFITs inhibit replication of some viruses through recognition of RNA. Here, we analyzed mechanisms by which Ifit1 exerts antiviral responses. Replication of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) 2' -O MTase mutant was markedly enhanced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages lacking Ifit1. Ifit1 bound 5' -triphosphate RNA, but more preferentially associated with 5' capped 2' -O unmethylated mRNA. Ifit1 inhibited the translation of mRNA and thereby restricted the replication of JEV mutated in 2' -O MTase. Thus, Ifit1 inhibits replication of MTase-defective JEV by inhibiting mRNA translation through direct binding to mRNA 5' structures.
    Journal of Virology 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages consist of at least two subgroups, M1 and M2 (refs 1, 2, 3). Whereas M1 macrophages are proinflammatory and have a central role in host defence against bacterial and viral infections, M2 macrophages are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions, helminth infection, tissue remodelling, fibrosis and tumour progression. Trib1 is an adaptor protein involved in protein degradation by interacting with COP1 ubiquitin ligase. Genome-wide association studies in humans have implicated TRIB1 in lipid metabolism. Here we show that Trib1 is critical for the differentiation of F4/80(+)MR(+) tissue-resident macrophages-that share characteristics with M2 macrophages (which we term M2-like macrophages)-and eosinophils but not for the differentiation of M1 myeloid cells. Trib1 deficiency results in a severe reduction of M2-like macrophages in various organs, including bone marrow, spleen, lung and adipose tissues. Aberrant expression of C/EBPα in Trib1-deficient bone marrow cells is responsible for the defects in macrophage differentiation. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Trib1 in haematopoietic cells show diminished adipose tissue mass accompanied by evidence of increased lipolysis, even when fed a normal diet. Supplementation of M2-like macrophages rescues the pathophysiology, indicating that a lack of these macrophages is the cause of lipolysis. In response to a high-fat diet, mice lacking Trib1 in haematopoietic cells develop hypertriglyceridaemia and insulin resistance, together with increased proinflammatory cytokine gene induction. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Trib1 is critical for adipose tissue maintenance and suppression of metabolic disorders by controlling the differentiation of tissue-resident M2-like macrophages.
    Nature 03/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the pyrazolone derivative sulpyrine is widely used as an antipyretic analgesic drug, side effects, including fatal shock, have been reported. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such a severe side effect is largely unclear. Here, we report that the transcription factor CREBH that is highly expressed in the liver plays an important role in fatal shock induced by sulpyrine in mice. CREBH-deficient mice were resistant to experimental fatal sulpyrine shock. We found that sulpyrine-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) family genes, which are involved in sulpyrine metabolism, in the liver was severely impaired in CREBH-deficient mice. Moreover, introduction of CYP2B in CREBH-deficient liver restored susceptibility to sulpyrine. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CREBH up-regulated CYP2B10 promoter activity, and in vivo knockdown of CREBH in wild-type mice conferred a significant resistance to fatal sulpyrine shock. These data demonstrate that CREBH is a positive regulator of CYP2B in response to sulpyrine administration, which possibly results in fatal shock.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55800. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Miwa Sasai, Masahiro Yamamoto
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in host defense against microbes. In the past decade, growing numbers of in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies have been performed and revealed the physiological significance and structural basis of their ligands and signal transduction, which involves various extracellular, membrane-bound, cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling molecules for the activation of TLR signaling. However, negative regulation of TLR-mediated responses is also essential for the prevention of autoimmunity and is mediated by a number of molecules. In this review, we will introduce recent advances in the understanding of TLR biology in terms of their ligands and signaling pathways.
    International Reviews Of Immunology 01/2013; 32(2):116-33. · 5.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have histopathologically and immunologically different characteristics. We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM) enhancement. Our current aims were to examine whether TU-100 ameliorates a type-2 model colitis that histologically resembles UC and identify the active ingredients. Methods. TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN-) induced type-2 model colitis. The morbidity was evaluated by body weight loss and the macroscopic score of colonic lesions. ADM was quantified using an EIA kit. Results. TU-100 prevented weight loss and colon ulceration. ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was increased by TU-100 addition. Screening to identify active ingredients showed that [6]-shogaol and hydroxy α -sanshool enhanced ADM production. Conclusions. TU-100 exerted a protective effect in OXN-induced type-2 model colitis, indicating that TU-100 may be a beneficial agent for treatment of UC.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2013; 2013:384057. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the gastrointestinal tract have garnered considerable attention in recent years. We previously reported that daikenchuto (TU-100), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) via adrenomedullin (ADM) release from intestinal epithelial (IE) cells. TU-100 contains multiple TRP activators. In the present study, therefore, we examined the involvement of TRP channels in ADM-mediated vasodilatatory effect of TU-100. Rats were treated intraduodenally with a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP), a TRPA1 agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), or TU-100 and jejunum IBF was evaluated using a laser Doppler blood flowmetry. All 3 compounds resulted in vasodilatation, and the vasodilatory effect of TU-100 was abolished by a TRPA1-antagonist but not by a TRPV1-antagonist. Vasodilatation induced by AITC and TU-100 was abrogated by anti-ADM antibody treatment. RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed that an IEC-6 cell line originated from the small intestine and purified IE cells expressed ADM and TRPA1 but not TRPV1. AITC increased ADM release in IEC cells remarkably, while CAP had no effect. TU-100 and its ingredient [6]-shogaol (6SG) increased ADM release dose-dependently and the effects were abrogated by TRPA1-antagonist. 6SG showed similar TRPA1-dependent vasodilatation in vivo. These results indicate that TRPA1 in IE cells may play an important role in controlling bowel microcirculation via ADM release. Epithelial TRPA1 appears to be a promising target for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 12/2012; · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular ATP is released from live cells in controlled conditions, as well as dying cells in inflammatory conditions, and, thereby, regulates T cell responses, including Th17 cell induction. The level of extracellular ATP is closely regulated by ATP hydrolyzing enzymes, such as ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ENTPDases). ENTPDase1/CD39, which is expressed in immune cells, was shown to regulate immune responses by downregulating the ATP level. In this study, we analyzed the immunomodulatory function of ENTPDase7, which is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells in the small intestine. The targeted deletion of Entpd7 encoding ENTPDase7 in mice resulted in increased ATP levels in the small intestinal lumen. The number of Th17 cells was selectively increased in the small intestinal lamina propria in Entpd7(-/-) mice. Th17 cells were decreased by oral administration of antibiotics or the ATP antagonist in Entpd7(-/-) mice, indicating that commensal microbiota-dependent ATP release mediates the enhanced Th17 cell development in the small intestinal lamina propria of Entpd7(-/-) mice. In accordance with the increased number of small intestinal Th17 cells, Entpd7(-/-) mice were resistant to oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Entpd7(-/-) mice suffered from severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was associated with increased numbers of CD4(+) T cells producing both IL-17 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ENTPDase7 controls the luminal ATP level and, thereby, regulates Th17 cell development in the small intestine.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that a new monoclonal antibody, 4F2, which labels oligodendroglial lineage cells, recognizes a DEAD-box RNA helicase Ddx54 and that Ddx54 binds to myelin basic protein (MBP) in brain and cultured oligodendrocytes. To elucidate the biological function of Ddx54, we generated a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-shRNA:Ddx54, expressing a short hairpin RNA to silence endogenous Ddx54 protein. The virus was intraventricularly injected into the brains of mice on postnatal day (PD) 2. The brains at PD 9 were then analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In untreated normal brain sections, as well as control brains that had been injected with Ad-β-Gal, myelination of axons occurred in the corpus callosum with filamentous patterns of immunosignals of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and MBP. In Ad-shRNA:Ddx54-injected brain, substantial amounts of MAG and MBP immunosignals were present, but MBP immunosignals accumulated in the subplate layer and did not intrude into the emerging white matter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that Ddx54 knockdown caused a significant decrease in the level of 21.5 kDa MBP isoform and Ddx54, but the amount of Olig2; 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase; MAG; three MBP isoforms (14, 17.5, and 18 kDa); and QKI-5, QKI-6, and QKI-7 proteins remained unchanged. Transfection of the Ddx54 expression vector into luciferase reporter-introduced neuroepithelial cells resulted in upregulated MBP promoter activity. Immunoprecipitation of Ddx54 protein in MBP-transfected HEK293 cells indicated that Ddx54 may directly interact with MBP mRNA. These results suggest that Ddx54 protein play an important role in central nervous system myelination, presumably in myelin sheath formation after the differentiation of oligodendrocytes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 12/2012; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhoptries are club-shaped secretory organelles located at the anterior pole of species belonging to the phylum of Apicomplexa. Parasites of this phylum are responsible for a huge burden of disease in humans and animals and a loss of economic productivity. Members of this elite group of obligate intracellular parasites include Plasmodium spp. that cause malaria and Cryptosporidium spp. that cause diarrhoeal disease. Although rhoptries are present almost ubiquitously throughout the phylum, the relevance and role of the proteins contained within the rhoptries varies. Rhoptry contents separates into two intra-organellar compartments, the neck and the bulb. A number of rhoptry neck proteins are conserved between species and are involved in functions such as host cell invasion. The bulb proteins are less well conserved and likely evolved for a particular lifestyle. In the majority of species studied to date, rhoptry content is involved in formation and maintenance of the parasitophorous vacuole however some species live free within the host cytoplasm. In this review we will summarise the knowledge available regarding rhoptry proteins. Specifically we will discuss the role of the rhoptry kinases that are used by Toxoplasma gondii and other coccidian parasites to subvert the host cellular functions and prevent parasite death. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
    FEMS microbiology reviews 11/2012; · 10.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STAT3 activation is involved in development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated STAT3 activation during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by neonatal diethylnitrosamine (DEN) treatment in mice. Nuclear accumulation and phosphorylation of STAT3 were detected in altered hepatocyte foci in the early stages as well as adenomas and HCCs in the late stages. Although total STAT3 levels were the same between the hepatic lesions and normal livers, S727-phosphorylated STAT3 was enhanced in adenomas and HCCs, whereas Y705-phosphorylated STAT3 was detected mainly in HCCs. In mouse HCC cell lines, although both S727 and Y705 remained un- or hypophosphorylated under serum-free conditions, fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced strong S727/weak Y705 phosphorylation, STAT3 nuclear accumulation and cell proliferation, whereas IL-6 treatment without FBS caused Y705 phosphorylation without S727 phosphorylation, STAT3 nuclear accumulation or cell proliferation. When HCCs were simultaneously treated with FBS/IL-6, selective suppression of S727 phosphorylation by an MEK inhibitor prevented STAT3 nuclear accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, an S727 phosphorylation-deficient STAT3 mutant (S727A) had a diminished capacity to accumulate in the nucleus when compared with wild-type (WT) or the phosphorylation-mimic mutant (S727D) following treatment with FBS/IL-6. After treatment with FBS/IL-6, the cells expressing the S727A mutant proliferated more slowly than those expressing WT or S727D mutant. In contrast, suppression of Y705 phosphorylation by a JAK inhibitor in the FBS/IL-6 treated cells did not affect STAT3 nuclear accumulation or cell proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that STAT3 activation, mainly through S727 phosphorylation, contributes to the DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis at the earliest stages. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 08/2012; · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TS-1 is an oral anticancer drug containing a 5-fluorouracil derivative (Tegafur) that is widely used in Japan for the treatment of cancer, especially gastrointestinal tumors. Frequently, however, TS-1 therapy has to be discontinued because of leukopenia. If it were possible to predict the development of bone marrow suppression before the white blood cell (WBC) count had actually decreased, treatment could be improved by strict dosage control and/or the prophylactic administration of hematopoietic drugs. Juzentaihoto (JTT), a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), has been reported to activate hematopoiesis and reduce the side effects associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we 1) evaluate the efficacy of JTT in alleviating myelosuppression induced by TS-1 therapy in mice, and 2) explore biomarkers that reflect both induction by TS-1 and alleviation by JTT of bone marrow suppression using a proteomics approach. Ten mg/kg of TS-1 was administered to Balb/c mice with or without 1 g/kg of oral JTT for 3, 5 and 7 days. WBC count and ratio of CD34+ bone marrow cells (BMCs) were estimated by flow cytometry. Plasma samples were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF-MS). A biomarker candidate from SELDI profiling was identified using a combination of cation exchange spin column purification, SDS-PAGE, enzymatic digestion and LC-MS/MS. After administration of TS-1, a significant decrease in WBC count and CD34+ BMC ratio were observed at days 5 and 3, respectively. JTT treatment improved WBC count on day 7 and CD34+ BMC ratio on days 5 and 7. SELDI analysis highlighted three protein peaks that had increased on day 3 after treatment with TS-1 but remained unchanged in mice co-treated with JTT. One of the three peaks, m/z 4223.1, was further investigated and identified as a specific C-terminal fragment of albumin. This study indicates that bone marrow suppression by treatment with TS-1 in mice might be improved by coadministration of JTT. A C-terminal fragment of albumin was identified as a candidate biomarker for predicting TS-1-induced myelosuppression. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker candidate must be validated in future clinical studies.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2012; 12:118. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have suggested that the encounter with commensal microorganisms during the neonatal period is essential for normal development of the host immune system. Basic research involving gnotobiotic mice has demonstrated that colonization at the age of 5 weeks is too late to reconstitute normal immune function. In this study, we examined the transcriptome profiles of the large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), liver (LIV), and spleen (SPL) of 3 bacterial colonization models-specific pathogen-free mice (SPF), ex-germ-free mice with bacterial reconstitution at the time of delivery (0WexGF), and ex-germ-free mice with bacterial reconstitution at 5 weeks of age (5WexGF)-and compared them with those of germ-free (GF) mice. Hundreds of genes were affected in all tissues in each of the colonized models; however, a gene set enrichment analysis method, MetaGene Profiler (MGP), demonstrated that the specific changes of Gene Ontology (GO) categories occurred predominantly in 0WexGF LI, SPF SI, and 5WexGF SPL, respectively. MGP analysis on signal pathways revealed prominent changes in toll-like receptor (TLR)- and type 1 interferon (IFN)-signaling in LI of 0WexGF and SPF mice, but not 5WexGF mice, while 5WexGF mice showed specific changes in chemokine signaling. RT-PCR analysis of TLR-related genes showed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (Irf3), a crucial rate-limiting transcription factor in the induction of type 1 IFN, prominently decreased in 0WexGF and SPF mice but not in 5WexGF and GF mice. The present study provides important new information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis".
    BMC Genomics 07/2012; 13:335. · 4.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,241.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Tsumura & Co.
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kobe University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      • Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO)
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2012
    • Asahikawa Medical University
      • Department of Pathology
      Asakhigava, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2007–2012
    • Keio University
      • • Center for Kampo Medicine
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2005–2012
    • Institute of Microbial Chemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002–2012
    • Osaka University
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Host Defense
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 2003–2011
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2009
    • Kyushu University
      • Medical Institute of Bioregulation - MIB Hospital
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2005–2008
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2006–2007
    • Kyushu Medical Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2004–2007
    • Daiwa House Central Research Laboratory
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan