Meng Luo

Northeast Forestry University, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (95)291.24 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to develop a new deep eutectic solvent-based microwave-assisted extraction (DES-MAE) method for extracting the three major active compounds genistin, genistein and apigenin from pigeon pea roots. Optimal conditions for DES-MAE, proposed by the single factor and the Box-Behnken design (BBD) tests, were 30% of water in 1,6-hexanediol/ChCl (7:1, mol/mol) as the extraction solvent, microwave power 600 W, liquid/solid ratio 14 mL/g, temperature 80 °C and time 11 min. The yields of genistin, genistein and apigenin reached 0.449, 0.617 and 0.221 mg/g DW, respectively. The kinetics experiment showed the prominent advantages of DES-MAE such as higher extraction efficiency than other extraction methods. The present results showed that DES could be a kind of green solvent for fast and efficient extraction of the active ingredients from plant materials.
    Separation and Purification Technology 08/2015; 150. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2015.06.026 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ifset.2015.08.002 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, an accurate method using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established for the simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid (CA), vitexin-4″-o-glucoside (VG), vitexin-2″-o-rhamnoside (VR), orientoside (ORT), rutin (RT), vitexin (VIT) and hyperoside (HYP) from Crataegus pinnatifida leaves. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method. Under optimized conditions (temperature 41 ℃, time 31 min, ratio of liquid/solid 15 and ethanol concentration 39%), the yields of CA, VG, VR, ORT, RT, VIT and HYP were 0.46, 0.38, 4.37, 0.033, 0.036, 0.30 and 1.19, mg/g, respectively. Additionally, antioxidant activities of UAE extracts in DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH), ABTS radical scavenging (ABTS) and reducing power tests were determined as 0.69 mg/mL (IC50 value), 0.86 mM Trolox and 0.24 mg/mL (IC50 value), respectively. Compared with conventional maceration extraction (ME) and heat-refluxing extraction (HRE) methods, UAE method showed remarkable advantages in terms of higher extraction yields and better antioxidant activities. Overall, the present results showed that UAE was an efficient and alternative method for the extraction of phenolic compounds form C. pinnatifida leaves and its extracts were potential antioxidant ingredients or additives in food industry with potential preservation properties.
    RSC Advances 07/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5RA07445B · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel extraction method, homogenate-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction (HNPCE), was designed for the extraction and determination of main phenolic compounds from Pyrola incarnata Fisch. by LC-MS/MS. The particle sizes and extraction yields in the process of homogenate were compared with conventional pulverization. The results showed that the homogenate under 120 s could produce more suitable particle size powders for analyte extraction. The following NPCE parameters were optimized by a BBD test and under the optimal conditions, the maximum extraction yields of arbutin, epicatechin, hyperin, 2'-O-galloylhyperin and chimaphilin increased 68.7%, 72.0%, 43.3%, 62.5% and 34.5% than the normal NPCE. LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the quantification of five target compounds in pyrola, and the results of the precision test indicated a high accuracy of the present method for the quantification of target compounds in pyrola. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the pyrola extracts were also determined. The results showed that pyrola had good antioxidant activities and it was a valuable antioxidant natural source.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5FO00727E
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-estrogenic therapy is a mainstay for estrogen receptor (ERα)-positive breast cancer. Due to the development of resistance to established anti-hormones such as tamoxifen, novel compounds are required. The low abundant cajanin stilbene acid (CSA) recently isolated by us from Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) has structural similarities with estrogen. We analyzed the cytotoxic and anti-cancer activity of CSA in ERα-positive and –negative human breast cancer cells in vitro, in vivo and in silico. CSA exerts anti-cancer and anti-estrogenic activities towards ERα-positive breast cancer and it showed cytotoxicity towards tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells, implying that CSA may be active against tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells. CSA showed low cytotoxicity in ERα-negative breast tumor cells as expected. Comparable cytotoxicity was observed towards p53 negative MCF-7 cells, implying that CSA is effective independent of the p53 status. Xenografted MCF-7 cells in nude mice were better inhibited by CSA than by cyclophosphamide. Testing of 8 primary cell cultures derived from human breast cancer biopsies showed that cell cultures from ER-positive tumors were more sensitive than from ER-negative ones. Dose dependent decrease in ERα protein levels was observed upon CSA treatment. Synergistic effect with tamoxifen was observed in terms of increased p53 protein level. CSA affected pathways related to p53, cancer and cell proliferation. Gene promoter analyses supported the ERα regulation. CSA bound to the same site as 17β-estradiol and tamoxifen on ERα. In conclusion, CSA exerts its anticancer effects in ERα-positive breast cancer cells by binding and inhibiting ERα.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.06.004 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, novel and green natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) as extraction media, are presented for the extraction and determination of phenolics in Cajanus cajan leaves by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Fourteen different NADES systems were investigated for the extraction of phenolics with diverse polarity in C. cajan leaves. Experiments with different extraction solvents and multivariate data analysis demonstrated that the NADES composed of choline chloride and maltose possessed excellent extractability for both polar and weak polar compounds compared to conventional solvents. The influential parameters of microwave-assisted extraction procedure with NADES were examined and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: extraction solvent 20% of water in choline chloride/maltose (1/2), extraction temperature 60 oC, liquid/solid ratio 30:1 mL/g and irradiation time 12 min. Moreover, a fast and sensitive UPLC method was firstly developed for the comprehensive analysis of fourteen phenolics in C. cajan leaves. This method was performed within 40 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision and recovery. These results indicate that the proposed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of phenolics in plant materials.
    Separation and Purification Technology 05/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2015.05.015 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A group of green solvent named polyols-based deep eutectic solvents (PDES) combined with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was first successfully applied in extracting phenolic compounds from pyrola. A series of PDES with mixing different ratios choline chloride (ChCl) to different polyols were investigated for extraction, and ChCl/1,4-Butanediol (1/4) was found to be the suitable extraction solvent. MAE was more effective than heat-stirring extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction with PDES. The extraction parameters were optimized by BBD test combined with response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 30% of water in ChCl/1,4-Butanediol (1/4) at 70 °C for 20 min and liquid/solid ratio 10 mL/g. Moreover, RP-HPLC-UV was developed for the determination of five main active components in pyrola. This method exhibited satisfactory linearity (R2 >0.999), precision (RSD < 4.03%) and recovery (96.17%-103.25%). Sample analysis showed that the contents of hyperin, 2’-O-galloylhyperin, quercitrin, quercetin-O-rhamnoside and chimaphilin in pyrola were 1.627, 4.958, 0.041, 0.089 and 0.349 mg/g, respectively. These results revealed that PDES would be promising green solvents for analytical sample preparation from plant herbs.
    Separation and Purification Technology 05/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2015.03.037 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new, simple and efficient analysis method for fresh plant in vitro cultures-namely, high-speed homogenization coupled with microwave-assisted extraction (HSH-MAE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-was developed for simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and eight flavonoids in Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs). Compared with traditional methods, the proposed HSH-MAE offers the advantages of easy manipulation, higher efficiency, energy saving, and reduced waste. Cytohistological studies were conducted to clarify the mechanism of HSH-MAE at cellular/tissue levels. Moreover, the established LC-MS/MS method showed excellent linearity, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility. The HSH-MAE-LC-MS/MS method was also successfully applied for screening high-productivity ITHRCs. Overall, this study opened up a new avenue for the direct determination of secondary metabolic profiles from fresh plant in vitro cultures, which is valuable for improving quality control of plant cell/organ cultures and sheds light on the metabolomic analysis of biological samples.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 04/2015; 407(16). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8668-4 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A direct analysis approach for plant in vitro cultures, namely high speed homogenization coupled with cavitation-accelerated extraction (HSH-CAE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed for simultaneous determination of six astragalosides and five isoflavonoids in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs). In comparison to reported soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods, the proposed sample preparation procedure (HSH-CAE) offers significant improvements with regard to simplicity in operation (elimination of biomass drying and grinding), high efficiency, enhanced yield and green aspects in terms of saving energy cost and minimizing the generation of waste. Additionally, the HSH-CAE mechanism was clarified via cytohistological studies of samples at cellular/tissular levels. Moreover, the established LC-MS/MS method provided linearity with correlation coefficients above 0.9991, limit of detections (LODs) below 1.77 ng mL-1, relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 6.01%, and recoveries above 96.84%. Furthermore, the proposed HSH-CAE-LC-MS/MS method was also successfully applied for screening high-productive AMHRCs. Overall, this study opened up a new avenue for the direct determination of secondary metabolic profiles from fresh plant in vitro cultures, which was valuable for improving the quality control of plant cell/organ cultures and shed light on the metabolomics analysis from biological samples.
    RSC Advances 04/2015; 5(44). DOI:10.1039/C5RA04291G · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs) were established as an alternative source for flavonoids (FL) production. I. tinctoria hairy root line V was found to be the most efficient line and was further confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture parameters of ITHRCs were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD), and eight bioactive FL constituents (rutin, neohesperidin, buddleoside, liquiritigenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin) were quali-quantitatively determined by LC-MS/MS. Under optimal conditions, the total FL accumulation of ITHRCs (24 day-old) achieved was 438.10 μg/g dry weight (DW), which exhibited significant superiority as against that of 2 year-old field grown roots (341.73 μg/g DW). Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ITHRCs extracts exhibited better antioxidant activities with lower IC50 values (0.41 and 0.39, mg/mL) as compared to those of field grown roots (0.56 and 0.48, mg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing FL production and antioxidant activities from ITHRCs.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119022. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119022 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs) induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were established as alternative sources for the production of bioactive alkaloids (AK). The highest transformation rate (76.67%) was obtained when 3 week-old petiole explants were co-cultured with A. rhizogenes for 2 days by the aid of 125 μM acetosyringone and 1.5 mM arginine. Among eight I. tinctoria hairy root lines (ITHRLs), ITHRL III was screened as the lead line and was confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture conditions of ITHRCs were optimized by Box–Behnken design, and six main AK constituents were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Under the culture temperature (24.7 °C), inoculum size (0.75%), sucrose concentration (3.14%) and initial pH (5.8), ITHRCs (23 day-old) in MS/2 medium gave the maximum biomass dry weight (DW) of 12.85 g/L and the optimal total AK content of 521.77 μg/g DW. Results showed that the proposed ITHRCs system possessed higher ability of AK production as compared to that of 2 year-old field-grown roots (464.69 μg/g DW). Overall, this work offered a promising, sustainable and high-productive biosynthesis platform that was capable of augmentation production of valuable naturally-derived AK.
    Biochemical Engineering Journal 03/2015; 95. DOI:10.1016/j.bej.2014.12.006 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The low abundant cajanin stilbene acid (CSA) from Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) has been shown to kill estrogen receptor α positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Downstream effects such as cell cycle and apoptosis-related mechanisms have not been analyzed yet. Material and methods: We analyzed the activity of CSA by means of flow cytometry (cell cycle distribution, mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP), confocal laser scanning microscopy (MMP), DNA fragmentation assay (apoptosis), Western blotting (Bax and Bcl-2 expression, capsase-3 activation) as well as mRNA microarray hybridization and Ingenuity pathway analysis. Results: CSA induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner from 8.88 to 14.79 µM. The MMP broke down, Bax was upregulated, Bcl-2 downregulated and capase-3 activated. Microarray profiling revealed that CSA affected BRCA-related DNA damage response and cell cycle-regulated chromosomal replication pathways. Conclusion: CSA inhibited breast cancer cells by DNA damage and cell cycle-related signaling pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 03/2015; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low abundant cajanin stilbene acid (CSA) from Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) has been shown to kill estrogen receptor α positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Downstream effects such as cell cycle and apoptosis-related mechanisms have not been analyzed yet. We analyzed the activity of CSA by means of flow cytometry (cell cycle distribution, mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP), confocal laser scanning microscopy (MMP), DNA fragmentation assay (apoptosis), Western blotting (Bax and Bcl-2 expression, caspase-3 activation) as well as mRNA microarray hybridization and Ingenuity pathway analysis. CSA induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner from 8.88 to 14.79 µM. The MMP broke down, Bax was upregulated, Bcl-2 downregulated and caspase-3 activated. Microarray profiling revealed that CSA affected BRCA-related DNA damage response and cell cycle-regulated chromosomal replication pathways. CSA inhibited breast cancer cells by DNA damage and cell cycle-related signaling pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 03/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2015.02.005 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel and effective extraction method, namely negative pressure cavitation-microwave assisted extraction technique (NMAE), was developed for the preparation of extracts of Pyrola incarnata Fisch., which are rich in the main constituents hyperin, 2′-O-galloylhyperin and chimaphilin. Single factor experiments and Box–Behnken design (BBD) were combined with a response surface methodology to examine factors affecting extraction. Maximum extraction yields of hyperin, 2′-O-galloylhyperin and chimaphilin (1.339 ± 0.029, 4.831 ± 0.117 and 0.329 ± 0.011 mg/g, respectively) were achieved under the following optimised conditions: 700 W microwave power, 50 °C extraction temperature, 30:1 mL/g liquid–solid ratio, −0.05 MPa negative pressure, 55% ethanol concentration and 12 min extraction time. First-order kinetics equation demonstrated that NMAE offered significant savings in extraction time, and enhancing extraction efficiency. Furthermore, NMAE extracts yielded excellent antioxidant activity (IC50 0.121 mg/mL for DPPH 2.896 mmol FeSO4/g DW FRAP).
    Food Chemistry 02/2015; 169:270–276. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.115 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, sophoricoside from Fructus sophorae was highly bioconversed to genistein by co-immobilized Aspergillus niger and Yeast. Bioconversion conditions for genistein were optimized with single-factor experiments. The optimal conditions were as follows: microbial concentration 1.5 × 10(7) cells/mL, wet weight of microorganisms beads 10.0 g/g material, pH 5, ratio of liquid to solid 25:1 (mL/g), temperature 32 °C and time 24 h. Under these conditions, a 34.45-fold increase in production of genistein was observed with a bioreactor. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the extracts from the fermented and untreated F. sophorae were 0.287 ± 0.11, 0.384 ± 0.08 mg/mL (IC50) and 1.84 ± 0.13, 1.28 ± 0.25 mmol Fe(II)/g, according to the DPPH test and FRAP assay, respectively. The results indicated that the method described in the current work were valuable procedure for the production of genistein, which is of most importance for industrial scale applications as well as food industry.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s11274-014-1777-y · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity and accuracy of ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were determined to be that silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400 mg/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within less than 6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Journal of Separation Science 11/2014; 37(21). DOI:10.1002/jssc.201400575 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), an active constituent of pigeonpea leaves, one of important tropical crops, is known for its clinical effects in the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis, measles and potential anti-tumor effect. In this study, the effect of the cytochrome P450 isozymes on the activity of CSA was investigated. Two hydroxylation metabolites were identified in the study. The reaction phenotype study showed that CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of CSA. The metabolic drug-drug interaction potential was also evaluated in vitro. The effect of CSA inhibition/induction of enzymatic activities of seven drug-metabolizing CYP450 isozymes in vitro was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical techniques. CSA showed different inhibitory effects on different isozymes. CSA reversibly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activities in human liver microsomes with an IC50 of 28.3µM and 31.3µM, respectively, while exhibited no inhibition activities to CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. CSA showed a weak effect on CYP450 enzymes in time-dependent manner. CSA did not substantially induce CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 at the concentration up to 30µM in primary human hepatocytes. The results of our experiments may be helpful to predict clinically significant drug-drug interactions when other drugs are combined administration with CSA.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2014; 62(43). DOI:10.1021/jf501635a · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a homogenate-assisted negative-pressure cavitation extraction (H-NPCE) is developed for the extraction and determination of the main organic acids and flavonoids in honeysuckle by LC–MS/MS. The influential parameters of the H-NPCE procedure were optimized, and the optimal conditions were as follows: homogenate time 45 s, negative pressure −0.07 MPa, ethanol concentration 70%, liquid/solid ratio 20:1 mL/g, NPCE time 20 min and 3 extraction cycles. Furthermore, a rapid LC–MS/MS analysis method was established and validated, and it exhibited satisfactory linearity (R2 > 0.996), precision (RSD ⩽ 4.87%) and recovery (96.94–104.32%). H-NPCE followed by LC–MS/MS was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of ten organic acids and flavonoids in honeysuckle. This work provided a fast and effective method for the sample preparation and determination of active components from plants.
    Separation and Purification Technology 10/2014; 135:80–87. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2014.07.046 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from pigeon pea leaves and its antimicrobial activity were investigated. The process of SFME was optimized by a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (REM). The optimal parameters were extraction time 44 mm, irradiation power 660W, and humidity 68%, with extraction yield of 0.330 (%, w/w). The main constituents were sesquiterpenes (72.89%), including alpha-copaene (5.89%),beta-caryophyllene (7.46%), alpha-himachalene (12.97%), alpha-humulene (17.43%), alloaromadendrene (8.45%), and alpha-bisabolene (12.64%). The essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Propionibacterium acnes with MIC and MBC values 1.06 mg/mL and 2.12 mg/mL, 0.13 mg/mL and 0.26 mg/mL, respectively. These results indicated that SFME method was an outstanding alternative for the extraction of essential oil from pigeon pea leaves, and the essential oil was a potential source of natural antimicrobial.
    Industrial Crops and Products 07/2014; 58:322–328. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.04.038 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspidin BB, a phloroglucinol derivative extracted from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, has been previously reported to exert high biological activities. In the present study, antibacterial activities and mechanisms of aspidin BB against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Aspidin BB exhibited strong antibacterial activity against standard and three clinical S. aureus, with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values ranging from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL. After treatment with aspidin BB for 72 h using the MTT assay, the IC50 value was 48.14 μM (22.11 μg/mL). The time-kill assay indicated that aspidin BB could kill S. aureus completely at 2 MIC (MBC) within 4 h. Aspidin BB was capable to induce an increase in NADPH oxidase activity from 4.03 U/mg to 7.48 U/mg when the concentrations were increased from 1/2 MIC to 4 MIC. Simultaneously, aspidin BB attenuated antioxidant defense by decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was apparently elevated when measuring OD575. This phenomenon was blocked by pretreatment of S. aureus with the antioxidant compound catalase (200 U/mL) and the survival rate of S. aureus increased from 3.95% to 73.04%. These results showed that ROS was indeed an important mediator in the antibacterial action of aspidin BB. In addition, aspidin-BB-induced peroxidation of membranes, DNA damage and protein degradation of S. aureus were all verified in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, aspidin BB induced generation of ROS by activating NADPH oxidase activity and inhibiting SOD activity and GSH levels, damaging the membrane, DNA and proteins and finally led to cell death.
    Research in Microbiology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2014.03.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor