Martin McKee

Maastricht University, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (782)6385.7 Total impact

  • Anthony Wolff, David Stuckler, Martin McKee
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    ABSTRACT: To compare risks of hypernatraemia on admission to hospital in persons who were with those who were not identified as care home residents and evaluate the association of hypernatraemia with in-hospital mortality. Retrospective observational study. A National Health Service Trust in London. A total of 21,610 patients aged over 65 years whose first admission to the Trust was between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Hypernatraemia on admission (plasma Na > 145 mmol/L) and in-hospital death. Patients admitted from care homes had 10-fold higher prevalence of hypernatraemia than those from their own homes (12.0% versus 1.3%, respectively; odds ratio [OR]: 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.43-13.0). Of those with hypernatraemia, nine in 10 cases were associated with nursing home ECOHOST residency (attributable fraction exposure: 90.5%), and the population attributable fraction of hypernatraemia on admission associated with care homes was 36.0%. After correcting for age, gender, mode of admission and dementia, care home residents were significantly more likely to be admitted with hypernatraemia than were own-home residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.32, 95% CI: 3.85-7.37). Compared with own-home residents, care home residents were also at about a two-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with non-care home residents (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.59-2.45). Consistent with evidence that hypernatraemia is implicated in higher mortality, the association of nursing homes with in-hospital mortality was attenuated after adjustment for it (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.26-2.06). Patients admitted to hospital from care homes are commonly dehydrated on admission and, as a result, appear to experience significantly greater risks of in-hospital mortality. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
    Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality. Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis. In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence. This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Tobacco control. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol polices and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Health Economics 01/2015; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    The Lancet Global Health. 12/2014; 39.
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    ABSTRACT: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
    European journal of public health. 12/2014;
  • Lancet. 12/2014; 384(9960):2107.
  • Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 12/2014; 107(12):466-7.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews procedures for ensuring that physicians in the European Union (EU) continue to meet criteria for registration and the implications of these procedures for cross-border movement of health professionals following implementation of the 2005/36/EC Directive on professional qualifications. A questionnaire was completed by key informants in 10 EU member states, supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature and a review conducted by key experts in each country. The questionnaire covered three aspects: actors involved in processes for ensuring continued adherence to standards for registration and/or licencing (such as revalidation), including their roles and functions; the processes involved, including continuing professional development (CPD) and/or continuing medical education (CME); and contextual factors, particularly those impacting professional mobility. All countries included in the study view CPD/CME as one mechanism to demonstrate that doctors continue to meet key standards. Although regulatory bodies in a few countries have established explicit systems of ensuring continued competence, at least for some doctors (in Belgium, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the UK), self-regulation is considered sufficient to ensure that physicians are up to date and fit to practice in others (Austria, Finland, Estonia and Spain). Formal systems vary greatly in their rationale, structure, and coverage. Whereas in Germany, Hungary and Slovenia, systems are exclusively focused on CPD/CME, the Netherlands also includes peer review and minimum activity thresholds. Belgium and the UK have developed more complex mechanisms, comprising a review of complaints or compliments on performance and (in the UK) colleague and patient questionnaires. Systems for ensuring that doctors continue to meet criteria for registration and licencing across the EU are complex and inconsistent. Participation in CPD/CME is only one aspect of maintaining professional competence but it is the only one common to all countries. Thus, there is a need to bring clarity to this confused landscape. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.
    Clinical medicine (London, England) 12/2014; 14(6):633-9. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in countries of the former Soviet Union, but little is known about its social determinants. Recent research has suggested that workplace contexts may play a role. Using qualitative methods, we investigate the relationship between workplace social contexts and drinking in Ukraine. We conducted 24 individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions in Lviv and Kharkiv, Ukraine, with male railway employees aged 18+ years. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Men in our sample expressed strong feelings of interdependence and trust towards their co-workers which we defined as 'social solidarity'. Drinking with co-workers was often seen as obligatory and an integral part of co-worker social occasions. Engagement in sport or family obligations seemed to act as a deterrent to drinking among some workers. A strong sense of solidarity exists between railway co-workers in Ukraine, perhaps a remnant of the Soviet era when individuals relied on informal networks for support. Alcohol may be used as a means of expressing this solidarity. Our findings point to factors, namely engagement in sports and family, which may offer opportunities for interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among workers in Ukraine.
    Global Public Health 11/2014; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Progressive realisation of Universal Health Coverage is a widely accepted goal for the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Yet the means to pay for it is a subject of intense debate. Method: Using cross-national fixed effects models,investigated how alternative tax systems affect health coverage and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2011. Findings: We identified tax revenue as a major statistical determinant of progress towards Universal Health Coverage. Each $100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to $9.86 yearly increase in government health spending (95% CI $3.92 to $15.8). This association was particularly strong for taxes on capital gains, profits and income ($16.7, 95% CI: $9.16 to $24.3). In countries with low tax revenues (<$1000 per capita per year), an additional $100 tax revenue per year substantially increased the extent of health coverage by 11.4 percentage points (95% CI 5.51 to 17.2). However, in contrast, $100 per capita increase in regressive forms of taxation, such as taxes on goods and services, which may reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, was associated with higher rates of under five mortality rate by 0.43 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.72). Interpretation: Increasing domestic tax revenues is a key element of a strategy to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains appear to support expansion of health coverage without the adverse effects on health outcomes of higher taxes on goods and services.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The recent financial crisis has seen severe austerity measures imposed on the Spanish health care system. However, the impacts are not yet well documented. We describe the findings from a qualitative study that explored health care professionals' perception of the effects of austerity measures in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia. A total of 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals, recorded and fully transcribed. We coded all interviews using an inductive approach, drawing on techniques used in the constant comparative method. Health professionals reported increases in mental health conditions and malnutrition linked to a loss of income from employment and cuts to social support services. Health care professionals perceived that the quality of health care had become worse and health outcomes had deteriorated as a result of austerity measures. Interviewees also suggested that increased copayments meant that a growing number of patients could not afford necessary medication. While a few supported reforms and policies, such as the increase in copayments for pharmaceuticals, most opposed the privatization of health care facilities, and the newly introduced Royal Decree-law 16/2012, particularly the exclusion of non-residents from the health care system. The prevailing perception is that austerity measures are having negative effects on the quality of the health care system and population health. In light of this evidence there is an urgent need to evaluate the austerity measures recently introduced and to consider alternatives such as the derogation of the Royal Decree-law 16/2012. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Health Policy 11/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent a number of economic and social transformations. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyze two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N=18,428) and in 2010 (N=17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed there between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as indirect standardization approach with concentration indices, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the 2000 decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. The two indicators thus appear to go hand in hand in both survey years: countries which had the smallest proportion of people with poor mental health tended to have the least inequality. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measure, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 11/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Martin McKee, David Stuckler
    The Lancet 11/2014; 384(9955):1643-4. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing—a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population—a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries’ economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasized disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties.
    The Lancet 11/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that environments with features that encourage walking are associated with increased physical activity. Existing methods to assess the built environment using geographical information systems (GIS) data, direct audit or large surveys of the residents face constraints, such as data availability and comparability, when used to study communities in countries in diverse parts of the world. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate features of the built environment of communities using a standard set of photos. In this report we describe the method of photo collection, photo analysis instrument development and inter-rater reliability of the instrument.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e110042. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on trust in health care faces two enduring challenges. Firstly, there are conceptual ambiguities in distinguishing trust from related concepts, such as confidence or dependence. Second, the tacit understandings which underpin the 'faith' element of trust are difficult to explicate. A case study of British pensioners who have moved to Spain provides an opportunity to explore trust in a setting where they often have a choice of where to access health care (UK or Spain), and are therefore not in a state of dependence, and in which the 'differences' of a new field generates reflection on their tacit expectations of providers and systems. In accounting for decisions to use (or not to use) Spanish health care, British pensioners cited experiential knowledge of symbolic indicators of trustworthy institutions (they were hygienic, modern, efficient), which contributed to background confidence in the system, and interpersonal qualities of practitioners (respect for older people, embodied empathy and reciprocity) which evoked familiar relations, within which faith is implicit. In contrast, with limited recent access to the British system, their background confidence had been compromised by reports of poor performance, with few opportunities to rebuild the interrelational bases of trust. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for Sociology of Health and Illness (SHIL).
    Sociology of Health & Illness 11/2014; 36(8):1243-58. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, the countries that emerged from it faced myriad challenges, including the need to reorganize the organization, financing and provision of health services. Over two decades later, this book analyses the progress that twelve of these countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) have made in reforming their health systems. Building on the health system reviews of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (the HiT series), it illustrates the benefits of international comparisons of health systems, describing the often markedly different paths taken and evaluating the consequences of these choices. This book will be an important resource for those with an interest in health systems and policies in the post-Soviet countries, but also for those interested in health systems in general. It will be of particular use to governments in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet countries (and those advising them), to international and non-governmental organizations active in the region, and to researchers of health systems and policies.
    11/2014; World Health Organization., ISBN: 978 92 890 5028 9
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    ABSTRACT: Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008–2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008–2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94–1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (<7% fall in GDP), each additional unit of employment protection reduced job loss risk (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90). Before the recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 11/2014; 121:98–108. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ¿25x25¿ strategy to tackle the global challenge of non-communicable diseases takes a traditional approach, concentrating on a few diseases and their immediate risk factors. Discussion: We propose elements of a comprehensive strategy to address NCDs that takes account of the evolving social, economic, environmental and health care contexts, while developing mechanisms to respond effectively to local patterns of disease. Principles that underpin the comprehensive strategy include: (a) a balance between measures that address health at the individual and population level; (b) the need to identify evidence-based feasible and effective approaches tailored to low and middle income countries rather than exporting questionable strategies developed in high income countries; (c) developing primary health care as a universal framework to support prevention and treatment; (d) ensuring the ability to respond in real time to the complex adaptive behaviours of the global food, tobacco, alcohol and transport industries; (e) integrating evidence-based, cost-effective, and affordable approaches within the post-2015 sustainable development agenda; (f) determination of a set of priorities based on the NCD burden within each country, taking account of what it can afford, including the level of available development assistance; and (g) change from a universal ¿one-size fits all¿ approach of relatively simple prevention oriented approaches to more comprehensive multi-sectoral and development-oriented approaches which address both health systems and the determinants of NCD risk factors.SummaryThe 25x25 is approach is absolutely necessary but insufficient to tackle the the NCD disease burden of mortality and morbidity. A more comprehensive approach is recommended.
    Globalization and Health 10/2014; 10(1):74. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background WHO stresses the need to act on the social determinants of tuberculosis. We tested whether alternative social protection programmes have affected tuberculosis case notifications, prevalence, and mortality, and case detection and treatment success rates in 21 European countries from 1995 to 2012. Methods We obtained tuberculosis case notification data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control's 2014 European Surveillance System database. We also obtained data for case detection, treatment success, prevalence, and mortality rates from WHO's 2014 tuberculosis database. We extracted data for 21 countries between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2012. Social protection data were from EuroStat, 2014 edition. We used multivariate cross-national statistical models to quantify the association of differing types of social protection programmes with tuberculosis outcomes. All analyses were prespecified. Findings After we controlled for economic output, public health spending, and country fixed effects, each US$100 increase in social protection spending was associated with a decrease per 100 000 population in the number of tuberculosis case notifications of −1·53% (95% CI −0·28 to −2·79; p=0·0191), estimated incidence rates of −1·70% (−0·30 to −3·11; p=0·0201), non-HIV-related tuberculosis mortality rate of −2·74% (−0·66 to −4·82; p=0·0125), and all-cause tuberculosis mortality rate of −3·08% (−0·73 to −5·43; p=0·0127). We noted no relation between increased social spending and tuberculosis prevalence (−1·50% [–3·10 to 0·10] per increase of $100; p=0·0639) or smear-positive treatment success rates (−0·079% [–0·18 to 0·34] per increase of $100; p=0·5235) or case detection (−0·59% [–1·31 to 0·14] per increase of $100; p=0·1066). Old age pension expenditure seemed to have the strongest association with reductions in tuberculosis case notification rates for those aged 65 years or older (−3·87% [–0·95 to −6·78]; p=0·0137). Interpretation Investment in social protection programmes are likely to provide an effective complement to tuberculosis prevention and treatment programmes, especially for vulnerable groups. Funding European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2014; · 19.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
6,385.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Health Services Research
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 1991–2014
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition
      • • Department of Health Services Research and Policy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Southampton
      • Division of Economics
      Southampton, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Auckland
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of East Anglia
      • Norwich Medical School
      Norwich, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • New York University Abu Dhabi
      Dubayy, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • 2012–2013
    • Harvard University
      • • Department of Global Health and Population
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Royal Observatory of Belgium
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • Erasmus MC
      • Research Group for Public Health
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Stanford University
      • Stanford Prevention Research Center
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Open Society Foundations
      New York City, New York, United States
    • UK Department of Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of the Balearic Islands
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
    • University of Liverpool
      • Department of Public Health and Policy
      Liverpool, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2013
    • Hamilton Health Sciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • European Commission - Joint Research Centre
      • Econometrics and Applied Statistics Unit
      Brussels, BRU, Italy
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Sociology
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Sociology
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Moscow Institute of Open Education
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 2007–2013
    • Södertörn University
      Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    • World Bank
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999–2013
    • University College London
      • • Department of Applied Health Research
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      • • Department of Infection and Population Health
      • • Institute for Global Health (IGH)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–2013
    • University of Debrecen
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine (Faculty of Medicine)
      • • Medical and Health Science Centre
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine (Faculty of Public Health)
      • • Division of Public Health Medicine
      Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary
  • 2011–2012
    • McMaster University
      • Population Health Research Institute (PHRI)
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • RAND Corporation
      Santa Monica, California, United States
    • University of Queensland 
      • UQ Centre for Clinical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • National Research University Higher School of Economics
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Ottawa
      • Institute of Population Health
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Community and Preventive Medicine
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • National Health Research Institutes
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Curatio International Foundation
      Tbilsi, T'bilisi, Georgia
  • 2009–2012
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Tartu
      • Department of Public Health (ARTH)
      Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Centre for Mental Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Izhevsk State Medical Academy
      Ishewsk, Udmurtiya, Russia
  • 2001–2012
    • The London School of Economics and Political Science
      • Department of Social Policy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Georgia (Tbilisi)
      Tbilsi, T'bilisi, Georgia
    • Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • University of São Paulo
      • Departamento de Economia, Administração e Sociologia (LES) (ESALQ)
      Ribeirão Preto, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Bath
      • Department for Health
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2010
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2001–2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
      • Laboratory of Demographic Data
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2004–2007
    • World Health Organization WHO
      Islāmābād, Islāmābād, Pakistan
    • Tallinn University of Technology
      Kolyvan, Harju, Estonia
  • 1999–2006
    • University of London
      • The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2005
    • Semmelweis University
      • Health Services Management Training Centre
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary
  • 2002
    • Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
      Bucureşti, Bucureşti, Romania
  • 2000
    • Saint Joseph Health System London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Policy Studies Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany