Martin McKee

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (836)6845.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Doctors are witnessing increasing numbers of patients seeking referrals to food banks in the United Kingdom. Rachel Loopstra and colleagues ask, is this due to supply or demand?
    BMJ (online) 04/2015; 350(apr08 9):h1775. DOI:10.1136/bmj.h1775 · 16.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is large gap in mental illness treatment globally and potentially especially so in war-affected populations. The study aim was to examine health care utilization patterns for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among the war-affected adult population in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 3600 adults affected by 1990s and 2008 armed conflicts in Georgia. Service use was measured for the last 12 months for any mental, emotional or behavioural problems. TSQ, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were used to measure current symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Descriptive and regression analyses were used. Respondents were predominantly female (65.0%), 35.8% were unemployed, and 56.0% covered by the government insurance scheme. From the total sample, 30.5% had symptoms of at least one current mental disorder. Among them, 39.0% sought care for mental problems, while 33.1% expressed facing barriers to accessing care and so did not seek care. General practitioners (29%) and neurologists (26%) were consulted by the majority of those with a current mental disorder who accessed services, while use of psychiatric services was far more limited. Pharmacotherapy was the predominant type of care (90%). Female gender (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.80), middle-age (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.26) and older-age (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.21), possession of the state insurance coverage (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.86), current PTSD symptoms (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.90) and depression (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.65) were associated with higher rates of health service utilization, while employed were less likely to use services (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.89). Reducing financial access barriers and increasing awareness and access to local care required to help reduce the burden of mental disorders among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122673. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122673 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of alcohol consumption in patterns of CVD mortality in Central Asia is still largely unexplored. Previous research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan has found that ethnic Russians have higher adult mortality rates than native ethnic groups, despite their higher socio-economic status. This has been termed the 'Russian mortality paradox'. We calculated age-standardized CVD mortality data by gender and region of Kazakhstan, based on mortality data obtained from the Ministry of Health and population data from the State Agency for Statistics. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol consumption from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study. We found substantial differences in CVD mortality rates across regions, as well as between males and females. With the exception of Almaty and Astana cities, mortality rates are highest in the country's North-Eastern regions and lowest in South-Western regions, despite the fact that North-Eastern regions have higher income levels. Patterns of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol sales follow a similar pattern. One explanation could be related to higher self-reported drinking prevalence among ethnic Russians who live predominantly in the country's North-Eastern regions. Hazardous alcohol consumption seems to be highest in Kazakhstan's North-Eastern regions, which might be related to different patterns of alcohol consumption among different ethnic groups. However, more detailed analyses are required to corroborate these assumptions. The high overall rates suggest the need for population-based measures, such as increasing taxes on alcohol, in particular spirits such as vodka, and strengthening the capacity of primary health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine which factors are associated with feeling lonely in Moscow, Russia, and to determine whether loneliness is associated with worse health. Cross-sectional study. Data from 1190 participants were drawn from the Moscow Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with feeling lonely and whether loneliness was linked to poor health. Almost 10% of the participants reported that they often felt lonely. Divorced and widowed individuals were significantly more likely to feel lonely, while not living alone and having greater social support reduced the risk of loneliness. Participants who felt lonely were more likely to have poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.76), and have suffered from insomnia (OR: 2.43; CI: 1.56-3.77) and mental ill health (OR: 2.93; CI: 1.88-4.56). Feeling lonely is linked to poorer health in Moscow. More research is now needed on loneliness and the way it affects health in Eastern Europe, so that appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce loneliness and its harmful impact on population well-being in this setting. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type. Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations. In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities. The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries. Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 178. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.02.020 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Martin McKee, David Stuckler
    The Lancet 02/2015; 385(9969). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60268-9 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: The 2014 European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) was negotiated in a changed policy context, following adoption of the EU's 'Smart Regulation' agenda, which transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) anticipated would increase their influence on health policy, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which sought to reduce it. This study aims to explore the scale and nature of the TTCs' lobby against the EU TPD and evaluate how these developments have affected their ability to exert influence. Analysis of 581 documents obtained through freedom of information requests, 28 leaked Philip Morris International (PMI) documents, 17 TTC documents from the Legacy Library, web content via Google alerts and searches of the EU institutions' websites, plus four stakeholder interviews. The lobby was massive. PMI alone employed over 160 lobbyists. Strategies mainly used third parties. Efforts to 'Push' (amend) or 'Delay' the proposal and block 'extreme policy options' were partially successful, with plain packaging and point of sales display ban removed during the 3-year delay in the Commission. The Smart Regulation mechanism contributed to changes and delays, facilitating meetings between TTC representatives (including ex-Commission employees) and senior Commission staff. Contrary to Article 5.3, these meetings were not disclosed. During the legislative process, Article 5.3 was not consistently applied by non-health Directorates of the European Commission, while the tools of the Smart Regulation appear to have facilitated TTC access to, and influence on, the 2014 TPD. The use of third parties undermines Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
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    ABSTRACT: Immigration is a key political issue in the United Kingdom. The 2014 Immigration Act includes a number of measures intended to reduce net immigration, including removing the right of non-European Economic Area migrants to access free health care. This change risks widening existing health and social inequalities. This study explored the experiences of undocumented migrants trying to access primary care in the United Kingdom, their perspectives on proposed access restrictions, and suggestions for policymakers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 undocumented migrants and four volunteer staff at a charity clinic in London. Inductive thematic analysis drew out major themes. Many undocumented migrants already faced challenges accessing primary care. None of the migrants interviewed said that they would be able to afford charges to access primary care and most said they would have to wait until they were much more unwell and access care through Accident & Emergency (A&E) services. The consequences of limiting access to primary care, including threats to individual and public health consequences and the additional burden on the National Health Service, need to be fully considered by policymakers. The authors argue that an evidence-based approach would avoid legislation that targets vulnerable groups and provides no obvious economic or societal benefit. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:
    International Journal of Health Services 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/0020731414568511 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 02/2015; 37(2):1-9. DOI:10.3109/08923973.2015.1009998 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explain patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in nine former Soviet Union countries by exploring the influence of a range of individual- and community-level determinants. Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys and area profiles were undertaken in 2010 in nine countries of the former Soviet Union as part of the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study. Individual- and area-level determinants were analysed, taking into account potential confounding at the individual and area level. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 18-95 years. Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were associated with lower probability of consuming adequate amounts of fruit or vegetables. Daily fruit or vegetable consumption was positively correlated with the number of shops selling fruit and vegetables (for women) and with the number of convenience stores (for men). Billboard advertising of snacks and sweet drinks was negatively related to daily fruit or vegetable consumption, although the reverse was true for billboards advertising soft drinks. Men living near a fast-food outlet had a lower probability of fruit or vegetable consumption, while the opposite was true for the number of local food restaurants. Overall fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union is inadequate, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. Both individual- and community-level factors play a role in explaining inadequate nutrition and thus provide potential entry points for policy interventions, while the nuanced influence of community factors informs the agenda for future research.
    Public Health Nutrition 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015000105 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are substantial risk factors for somatic distress (SD) among civilian populations affected by armed conflict in low and middle income countries. However, the evidence is very limited. Our aim was to examine patterns of SD among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia, which has over 200,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from the wars over separatists regions in the 1990s and with Russia in 2008. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with 3600 randomly selected IDPs and former IDPs (returnees). SD was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0, respectively. Descriptive, tetrachoric and multivariate regression analyses were used. Forty-two percent of respondents (29% men; 48% women) were recorded as at risk of SD (PHQ-15 score >5). In tetrachoric analysis, SD scores were highly correlated with depression (r=0.60; p<0.001), PTSD (r=0.54; p<0.001), and anxiety (r=0.49; p<0.001). Factors significantly associated with SD in the multivariate regression analysis were depression, PTSD, anxiety, individual trauma event exposure, cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, bad household economic status, and being a returnee compared to an IDP. SD was also associated with increased levels of functional disability (b=6.73; p<0.001). The high levels of SD among IDPs and returnees in Georgia indicate significant suffering. The findings have implications for both mental and physical health services in Georgia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 02/2015; 62(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.01.015 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Tobacco Control 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052051 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.Methods Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.ResultsAmong the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females—2.6%; males—3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).Conclusions Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2015; 39(3). DOI:10.1111/acer.12644 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • The European Journal of Public Health 02/2015; 25(1):1-2. DOI:10.1093/eurpub/cku214 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Anthony Wolff, David Stuckler, Martin McKee
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    ABSTRACT: To compare risks of hypernatraemia on admission to hospital in persons who were with those who were not identified as care home residents and evaluate the association of hypernatraemia with in-hospital mortality. Retrospective observational study. A National Health Service Trust in London. A total of 21,610 patients aged over 65 years whose first admission to the Trust was between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Hypernatraemia on admission (plasma Na > 145 mmol/L) and in-hospital death. Patients admitted from care homes had 10-fold higher prevalence of hypernatraemia than those from their own homes (12.0% versus 1.3%, respectively; odds ratio [OR]: 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.43-13.0). Of those with hypernatraemia, nine in 10 cases were associated with nursing home ECOHOST residency (attributable fraction exposure: 90.5%), and the population attributable fraction of hypernatraemia on admission associated with care homes was 36.0%. After correcting for age, gender, mode of admission and dementia, care home residents were significantly more likely to be admitted with hypernatraemia than were own-home residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.32, 95% CI: 3.85-7.37). Compared with own-home residents, care home residents were also at about a two-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with non-care home residents (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.59-2.45). Consistent with evidence that hypernatraemia is implicated in higher mortality, the association of nursing homes with in-hospital mortality was attenuated after adjustment for it (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.26-2.06). Patients admitted to hospital from care homes are commonly dehydrated on admission and, as a result, appear to experience significantly greater risks of in-hospital mortality. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
    Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 01/2015; DOI:10.1177/0141076814566260 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol polices and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Health Economics 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/hec.3143 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality. Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis. In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence. This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Tobacco Control 01/2015; DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052092 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors. Future conceptual and empirical research is needed to develop the epidemiology of resilience.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(4):e0123117. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123117 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a controversy about the impact of economic crisis on suicide rates in Greece. We analysed recent suicide data to identify who has been most affected and the relationships to economic and labour market indicators. Greece. Age-specific and sex-specific suicide rates in Greece for the period 2003-2012 were calculated using data provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority. We performed a join-point analysis to identify discontinuities in suicide trends between 2003 and 2010, prior to austerity, and in 2011-2012, during the period of austerity. Regression models were used to assess relationships between unemployment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and suicide rates for the entire period by age and sex. The mean suicide rate overall rose by 35% between 2010 and 2012, from 3.37 to 4.56/100 000 population. The suicide mortality rate for men increased from 5.75 (2003-2010) to 7.43/100 000 (2011-2012; p<0.01). Among women, the suicide rate also rose, albeit less markedly, from 1.17 to 1.55 (p=0.03). When differentiated by age group, suicide mortality increased among both sexes in the age groups 20-59 and >60 years. We found that each additional percentage point of unemployment was associated with a 0.19/100 000 population rise in suicides (95% CI 0.11 to 0.26) among working age men. We found a clear increase in suicides among persons of working age, coinciding with austerity measures. These findings corroborate concerns that increased suicide risk in Greece is a health hazard associated with austerity measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 01/2015; 5(3):e007295. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007295 · 2.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
6,845.61 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2015
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition
      • • Department of Health Services Research and Policy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Health Services Research
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2010–2014
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Sociology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of East Anglia
      • Norwich Medical School
      Norwich, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012–2013
    • University College London
      • • Department of Applied Health Research
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Sociology
      • • Faculty of Human, Social and Political Science
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Aberdeen
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Tartu
      • Department of Public Health (ARTH)
      Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia
    • Bupa
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2013
    • University of Debrecen
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine (Faculty of Medicine)
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine (Faculty of Public Health)
      Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary
  • 2010–2012
    • Royal Observatory of Belgium
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2001–2012
    • The London School of Economics and Political Science
      • Department of Social Policy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
      • Laboratory of Demographic Data
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Södertörn University
      Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    • World Bank
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Moscow Institute of Open Education
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2003
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1999–2003
    • University of London
      • The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
      Bucureşti, Bucureşti, Romania
  • 2000
    • Saint Joseph Health System London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Policy Studies Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany