Maria Blettner

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Are you Maria Blettner?

Claim your profile

Publications (333)1091.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well accepted that innovation in oncology is transported through randomized clinical trials (CT), furthermore there is some evidence that patients profit from participation in CT. However, especially elderly patients aged >65 usually do not have access to clinical trials; we therefore used an unselected patient cohort to investigate the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in survival parameters between study participants <65 and elderly 65-80 non-participants? (2) Is guideline-adherent adjuvant treatment an equal alternative for elderly patients aged 65-80?
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 09/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Reference limits are estimators for 'extreme' percentiles of the distribution of a quantitative diagnostic marker in the healthy population. In most cases, interest will be in the 90% or 95% reference intervals. The standard parametric method of determining reference limits consists of computing quantities of the form X̅±c·S. The proportion of covered values in the underlying population coincides with the specificity obtained when a measurement value falling outside the corresponding reference region is classified as diagnostically suspect. Nonparametrically, reference limits are estimated by means of so-called order statistics. In both approaches, the precision of the estimate depends on the sample size. We present computational procedures for calculating minimally required numbers of subjects to be enrolled in a reference study. The much more sophisticated concept of reference bands replacing statistical reference intervals in case of age-dependent diagnostic markers is also discussed.
    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human evidence of carcinogenicity concerning shift work is inconsistent. This industry-based cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between working in a rotating shift and cancer incidence.
    Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with the development of solid second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cumulative doses of previous RT received at the SMN body region, at all other body regions and at body regions adjacent to the SMN, on the risk of developing a solid SMN. A total of 190 cases diagnosed with a solid second malignant neoplasm in 1980-2002 were matched with 368 controls with single neoplasm from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR) (33,809 patients at cut-off date). The GCCR registers approximately 97 % of all childhood malignancies which occur at an age of less than 15 years in Germany since 1980. It was found that 147 (77.4 %) cases had received RT compared to 208 (56.6 %) controls with cumulative focus doses from 8 to 110 Gy. Fifty per cent of the SMNs and 60 % of RT affected the head region. RT was shown to increase the risk of a solid second tumour within the body region of radiation by 5.3 % per Gy (odds ratio 1.053; 95 % confidence interval 1.036-1.071). With increasing age at diagnosis and with more recent treatment eras, this effect decreased. Cumulative RT doses received at all other body regions or only at body regions adjacent to the SMN did not show an additional effect on the risk of developing an SMN. It is thus concluded that RT is the main risk factor for the development of SMNs within the irradiated body region. Late effects surveillance of former patients should give special attention to the originally irradiated parts of the body.
    Radiation and environmental biophysics. 05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences.Methods/design: Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate chi2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants. An association of migration status or other socioeconomic variables with stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer would be an important finding with respect to equal health care access among migrants. It would point to access barriers or different symptom appraisal and, in the long term, could contribute to the development of new health care concepts for migrants.Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005056.
    BMC Cancer 02/2014; 14(1):123. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Possible health effects of low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are relevant for persons who are exposed to an occupational context like nuclear industry workers. A historical cohort study was therefore conducted to examine mortality risks following occupational radiation exposure among 4,844 German nuclear power plant workers. This cohort included workers from ten nuclear power plants with an observational period from 1991 until 1997. The results of an enlarged cohort with 8,972 workers from all 17 nuclear power plants in West Germany are now available. During the extended follow-up period from 1991 to 2008, a total of 310 deaths among men were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from all causes of deaths was estimated at 0.50 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.56]. A total of 126 deaths due to cancer occurred (SMR = 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82) and seven deaths due to leukemia (SMR = 1.23; 95 % CI 0.42-2.84). Overall, a reduced mortality compared to the general population of West Germany was observed indicating a healthy worker effect. In the dose-response analysis, no statistically significant risk due to ionizing radiation was seen. The hazard ratio (HR/mSv) for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia was estimated at 1.004 (95 % CI 0.997-1.011). In conclusion, the cohort is small and made up of young workers, most of whom were still employed at the end of the observational period in 2008. Results of the external analysis are difficult to interpret as influenced by a healthy worker effect. In the internal analysis, no excess of risk due to radiation was detected.
    Biophysik 02/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent. Population-based eye study in Germany with15 010 participants aged 35-74 years. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia <-0.5 dioptres (D), hyperopia >+0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery. 13 959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia increased with age. 3.5% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia. Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 02/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commercial airline crew is one of the occupational groups with the highest exposures to ionising radiation. Crew members are also exposed to other physical risk factors and subject to potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study analyses mortality in a pooled cohort of 93 771 crew members from 10 countries. The cohort was followed for a mean of 21.7 years (2.0 million person-years), during which 5508 deaths occurred. The overall mortality was strongly reduced in male cockpit (SMR 0.56) and female cabin crews (SMR 0.73). The mortality from radiation-related cancers was also reduced in male cockpit crew (SMR 0.73), but not in female or male cabin crews (SMR 1.01 and 1.00, respectively). The mortality from female breast cancer (SMR 1.06), leukaemia and brain cancer was similar to that of the general population. The mortality from malignant melanoma was elevated, and significantly so in male cockpit crew (SMR 1.57). The mortality from cardiovascular diseases was strongly reduced (SMR 0.46). On the other hand, the mortality from aircraft accidents was exceedingly high (SMR 33.9), as was that from AIDS in male cabin crew (SMR 14.0). This large study with highly complete follow-up shows a reduced overall mortality in male cockpit and female cabin crews, an increased mortality of aircraft accidents and an increased mortality in malignant skin melanoma in cockpit crew. Further analysis after longer follow-up is recommended.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Mareen Winter, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors.
    Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England). 01/2014; 9:27.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105499. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104324. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This prospective study evaluated the relationship between arthralgia and compliance during the first year of adjuvant anastrozole therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. COMPliance and Arthralgia in Clinical Therapy (COMPACT) was an open-label, multicenter, noninterventional study conducted in Germany. Patients had started adjuvant anastrozole 3-6 months before the study start. The primary end points were arthralgia, compliance, and the relationship between compliance and arthralgia, assessed at specific time points. Overall, 1916 patients received upfront anastrozole. Mean arthralgia scores were increased from baseline at each visit up to 9 months. Compliance with anastrozole therapy gradually decreased over time from baseline to 9 months (P < 0.001). At 9 months, investigators estimated that >95% of patients were compliant versus patient reports of <70%. There was a significant association between arthralgia mean scores and noncompliance at 6 months (P < 0.0001), 9 months (P < 0.0001), and overall (P < 0.0001). Over time, new events or impairment of existing arthralgias were reported in 14% (3 months), 11% (6 months), and 9% (9 months) of patients. Arthralgia is important in the clinical management of women with early breast cancer and may contribute to noncompliance and clinical outcomes. NCT00857012.
    Annals of Oncology 12/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Epidemiology 12/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes.
    The European Journal of Public Health 11/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenging topic for clinical oncologists. This study sought to evaluate TNBC versus other breast cancer subtypes with respect to survival parameters. We evaluated possible differences in survival in TNBC by age and by the extent to which evidence-based treatment guidelines were adhered. This German retrospective multi-center cohort study included 9156 patients with primary breast cancer recruited from 1992 to 2008. The rates of guideline adherence are significantly lower in TNBC compared to non-TNBC subtypes. These lower rates of guideline adherence can be observed in all age groups and are most pronounced in the >65 subgroup [<50 (20.9% vs. 42.0%), 50--64 (25.1% vs. 51.1%), and >65 (38.4% vs. 74.6%)]. In TNBC patients of all age groups, disease-free survival and overall survival were associated with an improvement by 100% guideline-adherent adjuvant treatment compared to non-adherence. Furthermore, TNBC patients of all ages had similar outcome parameters if 100% guideline-adherent adjuvant treatment was applied. The rates of guideline-adherent treatment were significantly lower in TNBC, even though guideline adherence was strongly associated with improved survival. In the case of 100% guideline-adherent treatment, no difference in survival was observed over all the age groups examined, even in the group of >65-year-old TNBC patients.
    BMC Cancer 10/2013; 13(1):487. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) to somatic vs. cognitive-affective symptoms of depression. In a cross-sectional population based study, data on the first N = 5000 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) are reported. To analyze the relationship between depression and obesity, we computed linear regression models with the anthropometric measure (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) as the dependent variable and life style factors, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medications as potential confounders of obesity/depression. We found that only the somatic, but not the cognitive-affective symptoms of depression are consistently positively associated with anthropometric measures of obesity. We could demonstrate that the somatic-affective symptoms of depression rather than the cognitive-affective symptoms are strongly related to anthropometric measures. This is also true for younger obese starting at the age of 35 years. Our results are in line with previous studies indicating that visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the relationship between obesity, depression and cardiovascular disease.
    BMC Psychiatry 09/2013; 13(1):223. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 1984, Newell and coworkers were the first to suggest that testicular cancer might have a viral etiology since it showed similar characteristics to Hodgkin's lymphoma. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate a possible association between viral infections (EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, HPV, and HIV) and testicular cancer. Articles published from 1985 through June 2010 were located from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, 21 articles were finally included in the review. For infection with EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV the pooled OR were 4.80 (95% CI 0.98-23.54), 1.85 (95% CI 0.92-3.70), 2.86 (95% CI 0.35-23.17), and 1.79 (95% CI 1.45-2.21) respectively. No pooling was possible for HPV infection studies due to small numbers. The results support a possible association, but more epidemiological studies with better viral identification and localization methods are needed to verify these findings. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To test the vascular depression hypothesis in the general population, we analyzed the association between current depression, medical history of depression, cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions and measures of atherosclerosis [intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques]. Method We included a representative sample of 5000 participants from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Depression was assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and IMT and carotid plaques were measured at both common carotid arteries using an edge detection system. Regression analyses were performed separately for participants with and without cardiovascular disease, adjusting for medical history, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medication. Contrary to hypotheses, we found no increased IMT for somatic symptoms of depression; the same was true for depression and cognitive symptoms in the fully adjusted model. Only a moderate relationship between medical history of depression and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques was maintained after correction. The relationship between depression and atherosclerosis may be more complex than previously assumed. Although the vascular depression hypothesis was not supported, our results support the hypothesis that lasting depression leads to arteriosclerosis.
    Psychological Medicine 07/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation is a well-known but little understood risk factor for lens opacities. Until recently, cataract development was considered to be a deterministic effect occurring at lens doses exceeding a threshold of 5-8 Gy. Substantial uncertainty about the level and the existence of a threshold subsists. The International Commission on Radiation Protection recently revised it to 0.5 Gy. Based on a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies on exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and the occurrence of lens opacities, a list of criteria for new epidemiological studies was compiled, and a list of potential study populations was reviewed. Among 24 publications finally identified, six report analyses of acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors and Chernobyl liquidators, and the others report analyses of protracted exposures in occupationally, medically or accidentally exposed populations. Three studies investigated a dose threshold: in atomic bomb survivors, the best estimates were 1 Sv (95 % CI <0-0.8 Sv) regarding lensectomies; in survivors exposed as children, 0.6 Sv (90 % CI <0.0-1.2 Sv) for cortical cataract prevalence and 0.7 Sv (90 % CI 0.0-2.8 Sv) for posterior subcapsular cataract; and in Chernobyl liquidators, 0.34 Sv (95 % CI 0.19-0.68 Sv) for stage 1 cataract. Current studies are heterogeneous and inconclusive regarding the dose-response relationship. Protracted exposures and high lens doses occur in several occupational groups, for instance, in physicians performing fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures, and in accidentally exposed populations. New studies with a good retrospective exposure assessment are feasible and should be initiated.
    Biophysik 06/2013; · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Cerebral protection during acute aortic dissection Type A (AADA) surgery may be affected by perfusion strategies and ischaemic protective drugs. METHODS: We analysed the impact of intraoperative barbiturate, steroid and mannitol use and adjunctive cerebral perfusion (CP), on 30-day mortality and new postoperative mortality-corrected permanent neurological dysfunction (PNDmc) in the German Registry for Acute Aortic Dissection Type A. RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred and thirty-seven AADA patients were registered over a 4-year period. The overall 30-day mortality was 16.9%, and the overall rate of PNDmc was 10.0%. A total of 48% of patients received no neuroprotective drugs (control group), steroid monotherapy was used in 11.2% of patients, barbiturates in 8.4%, mannitol in 7.3% and the remainder (25.1%) received a combination of these drugs. The PNDmc rate was 10.6% in the control group and lower (7.1%) in the steroid group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.24-0.96; P = 0.049). No PNDmc reduction was observed for mannitol or barbiturates. Thirty-day mortality was 18.7% in the control group and with 8.9% lower (P = 0.003) in the mannitol group (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.19-1.49; P = 0.295). Hypothermic circulatory arrest that exceeded 30 min was associated with an increased 30-day mortality rate (31.4%) compared with patients who received adjunctive CP >30 min during aortic arch intervention (21.4%) (P = 0.04). We were unable to demonstrate a significant protective effect of any neuroprotective drug on 30-day mortality, or PNDmc rates during prolonged (≥30 min) cerebral ischaemia. CONCLUSION: Mannitol may be associated with decreased mortality in patients undergoing AADA surgery. Steroid administration may be associated with improved neurological outcomes, but more investigation is required.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,091.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • • Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI)
      • • Division of Medical Biometry I
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2013
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001–2013
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1991–2013
    • University of Freiburg
      • Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Radiation Epidemiology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Universität Bremen
      • Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS)
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 2009–2012
    • Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Computer Science
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2011
    • Universitätsklinikum Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010–2011
    • Danish Cancer Society
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Medizinischer Dienst der Krankenversicherung Niedersachsen
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2000–2011
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      • Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1999–2011
    • Bielefeld University
      • Faculty of Health Science
      Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009–2010
    • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie e.V.
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1993–2010
    • Universität Ulm
      • • Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      • • Institute of General Medicine
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie
      Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
  • 1990–2007
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005–2006
    • Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG)
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1991–2006
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Radiation Epidemiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 1995–1998
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Anatomy and Anthropology
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1996–1997
    • Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Department of Dermatology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany