[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors (NRs) have recently received much attention for their newly discovered roles in T cell development, as exemplified by RARα (Treg cells) and RORγt (Th17 cells). In previous studies, we characterized a new type of T cell subset, designated as Tchreg (cytotoxic, helper, and regulatory T) cells, in terms of its cytokine signature. In this study, we investigated the expression and functional relevance of NRs in Tchreg cells by performing mRNA profiling of HOZOT, a cord blood-derived Tchreg cell line. We identified eleven inducible and eight constitutively expressed NRs in HOZOT. Among these NRs, RXRα and PPARγ showed features of signature NRs of Tchreg cells because they were selectively expressed in HOZOT compared with other T cell subsets. These NRs exhibited contrasting expression patterns, as RXRα was independent of anti-CD3/28 antibody stimulation while PPARγ was stimulated-dependent. Upon agonist treatment, both proteins translocated to the nucleus and inhibited IFN-γ production through binding to the promoter region of the IFN-γ gene. These results provide new insight into the roles of RXRα and PPARγ in T cell biology, especially in their biological relevance in Tchreg cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of T cell subsets have been identified, and the in vitro characterization of these subsets largely depends on an appropriate induction system for each one. In previous studies, we characterized a unique T cell line, HOZOT, which possessed a CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) phenotype and multifunctional properties including cytotoxic, helper, and regulatory functions. Therefore, this T cell subset has been termed Tchreg cells. In this study, we established a new method of Tchreg cell induction, which consists of three steps and provides more efficient and reproducible results. By using a purified T cell population, the efficiency of Tchreg generation was profoundly increased, and the use of purified CD2+ cells rather than CD3+ cells was shown to be superior. One surprising finding was that at the initial step, stromal cell stimulation induced DP T cells more efficiently than dendritic cells or anti-T cell receptor stimulation, indicating a distinct antigen presenting cell (APC) ability of stromal cells as distinguished from conventional APCs. Even in subsequent steps, the presence of stromal cells was required to maintain the DP phenotype. In the second step, addition of stromal cell-conditioned (but not unconditioned) autologous CD14+ cells instead of interleukin-2 was beneficial for subsequent expansion of Tchreg cells. The improved three-step culture method described here represents a step forward in efforts to achieve clinical application and a good tool for elucidating how Tchreg cells, especially CD4+CD8+ T cells, are generated.
Journal of immunological methods 07/2011; 372(1-2):78-88. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The T cell line HOZOT has a unique FOXP3+CD4+ CD8+CD25+ phenotype, exhibits suppressive activity in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR), and produces IL-10, defining HOZOT as regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interestingly, in addition to possessing a suppressive Treg ability, HOZOT was also found to show cytotoxicity against certain representative human cancer cell types. In order to disclose the range of anti-tumor activity by HOZOT, we screened it by using a panel of twenty human tumor cell lines with different origins. Consequently, HOZOT showed potent cytocidal effects against a wide spectrum of neoplastic cells including carcinomas, sarcomas, mesotheliomas and glioblastomas except for hematopoietic malignancies. Its anti-tumor activity was strong enough with an E:T ratio of 4:1, which is considered to be more effective than that by conventional CTLs. Furthermore, an in vivo representative mouse tumor model by implanting human colon adenocarcinoma cells revealed that adoptive transfer of HOZOT almost completely eradicated disseminated lesions on peritoneum, markedly reduced metastases in lung and liver, and dramatically decreased bloody ascites caused by peritoneal carcinomatosis. Treatment of the tumor model mice by HOZOT with an E:T ratio of 2:1 even indicated the prolongation of their survival, although not reaching obvious statistical significance. In vitro blocking experiments using antibodies and inhibitors suggested that the cytotoxic mechanism of HOZOT against tumors is different from conventional cytotoxic cells such as CTL, NK or NKT cells. Altogether, our studies demonstrated the potent killing activity of HOZOT against a broad range of human malignancies, which indicates that HOZOT is a powerful tool in immunotherapy for advanced stage tumors.
International Journal of Oncology 03/2011; 38(5):1299-306. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that xenogeneic stromal cell stimulation of naïve T cells resulted in the generation of a new type of regulatory T (Treg) cell termed HOZOT, which has multifunctional properties and a CD4/CD8 double-positive phenotype. Even after the establishment of HOZOT, stromal cells can function as an antigen-presenting cell (APC) by inducing these cells to produce interleukin (IL)-10. When compared with other stimuli, stromal cells showed an IL-10-producing ability comparable to anti-CD3 antibody (Ab) stimulation, and much greater than dendritic cell (DC) stimulation. Distinct from professional APCs, stromal cells express only major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and B7-1 costimulatory molecules, and not MHC class II or other costimulatory molecules, such as ICOSL (CD275), PD-L1 (CD274), PD-L2 (CD273), CD40, OX40L (CD252) and 4-1BBL (CD137L) in the absence of stimulation. Blocking experiments revealed that, in addition to anti-H-2K(d) Ab and anti-human CD8 Ab, anti-mouse B7-1 Ab could effectively block IL-10 production, indicating a key role of the B7-1/CD28 pathway. Using stromal cells expressing different levels of B7-1, IL-10 production correlated with the levels of B7-1 expression. Distinct from ICOSL or PD-L1 expressed on DCs (which are regarded as IL-10-inducing costimulatory molecules), this study showed that B7-1 on stromal cells is a key molecule regulating IL-10 production by multifunctional Treg cells, HOZOT.
Immunology and Cell Biology 02/2011; 89(2):246-54. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating post-transcriptional gene repression in a variety of immunological processes. In particular, much attention has been focused on their roles in regulatory T (Treg) cells which are crucial for maintaining peripheral tolerance and controlling T cell responses. Recently, we established a novel type of human Treg cell line, termed HOZOT, multifunctional cells exhibiting a CD4(+)CD8(+) phenotype. In this study, we performed miRNA profiling to identify signature miRNAs of HOZOT, and therein identified miR-155. Although miR-155 has also been characterized as a signature miRNA for FOXP3(+) natural Treg (nTreg) cells, it was expressed quite differently in HOZOT cells. Under both stimulatory and non-stimulatory conditions, miR-155 expression remained at low levels in HOZOT, while its expression in nTreg and conventional T cells remarkably increased after stimulation. We next searched candidate target genes of miR-155 through bioinformatics, and identified FOXO3a, a negative regulator of Akt signaling, as a miR-155 target gene. Further studies by gain- and loss-of-function experiments supported a role for miR-155 in the regulation of FOXO3a protein expression in conventional T and HOZOT cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e16841. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously established a novel cell line, termed HOZOT, derived from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells that is characterized as a human cytotoxic regulatory T (Treg) cell line with a FOXP3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+)CD25(+) phenotype. Here, we describe a new property of HOZOT cells: they actively penetrate into a variety of human cancer cell lines, but not into normal cell lines, and form apparent cell-in-cell structures. In the process of cell penetration, we observed that HOZOT cells adhered to target cells seemed to first insert their nuclei into the cytoplasm of target cells, distinct from the process of phagocytosis. In addition, blocking experiments showed that major histocompatibility complex class I is one of the target cell recognition molecules for HOZOT cells. Furthermore, we propose that cell-in-cell structures between HOZOT cells and target cancer cells could be one of the cytotoxic mechanisms of HOZOT cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOZOT cell lines (HOZOTs) are a new type of regulatory T cells established from human umbilical cord blood without using cytokines. In addition to their unique FOXP3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+)CD25(+) phenotype, HOZOTs are bifunctional and can exert either suppressor or cytotoxic activities. To further characterize HOZOTs, we cocultured HOZOTs with responder T cells under different stimulation conditions and found another function of HOZOTs.
Naïve CD4(+)T cells as responder cells were stimulated with dendritic cells or plate bound anti-CD3 antibody. As effector cells, HOZOTs were added to this culture and proliferation of the responder cells were monitored by (3)H-thymidine incorporation or carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution method. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, antibodies specific for interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2R or cell surface molecules were used for blocking experiments.
The proliferation of naïve CD4(+)T cells was suppressed by one HOZOT line, HOZOT-4, when the responder cells were stimulated with dendritic cells. However, responder cell proliferation was augmented by HOZOT-4 when these cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody. This opposing function to responder cells was unique to HOZOTs because naturally occurring regulatory T cells suppressed proliferation of both dendritic cell- and anti-CD3-antibody-stimulated cells. IL-2 was not involved in the mechanism of the helper activity of HOZOT-4 as blocking antibodies for IL-2 and IL-2R did not abrogate the helper activity. Moreover, this helper activity could not be reduced by blocking costimulatory pathways such as CD28/B7, CD4/human leukocyte antigen-DR, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
We demonstrated a new function of HOZOTs as helper T cells in addition to suppressor and cytotoxic activities, characterizing HOZOTs as multifunctional T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct cytokine production profiles define the effector functions of both helper and regulatory T cells. Recently, we established novel cytotoxic regulatory T (Treg) cell lines, HOZOT, which have been characterized as IL-10-producing T cells. In this study, we further characterized HOZOT by performing comprehensive analyses of cytokines produced by HOZOTs in order to identify a signature cytokine profile. Using DNA microarrays, we compared the gene expression profiles of HOZOT-4, a representative HOZOT cell line, under three different conditions. Seven genes, including IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, were identified as inducible cytokines when stimulated with stromal cells or anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. Twelve genes, including IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-22, CCL1, and lymphotactin, were categorized as antibody stimulation-responsive but stromal cell-non-responsive. Three genes, IL-32, RANTES, and CCL23, were constitutively expressed irrespective of stimulation condition. Among these cytokines, we focused on two chemokines, IL-8 and RANTES for further studies, and found that only HOZOT produced both of them at considerable levels whereas other T cell subsets, including Tregs and helper T cells, did not. Kinetic and inhibition experiments revealed contrasting properties for the two chemokines. IL-8 was induced only after stimulation, whereas RANTES mRNA and protein accumulated to high levels even before stimulation. Interestingly, IL-8 mRNA was induced by cycloheximide treatment and RANTES showed reduced mRNA but increased protein expression by antibody stimulation. As a whole, the unique cytokine signature profile consisting of Th1, Th2, and cytolytic T cell cytokines as well as Treg cytokines reflect the multifunctional nature of HOZOT. In particular, the dual production of IL-8 and RANTES by distinct mechanisms is a hallmark of HOZOT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the impact on clinical outcomes of adding rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients in Japan. A propensity score method was used to compensate for the non-randomized study design. From January 2000 to December 2004, 378 patients who were newly diagnosed with DLBCL at 13 institutes were enrolled: 123 in the rituximab plus CHOP-based chemotherapy (R+) group, and 255 in the CHOP-based chemotherapy only (R-) group. The complete response rate was significantly higher in the R+ group than in the R- group (77.7 vs. 69.4%, P < 0.001). The progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 years was 62.4% in the R+ group and 57.0% in the R- group. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 76.9% for the R+ group and 70.5% for the R- group. A multivariate analysis revealed that the addition of rituximab was a strong independent prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96, P = 0.031). A subgroup analysis revealed that R+ particularly benefited younger patients (hazard ratio 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.75, P = 0.013). IPI also showed significant impact for PFS (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.55-2.14 for one score increase, P < 0.001) as well as OS (hazard ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1.71-2.57, P < 0.001). In summary, the addition of rituximab to CHOP-based chemotherapy results in better outcomes for Japanese DLBCL patients, particularly younger patients.
International journal of hematology 05/2009; 89(3):326-31. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) is uncertain in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) treated with imatinib-combined chemotherapy. Here we report the results of prospective MRD monitoring in 100 adult patients. Three hundred and sixty-seven follow-up bone marrow samples, collected at predefined time points during a uniform treatment protocol, were analysed for BCR-ABL1 transcripts by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ninety-seven patients (97%) achieved complete remission (CR), and the relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was 46% at 3 years. Negative MRD at the end of induction therapy was not associated with longer RFS or a lower relapse rate (P = 0.800 and P = 0.964 respectively). Twenty-nine patients showed MRD elevation during haematological CR. Of these, 10 of the 16 who had undergone allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR were alive without relapse at a median of 2.9 years after transplantation, whereas 12 of the 13 who had not undergone allogeneic HSCT experienced a relapse. These results demonstrate that, in Ph+ ALL patients treated with imatinib-combined chemotherapy, rapid molecular response is not associated with a favourable prognosis, and that a single observation of elevated MRD is predictive of subsequent relapse, but allogeneic HSCT can override its adverse effect.
British Journal of Haematology 12/2008; 143(4):503-10. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STAT5 molecules are key components of the IL-2 signaling pathway, the deficiency of which often results in autoimmune pathology due to a reduced number of CD4(+)CD25(+) naturally occurring regulatory T (Treg) cells. One of the consequences of the IL-2-STAT5 signaling axis is up-regulation of FOXP3, a master control gene for naturally occurring Treg cells. However, the roles of STAT5 in other Treg subsets have not yet been elucidated. We recently demonstrated that IL-2 enhanced IL-10 production through STAT5 activation. This occurred in two types of human Treg cells: a novel type of umbilical cord blood-derived Treg cell, termed HOZOT, and Tr1-like Treg cells, IL-10-Treg. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of IL-10 production in these Treg cells, focusing specifically on the roles of STAT5. By performing bioinformatic analysis on the IL-10 locus, we identified one STAT-responsive element within intron 4, designated I-SRE-4, as an interspecies-conserved sequence. We found that I-SRE-4 acted as an enhancer element, and clustered CpGs around the I-SRE-4 were hypomethylated in IL-10-producing Treg cells, but not in other T cells. A gel-shift analysis using a nuclear extract from IL-2-stimulated HOZOT confirmed that CpG DNA methylation around I-SRE-4 reduced STAT5 binding to the element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed the in situ binding of IL-2-activated STAT5 to I-SRE-4. Thus, we provide molecular evidence for the involvement of an IL-2-STAT5 signaling axis in the expression of IL-10 by human Treg cells, an axis that is regulated by the intronic enhancer, I-SRE-4, and epigenetic modification of this element.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(6):3897-905. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify factors associated with relapse-free survival (RFS), 80 patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, enrolled in a phase II study of imatinib-combined chemotherapy, were analyzed. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 26.7 months (maximum, 52.5 months). Twenty-eight out of 77 patients who had achieved CR relapsed. The probability of RFS was 50.5% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of secondary chromosome aberrations in addition to t(9;22) at diagnosis constitute an independent predictive value for RFS (p=0.027), and increase the risk of treatment failure by 2.8-fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a randomized, controlled study comparing the prophylactic effects of capsule forms of fluconazole (n = 110) and itraconazole (n = 108) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) during and after chemotherapy. There were 4 cases with possible systemic fungal infection in the itraconazole group, and there were 8 possible and 3 probable cases in the fluconazole group. Adverse events did not significantly differ in the 2 groups. In patients with MDS or in the remission-induction phase of chemotherapy, the numbers of cases with probable or possible infections were lower in the itraconazole group than in the fluconazole group, whereas no difference was seen in patients with AML or in the consolidation phase of therapy. In patients with neutrophil counts of >0.1 x 10(9)/L lasting for more than 4 weeks, the frequency of infection in the fluconazole group (5 of 9 patients) was significantly higher than in the itraconazole group (0 of 7 patients; P = .03). Our results suggest that both drugs were well tolerated in patients with AML or MDS who received chemotherapy and that the efficacy of itraconazole for prophylaxis against systemic fungal disease is not inferior to that of fluconazole.
International Journal of Hematology 02/2007; 85(2):121-7. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate in vitro antituberculous activity of ofloxacin (OFLX) and levofloxacin (LVFX) against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and to study the clinical outcomes.
In vitro antituberculous activity of OFLX and LVFX against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from 46 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and a retropective clinical analysis of 45 patients were investigated.
In susceptibility testing, resistance rates to OFLX or LVFX were higher in intractable cases (7/20: 35%) and in cases with prior chemotherapy using new quinolones (5/12: 42 %). Sputum culture conversion was observed in 34 patients (76%), however 9 among them later reverted to positive culture. In a single variate proportional hazards model, risk factors related to poor outcomes (treatment failure or relapse) were resistance to OFLX or LVFX, advanced disease on chest radiograph, and the number of susceptible drugs four or less. In a multiple variate proportional hazards model, a risk factor was resistance to OFLX or LVFX. Eighteen patients (40%) died, and among them, 10 died of tuberculosis. Survival time of treatment failure patients was significantly shorter than patients with sputum culture conversion.
Resistance to OFLX or LVFX was considered to be a risk factor related to treatment failure and relapse in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel therapeutic approach is urgently needed for BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we assessed the efficacy and feasibility of chemotherapy combined with imatinib.
A phase II study of imatinib-combined chemotherapy was conducted for newly diagnosed BCR-ABL-positive ALL in adults. Eighty patients were entered into the trial between September 2002 and January 2005.
Remission induction therapy resulted in complete remission (CR) in 77 patients (96.2%), resistant disease in one patient, and early death in two patients, as well as polymerase chain reaction negativity of bone marrow in 71.3%. The profile and incidence of severe toxicity were not different from those associated with our historic chemotherapy-alone regimen. Relapse occurred in 20 patients after median CR duration of 5.2 months. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed for 49 patients, 39 of whom underwent transplantation during their first CR. The 1-year event-free and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated to be 60.0%, and 76.1%, respectively, which were significantly better than those for our historic controls treated with chemotherapy alone (P < .0001 for both). Among the current trial patients, the probability for OS at 1 year was 73.3% for those who underwent allogeneic HSCT, and 84.8% for those who did not.
Our results demonstrated that imatinib-combined regimen is effective and feasible for newly diagnosed BCR-ABL-positive ALL. Despite a relatively short period of observation, a major potential of this treatment is recognized. Longer follow-up is required to determine its overall effect on survival.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2006; 24(3):460-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We experienced a case of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) after varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. The patient, a 101-year-old man, presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia and jaundice two weeks after successful antiviral treatment for the VZV. Histiocytes were detected in the bone marrow examination (2.2%); however, hepatomegaly and triglycemia remained unobserved throughout the course. Reactivation of VZV was detected serologically. The patient died after five weeks because of persistent cytopenia and liver failure refractory to steroid treatment. An autopsy revealed hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, lung, spleen and liver.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 12/2005; 46(11):1229-32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC) that presented human immunodeficiency virus infection as an initial manifestation. A 34-year-old man developed disturbance of consciousness and severe abulia over 3 months. The CD4 lymphocyte count was 7.9/microl, while human immunodeficiency virus RNA in blood amounted to 4.2 x 10(4) copies/ml. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely high signal intensity in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. On the 20th hospital day, the patient died of sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Autopsy findings in the brain included increased glial cells and multinucleated giant cells in cerebral white matter and subcortical gray matter. These features were compatible with ADC.
Internal Medicine 08/2005; 44(7):757-60. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old woman developed a subcutaneous tumor in the left lower leg. A biopsy led to the diagnosis of lymphoid malignancy. The malignant cells showed a B-cell immunophenotype. Karyotyping of the cells revealed t(14;18) and t(2;3). The patient was treated with chemotherapy, resulting in a transient response. Subsequently, tumor regrowth and bone marrow recurrence developed. Karyotyping of the bone marrow at relapse revealed a t(8;22) in addition to t(14;18) and t(2;3), which led to a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-L3 (FAB). Although the patient was treated with several chemotherapy regimens, the disease was refractory to all the treatments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique demonstrated rearrangements of the c-myc, bcl-2, and bcl-6 genes. ALL-L3 associated with t(14;18) is known to be complicated frequently with cerebrospinal infiltration and extramedullary lesions, and has a poor prognosis. In our case, the presence of the additional t(2;3) may have enhanced this patient's refractoriness to the treatment.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 03/2005; 46(2):134-40.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome for adult patients with BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains dismal and long-term survival can hardly be achieved except by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) has recently started a phase 2 trial with intensive chemotherapy and imatinib for newly diagnosed BCR-AB-positive ALL patients, and we present here the interim results for the first 24 patients. All patients except one case of early death (96%) attained complete remission (CR) after a single course of remission induction therapy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity was achieved in 28% of the patients on day 28, in 50% on day 63, and in up to 78% during the follow-up period. The toxicity profile was almost similar to that with chemotherapy alone. As a result, 15 patients (63%) could receive an allogeneic HSC transplant during their first CR. Although the number of patients is small and the observation period is too short, the combination therapy is very promising and produces high-quality CR for most newly diagnosed patients with BCR-ABL-positive ALL. This is especially useful because it provides the patients with a better chance to receive an allogeneic HSC transplant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical effects and safety of cefozopran (CZOP) were evaluated by the Okayama Bone Marrow Transplantation Group. Twenty-five patients expected to experience febrile neutropenia during induction chemotherapy or consolidation chemotherapy of acute leukemia were enrolled between July 2000 and November 2002. CZOP was administrated by drip infusion at 4g/day bid for a minimum of 3 days. The clinical effects and safety were evaluated in 20 patients with fever of 37.5 degrees C or more from a clinically suspected infection. The underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia in 17 patients, acute lymphoid leukemia in 1 and acute promyelogeneous leukemia in 1. The complicating infections were sepsis and suspected sepsis. Clinical efficacy was excellent in 11 patients, good in 1, fair in 2 and poor in 6, with an efficacy rate of 60.0%. The efficacy rate in patients whose albumin levels before therapy were less than 3.8 g/dl was 37.5%, whereas the rate in patients whose albumin levels before therapy were between 3.8 g/dl and 5.3 g/dl was 80.0%. The efficacy rate in patients whose neutrophil counts before therapy were less than 100/microliter was 50.0%, whereas the rate in patients whose neutrophil counts after therapy were less than 100/microliter was 53.8%. The efficacy rate in patients whose neutrophil counts both before and after therapy were less than 100/microliter was 37.5%. Side effect of exanthema was observed in 1 patient. These results indicate that CZOP is an effective and safe antibiotic for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 02/2004; 31(1):61-5.