Martin Schneider

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (21)238.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Humoral immune responses against tumor antigens are studied as indirect markers of antigen exposure and in cancer vaccine studies. An increasing number of tumor antigens potentially translated from mutant genes is identified by advances in genomic sequencing. They represent an interesting source for yet unknown immunogenic epitopes. We here describe a multiplex method using the Luminex technology allowing for the detection of antibodies against multiple in silico-predicted linear neo-antigens in large sets of sera. The approach included 32 synthetic biotinylated peptides comprising a predicted set of frameshift mutation-induced neo-antigens. The antigens were fused to a FLAG epitope to ensure monitoring antigen binding to avidin-linked microspheres in the absence of monoclonal antibodies. Analytical specificity of measured serum antibody reactivity was proven by the detection of immune responses in immunized rabbits and a colorectal cancer patient vaccinated with peptides included in the assay. The measured antibody responses were comparable to peptide ELISA, and inter-assay reproducibility of the multiplex approach was excellent (R (2) > 0.98) for 20 sera tested against all antigens. Our methodic approach represents a valuable platform to monitor antibody responses against predicted antigens. It may be used in individualized cancer vaccine studies, thereby extending the relevance beyond the model system in the presented approach.
    Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are protective in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we investigated the therapeutic target(s) and mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: The effect of genetic deletion of individual HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes on the development of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was examined in mice. RESULTS: PHD1(-/-), but not PHD2(+/-) or PHD3(-/-), mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than wild-type controls as determined by weight loss, disease activity, colon histology, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine expression. Reduced susceptibility of PHD1(-/-) mice to colitis was associated with increased density of colonic epithelial cells relative to wild-type controls, which was because of decreased levels of apoptosis that resulted in enhanced epithelial barrier function. Furthermore, with the use of cultured epithelial cells it was confirmed that hydroxylase inhibition reversed DSS-induced apoptosis and barrier dysfunction. Finally, PHD1 levels were increased with disease severity in intestinal tissue from patients with IBD and in colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply a role for PHD1 as a positive regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in the inflamed colon. Genetic loss of PHD1 is protective against colitis through decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and consequent enhancement of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Thus, targeted PHD1 inhibition may represent a new therapeutic approach in IBD.
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    ABSTRACT: Tumors from colorectal cancer (CRC) are generally immunogenic and commonly infiltrated with T lymphocytes. However, the details of the adaptive immune reaction to these tumors are poorly understood. We have accrued both colon tumor samples and adjacent healthy mucosal samples from 15 CRC patients to study lymphocytes infiltrating these tissues. We apply a method for detailed sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) sequences from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in CRC tumors at high throughput to probe T-cell clones in comparison with the TCRs from adjacent healthy mucosal tissue. In parallel, we captured TIL counts using standard immunohistochemistry. The variation in diversity of the TIL repertoire was far wider than the variation of T-cell clones in the healthy mucosa, and the oligoclonality was higher on average in the tumors. However, the diversity of the T-cell repertoire in both CRC tumors and healthy mucosa was on average 100-fold lower than in peripheral blood. Using the TCR sequences to identify and track clones between mucosal and tumor samples, we determined that the immune response in the tumor is different than in the adjacent mucosal tissue, and the number of shared clones is not dependent on distance between the samples. Together, these data imply that CRC tumors induce a specific adaptive immune response, but that this response differs widely in strength and breadth between patients.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 06/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) occurs in conditions of reduced oxygen supply. HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) are oxygen sensors involved in adaptive response to hypoxia. Specific functions of these PHD enzymes in liver regeneration have, however, remained enigmatic. Here, we investigated the significance of PHD1 in liver regeneration following hepatectomy. METHODS: Liver regeneration was studied in PHD1-deficient (PHD1(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice subjected to 80 % hepatectomy. For in vitro analyses, hepatocytes were isolated from PHD1(-/-) and WT livers. Cell cycle progression was studied via FACS-based analysis of nuclear DNA profile. Transcription factor binding assays, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting were applied to study the relevance of PHD1 downstream effectors during liver regeneration. RESULTS: Liver regeneration was significantly enhanced in PHD1(-/-) mice compared to WT littermates. This effect was due to enhanced proliferation rather than to hypertrophy of liver cells. Cell cycle progression was significantly enhanced, and transcriptional activity of the cell cycle regulator c-Myc was increased in PHD1-deficient hepatocytes. These changes coincided with increased expression of cyclin D2, a cell cycle-promoting c-Myc target, and decreased expression of the cell cycle-delaying c-Myc target p21. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of PHD1 enhances liver regeneration by boosting hepatocyte proliferation in a c-Myc-dependent fashion. PHD1 might, therefore, represent a potential target to facilitate liver regeneration after surgical resection.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 09/2012; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and HIFs (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) modulate innate immune responses in the setting of systemic inflammatory responses and sepsis. The HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 regulate the mammalian adaptive response to hypoxia; however, their significance in the innate immune response has not been elucidated. We demonstrate in this study that deficiency of PHD3 (PHD3(-/-)) specifically shortens the survival of mice subjected to various models of abdominal sepsis because of an overwhelming innate immune response, leading to premature organ dysfunction. By contrast, this phenotype was absent in mice deficient for PHD1 (PHD1(-/-)) or PHD2 (PHD2(+/-)). In vivo, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines were enhanced, and recruitment of macrophages to internal organs was increased in septic PHD3-deficient mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation in sublethally irradiated mice revealed that enhanced susceptibility of PHD3-deficient mice to sepsis-related lethality was specifically caused by loss of PHD3 in myeloid cells. Several in vitro assays revealed enhanced cytokine production, migration, phagocytic capacity, and proinflammatory activation of PHD3-deficient macrophages. Increased proinflammatory activity of PHD3-deficient macrophages occurred concomitantly with enhanced HIF-1α protein stabilization and increased NF-κB activity, and interference with the expression of HIF-1α or the canonical NF-κB pathway blunted their proinflammatory phenotype. It is concluded that impairment of PHD3 enzyme function aggravates the clinical course of abdominal sepsis via HIF-1α- and NF-κB-mediated enhancement of the innate immune response.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2012; 189(4):1955-65. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Judit Kiss, Johanna Kirchberg, Martin Schneider
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since mammalian cells rely on the availability of oxygen, they have devised mechanisms to sense environmental oxygen tension, and to efficiently counteract oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). These adaptive responses to hypoxia are essentially mediated by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Three HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3) function as oxygen sensing enzymes, which regulate the activity of HIFs in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Many of the compensatory functions exerted by the PHD-HIF system are of immediate surgical relevance since they regulate the biological response of ischemic tissues following ligation of blood vessels, of oxygen-deprived inflamed tissues, and of tumors outgrowing their vascular supply. PURPOSE: Here, we outline specific functions of PHD enzymes in surgically relevant pathological conditions, and discuss how these functions might be exploited in order to support the treatment of surgically relevant diseases.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2012; 397(4):603-10. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in tumor invasion and dissemination. EMT occurs predominantly at the tumor edge where it is induced by cytokines, the extracellular matrix environment, or hypoxia. In the tumor cell, it is further mediated by several transcription factors and microRNAs. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of EMT-associated genes at the invasive front in colorectal cancer and to evaluate their prognostic significance. We evaluated the expression of 13 EMT-associated genes at the invasion front of 30 colorectal liver metastases by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunostaining against zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) was carried out on 175 primary colorectal cancer specimens and 30 colorectal liver metastases and correlated to clinical and histopathologic data. DLD-1 cells were transfected with siRNA and subjected to migration and invasion assays. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry showed an upregulation of ZEB2 at the invasion front in primary colorectal cancer and liver metastases. Overexpression of ZEB2 at the invasion front correlated significantly with tumor stage in primary colorectal cancer. Moreover, univariate and multivariate analysis revealed overexpression of ZEB2 at the invasion front as an independent prognostic marker for cancer-specific survival. Downregulation of ZEB2 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion capacity of DLD-1 cells in vitro. Overexpression of ZEB2 at the invasion front correlates with tumor progression and predicts cancer-specific survival in primary colorectal cancer. Therefore, ZEB2 may be interesting as biomarker and potential target for treatment of colorectal cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2011; 17(24):7654-63. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The regulation of neutrophil lifespan by induction of apoptosis is critical for maintaining an effective host response and preventing excessive inflammation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing pathway has a major effect on the susceptibility of neutrophils to apoptosis, with a marked delay in cell death observed under hypoxic conditions. HIF expression and transcriptional activity are regulated by the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3), but the role of PHDs in neutrophil survival is unclear. We examined PHD expression in human neutrophils and found that PHD3 was strongly induced in response to hypoxia and inflammatory stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Using neutrophils from mice deficient in Phd3, we demonstrated a unique role for Phd3 in prolonging neutrophil survival during hypoxia, distinct from other hypoxia-associated changes in neutrophil function and metabolic activity. Moreover, this selective defect in neutrophil survival occurred in the presence of preserved HIF transcriptional activity but was associated with upregulation of the proapoptotic mediator Siva1 and loss of its binding target Bcl-xL. In vivo, using an acute lung injury model, we observed increased levels of neutrophil apoptosis and clearance in Phd3-deficient mice compared with WT controls. We also observed reduced neutrophilic inflammation in an acute mouse model of colitis. These data support what we believe to be a novel function for PHD3 in regulating neutrophil survival in hypoxia and may enable the development of new therapeutics for inflammatory disease.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2011; 121(3):1053-63. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are protective in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we investigated the therapeutic target(s) and mechanism(s) involved. The effect of genetic deletion of individual HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes on the development of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was examined in mice. PHD1(-/-), but not PHD2(+/-) or PHD3(-/-), mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than wild-type controls as determined by weight loss, disease activity, colon histology, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine expression. Reduced susceptibility of PHD1(-/-) mice to colitis was associated with increased density of colonic epithelial cells relative to wild-type controls, which was because of decreased levels of apoptosis that resulted in enhanced epithelial barrier function. Furthermore, with the use of cultured epithelial cells it was confirmed that hydroxylase inhibition reversed DSS-induced apoptosis and barrier dysfunction. Finally, PHD1 levels were increased with disease severity in intestinal tissue from patients with IBD and in colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice. These results imply a role for PHD1 as a positive regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in the inflamed colon. Genetic loss of PHD1 is protective against colitis through decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and consequent enhancement of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Thus, targeted PHD1 inhibition may represent a new therapeutic approach in IBD.
    Gastroenterology 12/2010; 139(6):2093-101. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) is a secreted molecule implicated in axonal path finding and inhibition of developmental and postischemic angiogenesis. Sema3E is also highly expressed in metastatic cancer cells, but its mechanistic role in tumor progression was not understood. Here we show that expression of Sema3E and its receptor Plexin D1 correlates with the metastatic progression of human tumors. Consistent with the clinical data, knocking down endogenous expression of either Sema3E or Plexin D1 in human metastatic carcinoma cells hampered their metastatic potential when injected into mice, while tumor growth was not markedly affected. Conversely, overexpression of exogenous Sema3E in cancer cells increased their invasiveness, transendothelial migration, and metastatic spreading, although it inhibited tumor vessel formation, resulting in reduced tumor growth in mice. The proinvasive and metastatic activity of Sema3E in tumor cells was dependent on transactivation of the Plexin D1-associated ErbB2/Neu oncogenic kinase. In sum, Sema3E-Plexin D1 signaling in cancer cells is crucially implicated in their metastatic behavior and may therefore be a promising target for strategies aimed at blocking tumor metastasis.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 08/2010; 120(8):2684-98. · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • Martin Schneider, Jürgen Weitz, Markus W Büchler
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    ABSTRACT: The Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery has been serving as a publication platform for clinical and scientific progress in the field of surgery for 150 years. In order to maintain this long-standing tradition throughout the coming decades, it will be mandatory to face the challenges posed by increasing specialization of surgical subdisciplines, modern technologies, and interdisciplinary treatment options. Continued efforts need to be directed at minimizing surgical trauma, not at least with respect to current demographic development. Adoption of progressive technologies from the fields of biophysics, mechatronics, and biomedical imaging solutions will likely gain a major impact on the further development of surgical operation techniques. Expanding insight from genomic and molecular medicine will facilitate personalized, interdisciplinary treatment concepts for malignant disease, in which surgical resection techniques will need to be integrated. The introduction of novel diagnostic and treatment concepts will mandate solid evaluation of their clinical effectiveness and safety, which can only be achieved by randomized, controlled trials in the field of surgery. Extracting study ideas from the contributions by clinicians and basic scientists, and promoting the conduction of clinical trials will therefore range among the most important tasks for the Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery in the 21st century.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2010; 395 Suppl 1:75-9. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a frequent cause of organ dysfunction. Loss of the oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme 1 (PHD1) causes tolerance of skeletal muscle to hypoxia. We assessed whether loss or short-term silencing of PHD1 could likewise induce hypoxia tolerance in hepatocytes and protect them against hepatic I/R damage. Hepatic ischemia was induced in mice by clamping of the portal vessels of the left lateral liver lobe; 90 minutes later livers were reperfused for 8 hours for I/R experiments. Hepatocyte damage following ischemia or I/R was investigated in PHD1-deficient (PHD1(-/-)) and wild-type mice or following short hairpin RNA-mediated short-term inhibition of PHD1 in vivo. PHD1(-/-) livers were largely protected against acute ischemia or I/R injury. Among mice subjected to hepatic I/R followed by surgical resection of all nonischemic liver lobes, more than half of wild-type mice succumbed, whereas all PHD1(-/-) mice survived. Also, short-term inhibition of PHD1 through RNA interference-mediated silencing provided protection against I/R. Knockdown of PHD1 also induced hypoxia tolerance of hepatocytes in vitro. Mechanistically, loss of PHD1 decreased production of oxidative stress, which likely relates to a decrease in oxygen consumption as a result of a reprogramming of hepatocellular metabolism. Loss of PHD1 provided tolerance of hepatocytes to acute hypoxia and protected them against I/R-damage. Short-term inhibition of PHD1 is a novel therapeutic approach to reducing or preventing I/R-induced liver injury.
    Gastroenterology 10/2009; 138(3):1143-54.e1-2. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Mitochondrion 01/2009; 9(1):76-77. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell culture studies have implicated the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. To better understand this function in vivo, we have created PHD3(-/-) mice and analyzed the neuronal phenotype. Reduced apoptosis in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons cultured from PHD3(-/-) mice is associated with an increase in the number of cells in the SCG, as well as in the adrenal medulla and carotid body. Genetic analysis by intercrossing PHD3(-/-) mice with HIF-1a(+/-) and HIF-2a(+/-) mice demonstrated an interaction with HIF-2alpha but not HIF-1alpha, supporting the nonredundant involvement of a PHD3-HIF-2alpha pathway in the regulation of sympathoadrenal development. Despite the increased number of cells, the sympathoadrenal system appeared hypofunctional in PHD3(-/-) mice, with reduced target tissue innervation, adrenal medullary secretory capacity, sympathoadrenal responses, and systemic blood pressure. These observations suggest that the role of PHD3 in sympathoadrenal development extends beyond simple control of cell survival and organ mass, with functional PHD3 being required for proper anatomical and physiological integrity of the system. Perturbation of this interface between developmental and adaptive signaling by hypoxic, metabolic, or other stresses could have important effects on key sympathoadrenal functions, such as blood pressure regulation.
    Molecular and cellular biology 06/2008; 28(10):3386-400. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-D and its receptor VEGFR-3 in early lymphatic development remains largely unresolved. We therefore investigated their role in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, a small animal model allowing chemicogenetic dissection of developmental lymphangiogenesis. Single morpholino antisense oligo knockdown of xVEGF-D did not affect lymphatic commitment, but transiently impaired lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration. Notably, combined knockdown of xVEGF-D with xVEGF-C at suboptimal morpholino concentrations resulted in more severe migration defects and lymphedema formation than the corresponding single knockdowns. Knockdown of VEGFR-3 or treatment with the VEGFR-3 inhibitor MAZ51 similarly impaired lymph vessel formation and function and caused pronounced edema. VEGFR-3 silencing by morpholino knockdown, MAZ51 treatment, or xVEGF-C/D double knockdown also resulted in dilation and dysfunction of the lymph heart. These findings document a critical role of VEGFR-3 in embryonic lymphatic development and function, and reveal a previously unrecognized modifier role of VEGF-D in the regulation of embryonic lymphangiogenesis in frog embryos.
    Blood 06/2008; 112(5):1740-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) is frequently associated with loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor (pVHL), which inhibits ubiquitylation and degradation of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor. pVHL also ubiquitylates the large subunit of RNA polymerase II, Rpb1, phosphorylated on serine 5 (Ser5) within the C-terminal domain (CTD). A hydroxylated proline 1465 within an LXXLAP motif located N-terminal to the CTD allows the interaction of Rpb1 with pVHL. Here we report that in RCC cells, pVHL regulates expression of Rpb1 and is necessary for low-grade oxidative-stress-induced recruitment of Rpb1 to the DNA-engaged fraction and for its P1465 hydroxylation, phosphorylation, and nondegradative ubiquitylation. Egln-9-type prolyl hydroxylases, PHD1 and PHD2, coimmunoprecipitated with Rpb1 in the chromatin fraction of VHL(+) RCC cells in response to oxidative stress, and PHD1 was necessary for P1465 hydroxylation while PHD2 had an inhibitory effect. P1465 hydroxylation was required for oxidative-stress-induced Ser5 phosphorylation of Rpb1. Importantly, overexpression of wild-type Rpb1 stimulated formation of kidney tumors by VHL(+) cells, and this effect was abolished by P1465A mutation of Rpb1. These data indicate that through this novel pathway involving P1465 hydroxylation and Ser5 phosphorylation of Rbp1, pVHL may regulate tumor growth.
    Molecular and cellular biology 05/2008; 28(8):2701-17. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) are oxygen sensors that regulate the stability of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we show that loss of Phd1 lowers oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle by reprogramming glucose metabolism from oxidative to more anaerobic ATP production through activation of a Pparalpha pathway. This metabolic adaptation to oxygen conservation impairs oxidative muscle performance in healthy conditions, but it provides acute protection of myofibers against lethal ischemia. Hypoxia tolerance is not due to HIF-dependent angiogenesis, erythropoiesis or vasodilation, but rather to reduced generation of oxidative stress, which allows Phd1-deficient myofibers to preserve mitochondrial respiration. Hypoxia tolerance relies primarily on Hif-2alpha and was not observed in heterozygous Phd2-deficient or homozygous Phd3-deficient mice. Of medical importance, conditional knockdown of Phd1 also rapidly induces hypoxia tolerance. These findings delineate a new role of Phd1 in hypoxia tolerance and offer new treatment perspectives for disorders characterized by oxidative stress.
    Nature Genetics 03/2008; 40(2):170-80. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schneider and colleagues say that the new model, published in PLoS Medicine, promises to increase our understanding of lymphedema and hopefully accelerate the development and testing of new treatments.
    PLoS Medicine 08/2006; 3(7):e264. · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • Martin Schneider, Edward M Conway, Peter Carmeliet
    Nature Genetics 11/2005; 37(10):1023-4. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymph vessels control fluid homeostasis, immunity and metastasis. Unraveling the molecular basis of lymphangiogenesis has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model that can be genetically manipulated. Here, we show that Xenopus tadpoles develop lymph vessels from lymphangioblasts or, through transdifferentiation, from venous endothelial cells. Lymphangiography showed that these lymph vessels drain lymph, through the lymph heart, to the venous circulation. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the lymphangiogenic factor Prox1 caused lymph vessel defects and lymphedema by impairing lymphatic commitment. Knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) also induced lymph vessel defects and lymphedema, but primarily by affecting migration of lymphatic endothelial cells. Knockdown of VEGF-C also resulted in aberrant blood vessel formation in tadpoles. This tadpole model offers opportunities for the discovery of new regulators of lymphangiogenesis.
    Nature Medicine 10/2005; 11(9):998-1004. · 22.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

677 Citations
238.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Department of Spine Surgery
      • • Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
      • • Institute of Pathology (Mannheim)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2012
    • Vesalius Research Center
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2008
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2005
    • Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium