[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary The biological functions of WRKY transcription factors in plants have been widely studied, but their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood. We isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo3, which is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion in At1g66600 encoding a WRKY transcription factor AtWRKY63. The mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in both seedling establishment and seedling growth. However, stomatal closure was less sensitive to ABA, and the abo3 mutant was less drought tolerant than the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABF2/AREB1 was markedly lower in the abo3 mutant than in the wild type. The abo3 mutation also reduced the expression of stress-inducible genes RD29A and COR47, especially early during ABA treatment. ABO3 is able to bind the W-box in the promoter of ABF2in vitro. These results uncover an important role for a WRKY transcription factor in plant responses to ABA and drought stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-linked glycosylation is an essential protein modification that helps protein folding, trafficking and translocation in eukaryotic systems. The initial process for N-linked glycosylation shares a common pathway with assembly of a dolichol-linked core oligosaccharide. Here we characterize a new Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lew3 (leaf wilting 3), which has a defect in an alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase, a homolog of ALG11 in yeast, that transfers mannose to the dolichol-linked core oligosaccharide in the last two steps on the cytosolic face of the ER in N-glycan precursor synthesis. LEW3 is localized to the ER membrane and expressed throughout the plant. Mutation of LEW3 caused low-level accumulation of Man(3)GlcNAc(2) and Man(4)GlcNAc(2) glycans, structures that are seldom detected in wild-type plants. In addition, the lew3 mutant has low levels of normal high-mannose-type glycans, but increased levels of complex-type glycans. The lew3 mutant showed abnormal developmental phenotypes, reduced fertility, impaired cellulose synthesis, abnormal primary cell walls, and xylem collapse due to disturbance of the secondary cell walls. lew3 mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Protein N-glycosylation was reduced and the unfolded protein response was more activated by osmotic stress and ABA treatment in the lew3 mutant than in the wild-type. These results demonstrate that protein N-glycosylation plays crucial roles in plant development and the response to abiotic stresses.
The Plant Journal 01/2009; 60(6):983-999. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dolichols are long-chain unsaturated polyisoprenoids with multiple cellular functions, such as serving as lipid carriers of sugars used for protein glycosylation, which affects protein trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum. The biological functions of dolichols in plants are largely unknown. We isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, lew1 (for leaf wilting1), that showed a leaf-wilting phenotype under normal growth conditions. LEW1 encoded a cis-prenyltransferase, which when expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of dolichol with a chain length around C(80) in an in vitro assay. The lew1 mutation reduced the total plant content of main dolichols by approximately 85% and caused protein glycosylation defects. The mutation also impaired plasma membrane integrity, causing electrolyte leakage, lower turgor, reduced stomatal conductance, and increased drought resistance. Interestingly, drought stress in the lew1 mutant induced higher expression of the unfolded protein response pathway genes BINDING PROTEIN and BASIC DOMAIN/LEUCINE ZIPPER60 as well as earlier expression of the stress-responsive genes RD29A and COR47. The lew1 mutant was more sensitive to dark treatment, but this dark sensitivity was suppressed by drought treatment. Our data suggest that LEW1 catalyzes dolichol biosynthesis and that dolichol is important for plant responses to endoplasmic reticulum stress, drought, and dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis.
The Plant Cell 08/2008; 20(7):1879-98. · 9.25 Impact Factor