[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that found the intake of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Bifidobacterium longum BB536, alleviates symptoms and affects blood parameters in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis) during the pollen season.
In the present study, fecal microbiota were investigated to examine whether any changes occur during the pollen season and whether any influence is exerted by probiotic intake.
Yogurt either with BB536 (BB536 yogurt) or without BB536 (placebo yogurt) was administered for 14 weeks at 2 x 100 g per day to 40 subjects (17 men, 23 women) with a clinical history of JCPsis. Fecal samples were obtained from 23 subjects (placebo group, n=13; BB536 group, n=10) before and during the intervention (weeks 4, 9 and 13) and fecal microbiota were analyzed using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.
From the fluctuation patterns of terminal-restriction fragments, the Bacteroides fragilis group and bifidobacteria were among the species that changed most with pollen dispersion. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that the cell numbers of the B fragilis group increased significantly along with pollen dispersion in both BB536 and placebo groups. Cell numbers of bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group (P < .05 at weeks 4 and 9). The ratio of cell numbers of the B fragilis group to bifidobacteria increased significantly during the pollen season in the placebo group (P < .01 at weeks 9 and 14), but not in the BB536 group. An in vitro study using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from JCPsis subjects indicated that strains of the B fragilis group induced significantly more helper T cell (T(H)) type2 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6) but fewer T(H)1 cytokines (IL-12 and interferon) compared with those of bifidobacteria.
These results suggest a relationship between fluctuation in intestinal microbiota and pollinosis allergy. Furthermore, intake of BB536 yogurt appears to exert positive ihfluences on the formation of anti-allergic microbiota.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 01/2007; 17(2):92-100. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotic bacteria may be effective in the treatment of allergic inflammation and food allergy, but efficacy and underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
The present study investigated the effects of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis).
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 JCPsis subjects received BB536 or placebo for 13 weeks during the pollen season. Subjective symptoms and self-care measures were recorded daily and blood samples were taken before and during intervention to measure blood levels of parameters related to JCPsis.
BB536 intake was associated with a significant reduction in number of subjects prematurely terminated due to severe symptoms and pollinosis medication (P=0.0057 vs. placebo group). Comparison of subjective symptom scores indicated significant decreases in rhinorrhea, nasal blockage and composite scores in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group. Comparison of medical scores showed marked improvements in all symptoms on BB536 intake. A T-helper type 2 (Th2)-skewed immune response occurring along with pollen dispersion was observed. BB536 significantly suppressed increases in plasma thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine and tended to suppress elevations of Japanese cedar pollen (JCP)-specific IgE.
These results suggest the efficacy of BB536 in relieving JCPsis symptoms, probably through the modulation of Th2-skewed immune response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported previously that novel immunostimulatory sequence (ISS) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) BL07S from a probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum inhibited immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro. However, whether ISS-ODNs from probiotics regulate T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized immune reactions in vivo remains unclear. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of ODN BL07S on type I allergic response, BALB/c mice were injected with or without ODN BL07S in the presence of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14. Serum Ig levels (IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels (interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) were investigated in splenocyte cultures from days 14-28. Production of OVA-specific and total IgE were significantly suppressed by administration of ODN BL07S, but not by ODN BL06S, a non-ISS-ODN. Compared to controls, ODN BL07S induced significantly lower levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in splenocyte cultures, and significantly higher levels of serum OVA-specific IgG2a. These effects of ODN BL07S on modulation of Th2 immune response were dose-dependent. The present results demonstrate that ODN BL07S from genomic DNA of B. longum BB536 prevents antigen-induced Th2 immune responses in vivo, suggesting that ISS-ODNs from probiotics might be useful in preventing allergic disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotic microorganisms have been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic inflammation and food allergy, but their efficacy remains controversial. This study tested the effect of a yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Forty subjects with a clinical history of JCPsis were given yoghurt either containing BB536 (BB536 yoghurt) or without BB536 (placebo yoghurt) at 2 X 100 g per day for 14 weeks, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective symptoms and self-care measures were recorded daily and blood samples were taken before and during the intervention (at weeks 4, 9, and 14) to measure the blood parameter levels related to JCPsis. Yoghurt supplemented with BB536 significantly alleviated eye symptoms compared with placebo yoghurt (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.97; p = 0.044). Although no statistically significant differences were detected, nasal symptoms such as itching, rhinorrhea, and blockage, as well as throat symptoms tended to be relieved with the BB536 yoghurt. BB536 tended to suppress the decreasing blood levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and the increasing blood eosinophil rates; a significantly higher IFN-gamma level was observed for the difference from baseline at week 4. A decreased trend in the difference from baseline levels of JCP-specific IgE levels was also observed at week 4 in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, these results suggest that intake of BB536-supplemented yoghurt may relieve JCPsis symptoms, probably through a modulating effect on Th balance.
Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2006; 16(2):86-93. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent report provided evidence that a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 33 (ADAM33), a member of the ADAM family, is a novel susceptibility gene in asthma linked to bronchial hyper-responsiveness. However, there has been no investigation of the genetic role of ADAM33 variants in nasal allergy.
The purpose of this study was to test the association between ADAM33 polymorphisms and Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis), a most common seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan.
We conducted a case-control association study among a Japanese population, involving 95 adult individuals with JCPsis and 95 normal healthy controls. A total of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM33 were genotyped using PCR-based molecular methods.
Six SNPs of ADAM33 gene, three in introns (7575G/A, 9073G/A and 12540C/T) and three in the coding region (10918G/C, 12433T/C and 12462C/T), were strongly associated with JCPsis (P = 0.0002-0.022 for absolute allele frequencies) and most of the SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A higher frequency of the common alleles of these SNPs was noted for the subjects with JCPsis in comparison with healthy controls. We also identified a haplotype associated with the disease susceptibility. In addition, associations were found between ADAM33 polymorphisms and various cedar pollinosis phenotypes including clinical severity, eosinophil counts in nasal secretion and allergen-specific IgE levels in sera, but not total serum IgE levels.
These results indicate that polymorphisms in the ADAM33 gene are associated with susceptibility to allergic rhinitis due to Japanese cedar pollen, but the functional relationship still needs clarification.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum strain BL1, a probiotic strain, on blood lipids in rats and humans were studied. Rats were fed a cholesterol-enriched experimental diet, supplemented with lyophilized powders of 1) acid milk (control), 2) milk fermented with a mixed culture of ordinary yogurt starters composed of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (SL), and 3) bifidobacterium milk fermented with the probiotic B. longum strain BL1, respectively. The bifidobacterium milk feeding brought about significant lowering of the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, in comparison with the control, while no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was observed. On the other hand, supplementation with SL milk resulted in only slight, nonsignificant decreases in serum lipid concentrations in comparison with the control. In the human study, 32 subjects with serum total cholesterol ranging from 220 to 280 mg/dl were randomly assigned to two treatments: 1) intake of a low-fat drinking yogurt prepared with ordinary yogurt starters composed of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (P-group) and 2) intake of a low-fat drinking yogurt prepared with the two ordinary yogurt starters plus B. longum strain BL1 (B-group). After intake for 4 wk at 3 x 100 ml/day, reduction of serum total cholesterol was observed in approximately half of the B-group subjects; a particularly significant decrease in serum total cholesterol was found among subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > 240 mg/dl). However, the serum lipid concentrations in the P-group subjects were almost stable during the experimental periods. The present results indicate the potential of the probiotic B. longum strain BL1 in serum lipid improvement.
Journal of Dairy Science 07/2003; 86(7):2452-61. · 2.57 Impact Factor