Masaharu Takigawa

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (305)916.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The CCN family of proteins plays important roles in development and homeostasis of bone and cartilage. To understand the role of CCN4 in chondrogenesis, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were transduced with CCN4 adenovirus (adCCN4) or siRNA to CCN4 (siCCN4) in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). Overexpression of CCN4 enhanced TGF-β3-induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and chondrogenesis of hBMSCs in an in vitro assay using a micromass culture model. On the other hand, knockdown of CCN4 inhibited the TGF-β3-induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and synthesis of cartilage matrix in micromass cultures of hBMSCs. Immunoprecipitation-Western blot analysis revealed that CCN4 bound to TGF-β3 and regulated the ability of TGF-β3 to bind to hBMSCs. In vivo analysis confirmed there was a significant decrease in the gene expression levels of chondrocyte markers in cartilage samples from Ccn4-knock out (KO) mice, compared to those from wild type (WT) control. In order to investigate the regenerative properties of the articular cartilage in Ccn4-KO mice, articular cartilage defects were surgically performed in the knee joints of young mice, and the results showed that the cartilage was partially repaired in WT mice, but not in Ccn4-KO mice. In conclusion, these results show, for the first time, that CCN4 has a positive influence on chondrogenic differentiation by modulating the effects of TGF-β3.
    Bone 11/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.11.007 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multifunctional molecule that promotes harmonized development and regeneration of cartilage through its matricellular interaction with a variety of extracellular biomolecules. Thus, deficiency in CCN2 supply profoundly affects a variety of cellular activities including basic metabolism. A previous study showed that the expression of a number of ribosomal protein genes was markedly enhanced in Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the impact of CCN2 on amino acid and protein metabolism in chondrocytes. Comparative metabolome analysis of the amino acids in Ccn2-null and wild type mouse chondrocytes revealed stable decreases in the cellular levels of all of the essential amino acids. Unexpectedly, uptake of such amino acids was rather enhanced in Ccn2-null chondrocytes, and the addition of exogenous CCN2 to human chondrocytic cells resulted in decreased amino acid uptake. However, as expected, amino acid consumption by protein synthesis was also accelerated in Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Furthermore, we newly found that expression of 2 genes encoding 2 glycolytic enzymes, as well as the previously reported Eno 1 gene, was repressed in those cells. Considering the impaired glycolysis and retained mitochondrial membrane potential in Ccn2-null chondrocytes, these findings suggest that Ccn2 deficiency induces amino acid shortage in chondrocytes by accelerated amino acid consumption through protein synthesis and acquisition of aerobic energy. Interestingly, CCN2 was found to capture such free amino acids in vitro. Under physiological conditions, CCN2 may be regulating the levels of free amino acids in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/jcb.25377 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    Hany Khattab · Eriko Aoyama · Satoshi Kubota · Masaharu Takigawa ·

    CCN Japanese Family Meeting, Okayama; 08/2015
  • Hany Mohamed Khattab · Eriko Aoyama · Satoshi Kubota · Masaharu Takigawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: CCN family member 2 (CCN2) has been shown to promote the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, a number of growth factors and cytokines are known to work in harmony to promote the process of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation toward endochondral ossification. Earlier we showed that CCN2 physically interacts with some of them, suggesting that multiple effects of CCN2 on various differentiation stages of chondrocytes may be attributed to its interaction with these growth factors and cytokines. However, little is known about the functional interaction occurring between CCN2 and other growth factors and cytokines in promoting chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In this study we sought to shed light on the binding affinities between CCN2 and other essential growth factors and cytokines known to be regulators of chondrocyte differentiation. Using the surface plasmon resonance assay, we analyzed the dissociation constant between CCN2 and each of the following: TGF-β1, TGF-β3, IGF-I, IGF-II, PDGF-BB, GDF5, PTHrP, and VEGF. We found a strong association between CCN2 and VEGF, as well as a relatively high association with TGF-β1, TGF-β3, PDGF-BB, and GDF-5. However, the sensorgrams obtained for possible interaction between CCN2 and IGF-I, IGF-II or PTHrP showed no response. This study underlines the correlation between CCN2 and certain other growth factors and cytokines and suggests the possible participation of such interaction in the process of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation toward endochondral ossification.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 04/2015; 9(3). DOI:10.1007/s12079-015-0290-x
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    ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage repair remains a challenging problem. Based on a high-throughput screening and functional analysis, we found that fluocinolone acetonide (FA) in combination with transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) strongly potentiated chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). In an in vivo cartilage defect model in knee joints of immunocompromised mice, transplantation of FA/TGF-β3-treated hBMSCs could completely repair the articular surface. Analysis of the intracellular pathways revealed that FA enhanced TGF-β3-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Additionally, we performed a pathway array and found that FA activates mTORC1/AKT pathway. Chemical inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin substantially suppressed FA effect, and inhibition of AKT completely repressed chondrogenesis of hBMSCs. Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor with mifepristone also suppressed FA effect, suggesting that FA involves binding to glucocorticoid receptor. Comparative analysis with other glucocorticoids (triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and dexamethasone (DEX)) revealed the unique ability of FA to repair articular cartilage surgical defects. Analysis of intracellular pathways showed that mTORC1/AKT pathway and glucocorticoid receptor was highly activated with FA and TA, but to a less extent with DEX. Collectively, these results show a unique ability of FA to enhance TGF-β3-associated chondrogenesis, and suggest that the FA/TGF-β3 combination may be used as major inducer of chondrogenesis in vitro. Additionally, FA/TGF-β3 could be potentially applied in a clinical setting to increase the efficiency of regenerative approaches based on chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 03/2015; 30(9). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2502 · 6.83 Impact Factor
  • Masaharu Takigawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that CCN proteins are cysteine-rich secreted proteins and composed of 4 distinct modules connected in tandem, i. e., IGF binding protein-like (IGFBP), von Willebrand type C (VWC), thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSP1), and C-terminal modules, except for CCN5 which lacks CT-module (Takigawa et al 2003; Perbal and Takigawa 2005). Exploring active modules (sites) in this molecule has been great interest for CCN researchers for a long time and is still underway.Recently, Bruno G. et al. (2015) reported a paper entitled “CTGF/CCN2 exerts profibrotic action in myoblasts via the up-regulation of sphingosine kinase-1/S1P3 signaling axis: Implications in the action mechanism of TGFβ.” in Biochim Biophys Acta. In this article, the authors described “CTGF/CCN2” in the paper title but they used CTGF purchased from PeproTech in their experiments although they describe CTGF (lower molecular weight isoform of 11 kDa) in Materials and Methods section as described in the catalog of the c ...
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s12079-015-0269-7
  • Satoshi Kubota · Masaharu Takigawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: CCN family protein 2 (CCN2), also widely known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is one of the founding members of the CCN family of matricellular proteins. Extensive investigation on CCN2 over decades has revealed the novel molecular action and functional properties of this unique signalling modulator. By its interaction with multiple molecular counterparts, CCN2 yields highly diverse and context-dependent biological outcomes in a variety of microenvironments. Nowadays, CCN2 is recognized to conduct the harmonized development of relevant tissues, such as cartilage and bone, in the skeletal system, by manipulating extracellular signalling molecules involved therein by acting as a hub through a web. However, on the other hand, CCN2 occasionally plays profound roles in major human biological disorders, including fibrosis and malignancies in major organs and tissues, by modulating the actions of key molecules involved in these clinical entities. In this review, the physiological and pathological roles of this unique protein are comprehensively summarized from a molecular network-based viewpoint of CCN2 functionalities.
    Clinical Science 02/2015; 128(3):181-96. DOI:10.1042/CS20140264 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCN family protein 2/Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) is a multi-potent factor for mesenchymal cells such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and endothelial cells. CCN2 is also known as a modulator of other cytokines and receptors via direct molecular interactions with them. We screened additional factors binding to CCN2 and found receptor activator of NF-kappa B (RANK) as one of them. RANK is also known as TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) receptor, and its signaling plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis. Notable affinity between CCN2 and RANK was confirmed by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. In fact, CCN2 enhanced the RANK-mediated signaling, such as occurs in NF-kappa B, p38 and JNK pathways, in pre-osteoclastic RAW264. 7 cells; whereas CCN2 had no influence on RANK-RANK ligand (RANKL) binding. Moreover, CCN2 also significantly bound to osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a decoy receptor of RANKL. Of note, OPG markedly inhibited the binding between CCN2 and RANK; and CCN2 cancelled the inhibitory effect of OPG on osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest CCN2 as a candidate of the fourth factor in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system for osteoclastogenesis, which regulates OPG and RANK via direct interaction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 12/2014; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.12.058 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that fibrosis is frequently observed in the gingiva of smokers. However, the mechanisms by which smoking results in pathological changes in periodontal tissue that lead to fibrosis are not entirely clear. Our former report showed that type I collagen synthesis was promoted by nicotine via CCN family protein 2 in human periodontal tissue cells. Here, we evaluated other aspects of nicotine function from a viewpoint of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Human gingival fibroblasts (n = 4) and periodontal ligament cells (n = 3) were isolated. The cells were treated with nicotine at a variety of concentrations for 12-48 h. Modulators of matrix remodeling were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cell migration and morphology were also evaluated. As a result, following treatment with 1 μg/ml nicotine, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 production in both cell lysates and supernatants, and matrix metalloproteinases-1 production in cell lysates, were significantly increased (p < 0.05). Compared to controls, cell migration was significantly inhibited (p < 0.005) by nicotine in a time-dependent manner. Electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of a number of vacuoles in nicotine-treated cells. These results indicate that nicotine not only impairs fibroblast motility, and induces cellular degenerative changes, but also alters ECM-remodeling systems of periodontal cells. Induction of matrix remodeling molecules, combined with type I collagen accumulation, may account for the molecular mechanism of nicotine-induced periodontal fibrosis.
    Odontology 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10266-014-0177-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Satoshi Kubota · Aya Maeda-Uematsu · Takashi Nishida · Masaharu Takigawa ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background CCN family protein 2 (CCN2), also widely known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is one of the classical members of the CCN family of proteins. In mammals, the CCN family comprises 6 members, each of which is composed of highly interactive conserved modules. Therefore, the biological roles of CCN2 in different microenvironments are highly diverse and depend on the cofactors present. Highlight In cartilage, CCN2 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which was evidenced by its ability to regenerate damaged articular cartilage in a harmonized manner. However, the mechanism by which CCN2 promotes both proliferation and differentiation—apparently opposite cytological events—remains unclear. In order to clarify the mechanism underlying the diverse functionality of CCN2, novel approaches are needed. Recent advances in omics approaches that attempt to address these issues are introduced in this review. Conclusion A new functional aspect of CCN2 as a metabolic supporter in cartilage was recently revealed by a metabolo-transcriptomic approach. In addition, a systematic interactomic approach is being used to characterize the molecular network around CCN2 that supports the multiple functionality of CCN2 in bone/cartilage.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 10/2014; 57(1). DOI:10.1016/j.job.2014.09.002
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have reported that CCN family protein 2 (also known as connective tissue growth factor) induces fibrotic response in skeletal muscle, thus emphasizing the pathological role of CCN2 in muscle tissues. However, the physiological role of CCN2 in myogenesis is still unknown. This study clarified the CCN2 functions during myogenesis. Recombinant CCN2 (rCCN2) promoted proliferation and MyoD production in C2C12 cells and primary myoblasts, but inhibited myogenin production. In accordance with these findings, the gene expression levels of myosin heavy chain, which is a marker of terminally differentiated myoblasts and desmin, which is the main intermediate filament protein of muscle cells, were decreased by rCCN2 treatment. In vivo analyses with Ccn2-deficient skeletal muscle revealed decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/MyoD double positive cells and muscle hypoplasia. Consistent with this finding, myogenic marker genes and myotube formation were repressed in Ccn2-deficient myoblasts. The protein production of CCN2 was increased in C2C12 myoblasts treated with tumor necrosis factor-α, which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, suggesting its role in muscle regeneration after inflammation. These findings indicate that CCN2 promotes proliferation and early differentiation but inhibits the terminal differentiation of myoblasts, thus suggesting that CCN2 plays a physiological role in myogenesis.
    Journal of Biochemistry 09/2014; 157(2). DOI:10.1093/jb/mvu056 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to find out a new molecular counterpart of CCN family protein 2 (CCN2), a matricellular protein with multiple functions, we performed an interactome analysis and found fibroblast growth factor (FGF) -1 as one of the candidates. Solid-phase binding assay indicated specific binding between CCN2 and FGF-1. This binding was also confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis that revealed a dissociation constant (Kd) of 3.98 nM indicating strong molecular interaction between the two. RNA analysis suggested that both FGF-1 and CCN2 could be produced by chondrocytes and thus their interaction in the cartilage is possible. These findings for the first time indicate the direct interaction of CCN2 and FGF-1 and suggest the co-presence of these molecules in the cartilage microenvironment. CCN2 is a well-known promoter of cartilage development and regeneration, whereas the physiological and pathological role of FGF-1 in cartilage mostly remains unclear. Biological role of FGF-1 itself in cartilage is also suspected.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 06/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s12079-014-0232-z
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). The aim of this study was to determine whether CCN2 is shuttled between HSC in membranous nanovesicles, or "exosomes." Methods: Exosomes were incubated with HSC after isolation from conditioned medium of control or CCN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transfected primary mouse HSC or human LX-2 HSC. Some exosomes were stained fluorescently with PKH26. HSC co-culture experiments were performed in the presence of GW4869 exosome inhibitor. CCN2 or CCN2-GFP were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Results: HSC-derived exosomes contained CCN2 or CCN2 mRNA, each of which increased in concentration during HSC activation or after transfection of HSC with CCN2-GFP. Exosomes, stained with either PKH26 or purified from CCN2-GFP-transfected cells, were taken up by activated or quiescent HSC resulting in CCN2-GFP delivery, as shown by their direct addition to recipient cells or by the GW4869-dependency of donor HSC. Conclusion: CCN2 is packaged into secreted, nano-sized exosomes that mediate its intercellular transfer between HSC. Exosomal CCN2 may amplify or fine tune fibrogenic signaling and, in conjunction with other exosome constituents, may have utility as a noninvasive biomarker to assess hepatic fibrosis.
    Surgery 05/2014; 156(3). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2014.04.014 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a unique molecule that promotes both chondrocytic differentiation and proliferation through its matricellular interaction with a number of extracellular biomolecules. This apparently contradictory functional property of CCN2 suggests its certain role in basic cellular activities such as energy metabolism, which is required for both proliferation and differentiation. Comparative metabolomic analysis of costal chondrocytes isolated from wild-type and Ccn2-null mice revealed overall impaired metabolism in the latter. Among the numerous metabolites analyzed, stable reduction in the intracellular level of ATP, GTP, CTP or UTP was observed, indicating a profound role of CCN2 in energy metabolism. Particularly, the cellular level of ATP was decreased by more than 50% in the Ccn2-null chondrocytes. The addition of recombinant CCN2 (rCCN2) to cultured Ccn2-null chondrocytes partly redeemed the cellular ATP level attenuated by Ccn2 deletion. Next, in order to investigate the mechanistic background that mediates the reduction in ATP level in these Ccn2-null chondrocytes, we performed transcriptome analysis. As a result, several metabolism-associated genes were found to have been up-regulated or down-regulated in the mutant mice. Up-regulation of a number of ribosomal protein genes was observed upon Ccn2 deletion, whereas a few genes required for aerobic and anaerobic ATP production were down-regulated in the Ccn2-null chondrocytes. Among such genes, reduction in the expression of the enolase 1 gene was of particular note. These findings uncover a novel functional role of CCN2 as a metabolic supporter in the growth-plate chondrocytes, which is required for skeletogenesis in mammals. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2014; 115(5). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24728 · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • B. Perbal · P. Trackman · J. Castellot · D. Brigstock · M. Takigawa · L. Lau · A. Leask ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, chairs of the 7th International Workshop on the CCN family of Genes, review the progress made in understanding the biological functions of CCN proteins (CCN1, CCN2, CCN3, CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6) with a particular focus on their implications in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 04/2014; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s12079-014-0227-9
  • A. Charrier · L. Chen · R. Chen · T. Hattori · M. Takigawa · D. Brigstock ·

    Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 186(2):678. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.871 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used high- (ACCM) and low- (ACC2) metastasis cell lines of human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) as an experimental model to study metastatic mechanisms and compare their expression levels for angiogenic-related factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). By using a series of extensive analyses, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) α-dependent VEGF expression levels were observed to be higher in ACCM cell lines, increasing the possible development of tumor metastasis, compared to ACC2 cell lines. Our findings provide the novel insight that HIF-1α-dependent VEGF overexpression under hypoxic conditions shows to some extent associations with the metastatic tendency of ACC cells and may function as a potential target for ACC therapy.
    Anticancer research 02/2014; 34(2):671-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which, in its chronic form, involves tissue destruction, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and an extensive fibrotic pathology which is due to unrelenting collagen deposition by pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). In response to noxious agents such as alcohol-excessive consumption of which is a major cause of pancreatitis in the West-normally quiescent PSC undergo a phenotypic and functional transition to activated myofibroblasts which produce and deposit collagen at high levels. This process is regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), expression of which is highly up-regulated in activated PSC. We show that CCN2 production by activated PSC is associated with enhanced expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) which was detected at high levels in activated PSC in a murine model of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. A positive feedback loop between CCN2 and miR-21 was identified that resulted in enhancement of their respective expression as well as that of collagen α1(I). Both miR-21 and CCN2 mRNA were present in PSC-derived exosomes, which were characterized as 50-150 nm CD9-positive nano-vesicles. Exosomes from CCN2-GFP- or miR-21-GFP-transfected PSC were taken up by other PSC cultures, as shown by direct fluorescence or qRT-PCR for GFP. Collectively these studies establish miR-21 and CCN2 as participants in a positive feedback loop during PSC activation and as components of the molecular payload in PSC-derived exosomes that can be delivered to other PSC. Thus interactions between cellular or exosomal miR-21 and CCN2 represent novel aspects of fibrogenic regulation in PSC. Summary Chronic injury in the pancreas is associated with fibrotic pathology which is driven in large part by CCN2-dependent collagen production in pancreatic stellate cells. This study shows that CCN2 up-regulation in PSC is associated with increased expression of miR-21 which, in turn, is able to stimulate CCN2 expression further via a positive feedback loop. Additionally miR-21 and CCN2 were identified in PSC-derived exosomes which effected their delivery to other PSC. The cellular and exosomal miR-21-CCN2 axis is a novel component in PSC fibrogenic signaling.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 01/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s12079-014-0220-3
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    ABSTRACT: Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP) cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP) cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83545. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083545 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of CCN family proteins has been proven to be of extreme importance in the process of cartilage development and endochondral ossification. The second member, CCN2, consists of 4 conserved modules that interact with a number of cofactors to display multiple functions. Although the potentially therapeutic effect of intact CCN2 on cartilage regeneration has been indicated by a number of studies, the regenerative effect of independent modules comprising CCN2 has never been evaluated before. This study aims to discover a more robust and effective CCN2 derivative to induce regeneration through assessing the effect of CCN2 independent modules on regeneration in vitro and in vivo, in comparison to the full length CCN2. In vitro evaluation using human chondrocytic cells showed a remarkable enhancing effect of several single modules on the gene expression of cartilaginous extracellular matrix components; whereas combinations of 2 or 3 modules rather diminished such effects. Interestingly, combination of all 4 modules redeemed the effect of intact CCN2 in vitro. Suspecting the re-assembly of the 4 modules, interaction among the modules was examined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. However, the results did not support the possible formation of a tetramodular complex. Next, the thrombospondin 1 type 1 repeat module (TSP1), which was found most promising in the experiments in vitro, and the combination of 4 modules were forwarded further to in vivo confirmation using 2 rat osteoarthritis (OA) models. As a result, TSP1 displayed more prominent regenerative effects than intact CCN2 on damaged cartilage. Unexpectedly, the combination of 4 modules showed limited effects in vivo. These results indicate the utility of TSP1 in the regenerative therapeutics of OA. Possible molecular mechanism that enables conditional reconstruction of CCN2 by 4 modules is discussed as well.
    Bone 11/2013; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.11.010 · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
916.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1970-2015
    • Okayama University
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry
      • • Dental School
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Applied Biochemistry
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2002
    • St. Marianna University School of Medicine
      • Institute of Medical Science
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1997
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • Department of Orthopaedics
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1980-1996
    • Osaka University
      • • Division of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Orthodontics
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan