[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various types of antipsychotics have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia since the accidental discovery of the antipsychotic activity of chlorpromazine. Although all clinically effective antipsychotic agents have common properties to interact with the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation, their precise mechanisms of action remain elusive. Antipsychotics are well known to induce transcriptional changes of immediate early genes (IEGs), raising the possibility that gene expressions play an essential role to improve psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report that while different classes of antipsychotics have complex pharmacological profiles against D2R, they share common transcriptome fingerprint (TFP) profile of IEGs in the murine brain in vivo by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our data showed that various types of antipsychotics with a profound interaction of D2R including haloperidol (antagonist), olanzapine (antagonist), and aripiprazole (partial agonist) all share common spatial TFPs closely homologous to those of D2R antagonist sulpiride, and elicited greater transcriptional responses in the striatum than in the nucleus accumbens. Meanwhile, D2R agonist quinpirole and propsychotic NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP) exhibited the contrasting TFP profiles. Clozapine and propsychotic drug methamphetamine (MAP) displayed peculiar TFPs that reflect their unique pharmacological property. Our results suggest that transcriptional responses are conserved across various types of antipsychotics clinically effective in positive symptoms of schizophrenia and also show that temporal and spatial TFPs may reflect the pharmacological features of the drugs. Thus, we propose that a TFP approach is beneficial to evaluate novel drug candidates for antipsychotic development.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0118510. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118510 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many drugs of abuse and most neuropharmacological agents regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the central nervous system (CNS). The striatum, in which dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are enriched, is strongly innervated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is the origin of dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and plays a central role in the development of psychiatric disorders. Here we report the comprehensive and anatomical transcript profiling of 322 non-odorant GPCRs in mouse tissue by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), leading to the identification of neurotherapeutic receptors exclusively expressed in the CNS, especially in the striatum. Among them, GPR6, GPR52, and GPR88, known as orphan GPCRs, were shown to co-localize either with a D2 receptor alone or with both D1 and D2 receptors in neurons of the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, we found that GPR52 was well conserved among vertebrates, is Gs-coupled and responsive to the antipsychotic drug, reserpine. We used three types of transgenic (Tg) mice employing a Cre-lox system under the control of the GPR52 promoter, namely, GPR52-LacZ Tg, human GPR52 (hGPR52) Tg, and hGPR52-GFP Tg mice. Detailed histological investigation suggests that GPR52 may modulate dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission in neuronal circuits responsible for cognitive function and emotion. In support of our prediction, GPR52 knockout and transgenic mice exhibited psychosis-related and antipsychotic-like behaviors, respectively. Therefore, we propose that GPR52 has the potential of being a therapeutic psychiatric receptor. This approach may help identify potential therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90134. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090134 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1)/GPR40 agonist fasiglifam (TAK-875), an antidiabetic drug under phase 3 development, potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner by activating FFAR1 expressed in pancreatic β cells. Although fasiglifam significantly improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients with a minimum risk of hypoglycemia in a phase 2 study, the precise mechanisms of its potent pharmacological effects are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that fasiglifam acts as an ago-allosteric modulator with a partial agonistic activity for FFAR1. In both Ca(2+) influx and insulin secretion assays using cell lines and mouse islets, fasiglifam showed positive cooperativity with the FFAR1 ligand γ-linolenic acid (γ-LA). Augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by fasiglifam, γ-LA, or their combination was completely abolished in pancreatic islets of FFAR1-knockout mice. In diabetic rats, the insulinotropic effect of fasiglifam was suppressed by pharmacological reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels using a lipolysis inhibitor, suggesting that fasiglifam potentiates insulin release in conjunction with plasma FFAs in vivo. Point mutations of FFAR1 differentially affected Ca(2+) influx activities of fasiglifam and γ-LA, further indicating that these agonists may bind to distinct binding sites. Our results strongly suggest that fasiglifam is an ago-allosteric modulator of FFAR1 that exerts its effects by acting cooperatively with endogenous plasma FFAs in human patients as well as diabetic animals. These findings contribute to our understanding of fasiglifam as an attractive antidiabetic drug with a novel mechanism of action.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76280. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076280 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor, APJ. The administration of apelin-13, a truncated 13-amino acid apelin peptide, in diet-induced obese mice is reported to result in a decrease in adiposity due to the increase of energy expenditure with an increase in the expression of uncoupling proteins.
We systematically compared the phenotype of human apelin-transgenic (apelin-Tg) mice fed standard or high-fat diets (HFD) with that of non-Tg control mice to clarify the effect of apelin on obesity. The beneficial effects of apelin were evaluated by multiple assay methods including indirect calorimetrical measurements, gene expression analysis, and immunohistochemical staining.
Apelin-Tg mice inhibited HFD-induced obesity without altering food intake and exhibited increased oxygen consumption and body temperature compared to non-Tg controls. Interestingly, the mRNA expressions of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a key molecule for vascular maturation, and its receptor, endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2), were significantly upregulated in the skeletal muscle of HFD-fed apelin-Tg mice, and the areas of anti-CD31 antibody-positive endothelial cells also increased. Furthermore, both the aerobic type-I muscle fibre ratio and the DNA copy number of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 increased 2.0- and 1.4-fold in skeletal muscle, respectively.
These findings suggest that apelin stimulates energy expenditure via increase vascular mass and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.
Apelin is a prerequisite factor for anti-obesity by stimulating energy expenditure via regulating homeostatic energy balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an anorectic peptide produced in the brain. Here, we showed that NPW was present in several hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. NPW expression was significantly up-regulated in leptin-deficient ob/ob and leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. The increase in NPW expression in ob/ob mice was abrogated to control levels after leptin replacement. Leptin induced suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 after phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in NPW-expressing neurons. In addition, we demonstrated that NPW reduces feeding via the melanocortin-4-receptor signaling pathway. We also showed that NPW activates proopiomelanocortin and inhibits neuropeptide Y neurons using loose-patch extracellular recording of these neurons identified by promoter-driven green fluorescent protein expression. This study indicates that NPW may play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy metabolism under the conditions of leptin insufficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urotensin II (UII), which was originally isolated from the teleost urophysis, was identified as an endogenous ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor 14 (GPR14). The structure of mammalian UII was confirmed by isolation from spinal cord in porcine, or was easily predicted from the sequence of prepro-UII in human. For rat and mouse, however, only the tentative sequences of UII peptides have been demonstrated because the typical processing sites are absent from the amino-terminal region of the mature peptides. Isolation of UII-like immunoreactivity in rat brain revealed the presence of a novel peptide, designated urotensin II-related peptide (URP). URP binds and activates the human and rat urotensin II receptors (GPR14) and has a hypotensive effect when administrated to anesthetized rats. Based on the DNA sequences of the cloned prepro-URP gene, the amino acid sequences of mature URP for mouse and human are identical to that for rat URP. These results suggest that URP is the endogenous and functional ligand for urotensin II receptor in the rat and mouse, and possibly in the human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide W (NPW), a novel endogenous peptide for G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8, is expressed in the gastric antral mucosa of rat, mouse, and human stomachs. Here, we studied the ontogeny of NPW in the developing rat stomach. Real-time RT-PCR showed that NPW gene expression was initially detectable in embryonic day 14 (E14) stomach and gradually increased during the progress of age until birth, postnatal day 1 (P1). NPW mRNA level in the stomach increased again from the weaning period (P21) until reaching adulthood. Immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies raised against rat NPW revealed that NPW-positive cells were detected in the P1 antral stomach and gradually increased during the development of age. Furthermore, double immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NPW colocalized with gastrin in P1 rat stomach. These data will provide clues to physiological functions of NPW in the development of rat stomach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidyl-L-serine (lysoPS) is thought to be an immunological regulator because it dramatically augments the degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). This stimulatory effect may be mediated by a lysoPS receptor, but its molecule has not been identified yet. During a ligand fishing study for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 34 (GPR34), we found that lysoPS caused a dose-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in human GPR34-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO/hGPR34) cells. The CHO/hGPR34 cells were unresponsive to other structurally related phospholipids examined. Quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that mRNAs of GPR34 are particularly abundant in mast cells. The effective lysoPS concentration for RPMC degranulation was similar to that required for GPR34 activation, and the structural requirement of lysoPS for RPMC degranulation was in good agreement with that observed in CHO/hGPR34 cells. These results suggest that GPR34 is the functional mast cell lysoPS receptor.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2006; 341(4):1078-87. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.01.069 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urotensin II (UII) is a piscine neuropeptide originally isolated from the teleost urophysis. The existence of UII in mammals has been demonstrated by cloning of the mammalian orthologs of UII precursor protein genes. While rat and mouse orthologs have been reported, only the tentative structures of UII peptides of these animals have been demonstrated, since prepro-UII proteins lack the typical processing sites in the amino-terminal region of the mature peptides. A novel peptide, UII-related peptide (URP), was discovered by monitoring UII-immunoreactivity in the rat brain, and its amino acid sequence was determined to be ACFWKYCV. cDNAs encoding rat, mouse, and human precursor proteins for URP were cloned and showed that the sequences of mouse and human URP peptides are identical to that for rat URP. URP was found to bind and activate the human or rat urotensin II receptors [GPR14, UT receptor (UTR)] and showed a hypotensive effect when administrated to anesthetized rats. The prepro-URP gene is expressed in several rat tissues, although with lower levels than the prepro-UII gene and, in the human, is expressed comparably to prepro-UII in several tissues except the spinal cord. These results suggest that URP is the endogenous and functional ligand for urotensin II receptor in the rat and mouse, and possibly in the human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified urotensin II (U-II) as the endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR14 or SENR. Both U-II and GPR14 are expressed not only in peripheral tissues but also in the brain of rodents, suggesting that U-II plays a physiological role in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the central effects of U-II in rodents. Intracerebroventricular administration of U-II induced anxiogenic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test and the hole-board test in mice in a dose-dependent manner, as did corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). The effective doses of U-II were 10-100-fold higher than these of CRF in these tests. Our results suggest that U-II is a candidate for the mediator of some aspect of stress or anxiety in the central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a novel hypothalamic peptide that activates the previously described orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR7 and GPR8. Two endogenous molecular forms of NPW that consist of 23- and 30-amino acid residues were identified. The localization of GPR7 and GPR8 in some hypothalamic regions of primary importance in the regulation of feeding behavior has provided a springboard for investigation of the role of NPW in the central nervous system. In this study we examined the effects of NPW on feeding and energy expenditure in rats. Single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NPW23 and NPW30 to free-feeding rats suppressed dark phase and fasting-induced food intake at similar effective doses. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of NPW using an osmotic minipump suppressed feeding and body weight gain over the infusion period. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of anti-NPW IgG stimulated feeding. Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of NPW increased body temperature and heat production. These data raise the possibility that NPW functions as an endogenous catabolic signaling molecule in the brain. Further investigation of the biochemical and physiological functions of NPW will help us to better understand the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urotensin II (UII) has been reported as the most potent known vasoconstrictor. While rat and mouse orthologs of UII precursor protein have been reported, only the tentative structures of UII peptides of these animals have been demonstrated, since prepro-UII proteins lack typical processing sites for their mature peptides. In the present study, we isolated a novel peptide, UII-related peptide (URP), from the extract of the rat brain as the sole immunoreactive substance to anti-UII antibody; the amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined as ACFWKYCV. cDNAs encoding rat, mouse, and human precursor proteins for URP were cloned and revealed that the sequences of mouse and human URP peptides are the same as that for rat URP. Prepro-URP gene is expressed in several rat tissues such as those of the thymus, spleen, testis, and spinal cord, although with lower levels than the prepro-UII gene. In the human, the prepro-URP gene is expressed comparably to prepro-UII in several tissues except the spinal cord. URP was found to bind and activate the human or rat UII receptors (GPR14) and showed a hypotensive effect when administered to anesthetized rats. These results suggest that URP is the endogenous and functional ligand for UII receptor in the rat and mouse, and possibly in the human. We also describe the preparation of specific monoclonal antibodies raised against UII peptide and the establishment of a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay system for UII peptides.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2003; 310(3):860-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.09.102 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we describe recent advances in the study of novel orphan GPCR ligands related to obesity, focusing on melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide W (NPW), neuropeptide B (NPB) and galanin-like peptide (GALP).An endogenous ligand of orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), SLC-1 (MCH-R1), was isolated from rat brain and revealed to be MCH. Phenotypic analyses of genetically engineered animals indicated that the MCH-SLC-1 / MCH-R1 axis is relevant to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. We developed MCH receptor antagonists and found that they could inhibit food intake stimulated by central administration of MCH.NPW was isolated from porcine hypothalamus as a ligand for orphan GPR8 and found to bind to both GPR7 and GPR8 at similar effective doses. Results of intracerebroventricular administration of NPW to rats suggested that it regulated feeding behavior and the neuroendocrine system, although further study is required to confirm the physiological functions of NPW.In addition, we isolated NPB, which was closely related to NPW in structure, from bovine hypothalamus as a GPR7 ligand and found that it was modified with bromine at position C-6 of the indole ring of the N-terminal Trp residue. From the distribution of the NPB mRNA in the rat brain, NPB was suggested to be involved in the regulation of feeding and the neuroendocrine system as well as memory and learning.GALP was isolated from porcine small intestines as a ligand for galanin subtype receptor GALR2. The most interesting feature was that GALP-neurons were specifically localized to the arcuate nucleus in rats and under the positive regulation of leptin, suggesting that GALP mediates the anorexic activity of leptin.
Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents 05/2003; 3(2):101-120. DOI:10.2174/1568015033477802
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structurally related orphan G-protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8 are expressed in the central nervous system, and their ligands have not been identified. Here, we report the identification of the endogenous ligand for both of these receptors. We purified the peptide ligand from porcine hypothalamus using stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing human GPR8 and cloned the cDNA encoding its precursor protein. The cDNA encodes two forms of the peptide ligand with lengths of 23 and 30 amino acid residues as mature peptides. We designated the two ligands neuropeptide W-23 (NPW23) and neuropeptide W-30 (NPW30). The amino acid sequence of NPW23 is completely identical to that of the N-terminal 23 residues of NPW30. Synthetic NPW23 and NPW30 activated and bound to both GPR7 and GPR8 at similar effective doses. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPW23 in rats increased food intake and stimulated prolactin release. These findings indicate that neuropeptide W is the endogenous ligand for both GPR7 and GPR8 and acts as a mediator of the central control of feeding and the neuroendocrine system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated a novel gene in a search of the Celera data base and found that it encoded a peptidic ligand for a G protein-coupled
receptor, GPR7 (O'Dowd, B. F., Scheideler, M. A., Nguyen, T., Cheng, R., Rasmussen, J. S., Marchese, A., Zastawny, R., Heng,
H. H., Tsui, L. C., Shi, X., Asa, S., Puy, L., and George, S. R. (1995)Genomics 28, 84–91; Lee, D. K., Nguyen, T., Porter, C. A., Cheng, R., George, S. R., and O'Dowd, B. F. (1999) Mol. Brain Res. 71, 96–103). The expression of this gene was detected in various tissues in rats, including the lymphoid organs, central
nervous system, mammary glands, and uterus. GPR7 mRNA was mainly detected in the central nervous system and uterus. In situ hybridization showed that the gene encoding the GPR7 ligand was expressed in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats. To
determine the molecular structure of the endogenous GPR7 ligand, we purified it from bovine hypothalamic tissue extracts on
the basis of cAMP production-inhibitory activity to cells expressing GPR7. Through structural analyses, we found that the
purified endogenous ligand was a peptide with 29 amino acid residues and that it was uniquely modified with bromine. We subsequently
determined that the C-6 position of the indole moiety in the N-terminal Trp was brominated. We believe this is the first report
on a neuropeptide modified with bromine and have hence named it neuropeptide B. In in vitro assays, bromination did not influence the binding of neuropeptide B to the receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through the screening of our in-house chemical compound library, we found a novel melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor antagonist, T-226296, a (-) enantiomer of N-[6-(dimethylamino)-methyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl]-4'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide. T-226296 exhibited high affinity for cloned human and rat MCH receptors (SLC-1) in receptor binding assays (IC50=5.5+/-0.12 nM for human SLC-1; 8.6+/-0.32 nM for rat SLC-1). T-226296 had high selectivity over other receptors, including the second subtype of the MCH receptor, SLT (MCH2), transporters and ion channels. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human SLC-1, T-226296 reversed the MCH-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, inhibited MCH-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase, and also inhibited MCH-stimulated arachidonic acid release. In rats, oral administration of T-226296 (30 mg/kg) almost completely suppressed the food intake induced by intracerebroventricular injection of MCH. These results clearly indicate that T-226296 is a novel, orally active and selective MCH receptor antagonist that will be promising for further exploring the physiology and pathophysiology of MCH-SLC-1 signaling.
European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2002; 438(3):129-35. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(02)01314-6 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A DNA fragment encoding an amino acid sequence possessing common features to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily was found in the human genomic sequence, and from this information, the full-length cDNA of a novel GPCR, designated SLT, was cloned from the human hippocampus cDNA library. SLT showed the highest homology to the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor, SLC-1 (31.5% identity), and to a lesser extent, to the somatostatin (SST) receptor subtypes. MCH exhibited agonistic behavior when applied to the SLT-expressing CHO cells at subnanomolar doses whereas more than 200 known peptides, including SST and cortistatin, did not. These results indicated that MCH is the cognate ligand of the SLT receptor and that this newly cloned GPCR is the second subtype of the MCH receptor. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the SLT gene expression in human tissues showed that the SLT receptor is expressed mainly in brain areas including the cerebral cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and corpus callosum, as well as in a limited number of peripheral tissues. The distribution of the SLT nearly overlapped that of SLC-1, suggesting that some of the neural functions of MCH may be mediated by both of these receptor subtypes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2001; 283(5):1013-8. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4893 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two molecular species of urotensin II (UII) were isolated from porcine spinal cords and identified as the endogenous ligands of a G-protein-coupled orphan receptor, SENR (sensory epithelium neuropeptide-like receptor), which is identical to GPR14. We established a CHO cell line stably expressing the rat SENR and investigated several tissue extracts to evoke the response mediated by the SENR. Extract from porcine spinal cords showed an activity of arachidonic acid metabolites release from SENR-expressing cells and was purified using HPLC. Two active substances were isolated and their sequences were determined as GPTSECFWKYCV and GPPSECFWKYCV, which were revealed to be porcine UII. Synthetic UII peptides caused arachidonic acid metabolites release activity in the rat SENR-expressing cells with an EC(50) value of 1 nM. Three cDNAs encoding the precursor proteins of porcine UII were cloned from a porcine spinal cord cDNA library; 2 consist of 121 amino acid residues and the other, which seemed to be a splicing variant, consist of 85 residues.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1999; 265(1):123-9. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1640 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), which is an orexigenic peptide, was isolated and identified as the endogenous ligand of the SLC-1 receptor. We established a CHO cell line expressing the rat SLC-1 receptor to search for its endogenous ligand. The extract of rat whole brain showed inhibition of intracellular forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in rat SLC-1-expressing CHO cells and was purified. Using HPLC purification, we isolated and identified MCH as the endogenous ligand of the SLC-1 receptor. The authentic MCH demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cAMP accumulation in forskolin-stimulated rat and human SLC-1-expressing CHO cells with an EC(50) value of 0.2 nM for both the rat and human SLC-1 receptors. This is the first description of the functional receptor for MCH.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1999; 261(3):622-6. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1104 · 2.30 Impact Factor