[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5-formyluracil (5-foU), a major mutagenic oxidative damage of thymine, is removed from DNA by Nth, Nei and MutM in Escherichia coli. However, DNA polymerases can also replicate past the 5-foU by incorporating C and G opposite the lesion, although the mechanism of correction of the incorporated bases is still unknown. In this study, using a borohydride-trapping assay, we identified a protein trapped by a 5-foU/C-containing oligonucleotide in an extract from E. coli mutM nth nei mutant. The protein was subsequently purified from the E. coli mutM nth nei mutant and was identified as KsgA, a 16S rRNA adenine methyltransferase. Recombinant KsgA also formed the trapped complex with 5-foU/C- and thymine glycol (Tg)/C-containing oligonucleotides. Furthermore, KsgA excised C opposite 5-foU, Tg and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU) from duplex oligonucleotides via a beta-elimination reaction, whereas it could not remove the damaged base. In contrast, KsgA did not remove C opposite normal bases, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2-hydroxyadenine. Finally, the introduction of the ksgA mutation increased spontaneous mutations in E. coli mutM mutY and nth nei mutants. These results demonstrate that KsgA has a novel DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activity for C mispaired with oxidized T that prevents the formation of mutations, which is in addition to its known rRNA adenine methyltransferase activity essential for ribosome biogenesis.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2009; 37(7):2116-25. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uracil arises in DNA from spontaneous deamination of cytosine and through incorporation of dUMP by DNA polymerase during DNA replication. Excision of uracil by the action of uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung) initiates the base excision repair pathway to counter the promutagenic base modification. In this study, we cloned a cDNA-encoding Caenorhabditis elegans homologue (CeUng-1) of Escherichia coli Ung. There was 49% identity in amino acid sequence between E.coli Ung and CeUng-1. Purified CeUng-1 removed uracil from both U:G and U:A base pairs in DNA. It also removed uracil from single-stranded oligonucleotide substrate less efficiently than double-stranded oligonucleotide. The CeUng-1 activity was inhibited by Bacillus subtilis Ung inhibitor, indicating that CeUng-1 is a member of the family-1 Ung group. The mutation in the ung-1 gene did not affect development, fertility and lifespan in C.elegans, suggesting the existence of backup enzyme. However, we could not detect residual uracil excision activity in the extract derived from the ung-1 mutant. The present experiments also showed that the ung-1 mutant of C.elegans was more resistant to NaHSO(3)-inducing cytosine deamination than wild-type strain.