ABSTRACT: Treatment with adefovir dipivoxil for 48 weeks resulted in clinical improvement in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B that was lost when treatment was discontinued. We investigated the efficacy, safety, and resistance profile of adefovir dipivoxil treatment for up to 240 weeks.
HBeAg-negative patients were treated double blind with placebo or adefovir dipivoxil 10 mg once daily for 48 weeks, followed by adefovir dipivoxil from week 49 to 96. At week 97, 125 patients enrolled in a 144-week, open-label phase. Patients received adefovir dipivoxil for up to 192 or 240 weeks.
Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels were less than 1000 copies per milliliter in 67% of patients, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels normalized in 69% after 240 weeks. After 192 or 240 weeks of treatment, over 83% of patients had improvement in necroinflammation, and over 73% had improvement in fibrosis. Ishak fibrosis scores improved compared with baseline in 35%, 55%, and 71% of patients after 48, 192, and 240 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil, respectively. After 240 weeks, the cumulative probability of HBV polymerase mutations was 29%, but the cumulative probability of mutations with virologic resistance was 20% and of mutations, virologic resistance, and ALT elevations was 11%. Slight elevations in creatinine were confirmed in 4 (3%) patients.
Treatment with adefovir dipivoxil for up to 240 weeks was well tolerated and produced significant, increasing improvement in hepatic fibrosis, durable suppression of HBV replication, normalization of liver enzymes, and delayed development of resistance.
Gastroenterology 01/2007; 131(6):1743-51. · 11.68 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Entecavir is a nucleoside analogue with potent in vitro activity against lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). This randomized, dose-ranging, phase 2 study compared the efficacy and safety of entecavir with lamivudine in lamivudine-refractory patients.
Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (n = 182), viremic despite lamivudine treatment for > or =24 weeks or having documented lamivudine resistance substitutions, were switched directly to entecavir (1.0, 0.5, or 0.1 mg daily) or continued on lamivudine (100 mg daily) for up to 76 weeks.
At week 24, significantly more patients receiving entecavir 1.0 mg (79%) or 0.5 mg (51%) had undetectable HBV DNA levels by branched chain DNA assay compared with lamivudine (13%; P < .0001). Entecavir 1.0 mg was superior to entecavir 0.5 mg for this end point (P < .01). After 48 weeks, mean reductions in HBV DNA levels were 5.06, 4.46, and 2.85 log(10) copies/mL on entecavir 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg, respectively, significantly higher than 1.37 log(10) copies/mL on lamivudine. Significantly higher proportions of patients achieved normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels on entecavir 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg (68%, 59%, and 47%, respectively) than on lamivudine (6%). One virologic rebound due to resistance occurred (in the 0.5-mg group).
In HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative lamivudine-refractory patients, treatment with entecavir 1.0 and 0.5 mg daily was well tolerated and resulted in significant reductions in HBV DNA levels and normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels. One milligram of entecavir was more effective than 0.5 mg in this population.
Gastroenterology 11/2005; 129(4):1198-209. · 11.68 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Treatment with adefovir dipivoxil for 48 weeks resulted in histologic, virologic, and biochemical improvement in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. We evaluated the effect of continued therapy as compared with cessation of therapy.
One hundred eighty-five HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B were assigned to receive 10 mg of adefovir dipivoxil or placebo once daily for 48 weeks (ratio, 2:1). After week 48, patients receiving adefovir dipivoxil were again randomly assigned either to receive an additional 48 weeks of the drug or to switch to placebo. Patients originally assigned to placebo were switched to adefovir dipivoxil. Patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil during weeks 49 through 96 were subsequently offered continued therapy. The primary end points were changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine aminotransferase levels.
Treatment with adefovir dipivoxil resulted in a median decrease in serum HBV DNA of 3.47 log copies per milliliter (on a base-10 scale) at 96 weeks and 3.63 log copies per milliliter at 144 weeks. HBV DNA levels were less than 1000 copies per milliliter in 71 percent of patients at week 96 and 79 percent at week 144. In the majority of patients who were switched from adefovir dipivoxil to placebo, the benefit of treatment was lost (median change in HBV DNA levels from baseline, -1.09 log copies per milliliter; only 8 percent of patients had levels below 1000 copies per milliliter at week 96). Side effects during weeks 49 through 144 were similar to those during the initial 48 weeks. Resistance mutations rtN236T and rtA181V were identified in 5.9 percent of patients after 144 weeks.
In patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B, the benefits achieved from 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil were lost when treatment was discontinued. In patients treated for 144 weeks, benefits were maintained, with infrequent emergence of viral resistance.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2005; 352(26):2673-81. · 53.30 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Treatment with pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin for 48 weeks is more effective than conventional interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
To assess the efficacy and safety of 24 or 48 weeks of treatment with peginterferon-alpha2a plus a low or standard dose of ribavirin.
Randomized, double-blind trial.
99 international centers.
1311 patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Peginterferon-alpha2a, 180 microg/wk, for 24 or 48 weeks plus a low-dose (800 mg/d) or standard weight-based dose (1000 or 1200 mg/d) of ribavirin. Measurement: Sustained virologic response: undetectable HCV RNA concentration at the end of treatment and during 12 to 24 weeks of follow-up.
Overall and in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 48 weeks of treatment was statistically superior to 24 weeks and standard-dose ribavirin was statistically superior to low-dose ribavirin. In patients with HCV genotype 1, absolute differences in sustained virologic response rates between 48 and 24 weeks of treatment were 11.2% (95% CI, 3.6% to 18.9%) and 11.9% (CI, 4.7% to 18.9%), respectively, between standard- and low-dose ribavirin. Sustained virologic response rates for peginterferon-alpha2a and standard-dose ribavirin for 48 weeks were 63% (CI, 59% to 68%) overall and 52% (CI, 46% to 58%) in patients with HCV genotype 1. In patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3, the sustained virologic response rates in the 4 treatment groups were not statistically significantly different.
Treatment with peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin may be individualized by genotype. Patients with HCV genotype 1 require treatment for 48 weeks and a standard dose of ribavirin; those with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 seem to be adequately treated with a low dose of ribavirin for 24 weeks.
Annals of internal medicine 04/2004; 140(5):346-55. · 16.73 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Adefovir dipivoxil, a nucleotide analogue, demonstrated clinically significant antiviral activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials.
We randomly assigned 185 patients with chronic hepatitis B who were negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) to receive either 10 mg of adefovir dipivoxil or placebo once daily for 48 weeks in a 2:1 ratio and a double-blind manner. The primary end point was histologic improvement.
At week 48, 64 percent of patients who had base-line liver-biopsy specimens available in the adefovir dipivoxil group had improvement in histologic liver abnormalities (77 of 121), as compared with 33 percent of patients in the placebo group (19 of 57, P<0.001). Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels were reduced to fewer than 400 copies per milliliter in 51 percent of patients in the adefovir dipivoxil group (63 of 123) and in 0 percent of those in the placebo group (0 of 61, P<0.001). The median decrease in log-transformed HBV DNA levels was greater with adefovir dipivoxil treatment than with placebo (3.91 vs. 1.35 log copies per milliliter, P<0.001). Alanine aminotransferase levels had normalized at week 48 in 72 percent of patients receiving adefovir dipivoxil (84 of 116), as compared with 29 percent of those receiving placebo (17 of 59, P<0.001). No HBV polymerase mutations associated with resistance to adefovir were identified. The safety profile of adefovir dipivoxil was similar to that of placebo.
In patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B, 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil treatment resulted in significant histologic, virologic, and biochemical improvement, with an adverse-event profile similar to that of placebo. There was no evidence of the emergence of adefovir-resistant HBV polymerase mutations.
New England Journal of Medicine 02/2003; 348(9):800-7. · 53.30 Impact Factor