[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case--control approach. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%--1.64%). Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65), sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59), hospitalization (OR = 1.90), groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53), and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value). The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b), 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care system and society at large. The known risk factors explain less than 50% of the infected cases, limiting the prevention strategies. Our findings regarding risk behaviors associated with HCV infection showed that there is still room for improving strategies for reducing transmission among drug users and nosocomial infection, as well as a need for specific prevention and control strategies targeting individuals living in poverty.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a crescent problem among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to determine the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease using the Framingham risk score among HIV-infected patients from three regions of Brazil. This is a pooled analysis of three cohort studies, which enrolled 3,829 individuals, 59% were men, 66% had white skin color, and mean age 39.0 ± 9.9 years. Comparisons among regions showed that there were marked differences in demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and HIV-related characteristics. Prevalence of Framingham score ≥10 was 4.5% in the Southern, 4.2% in the Midwest, and 3.9% in the Northeast of Brazil. The Framingham score ≥10 was similar between regions for males, patients aged ≥60 years, with obesity, central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Women were three times more likely to have coronary heart disease in 10 years than men. Hypertension and diabetes increased more than four times the risk of coronary heart disease, followed by central obesity, obesity, and prehypertension. The use of antiretroviral agents and time since HIV diagnosis were not risk factors for coronary artery disease in 10 years. In conclusion, hypertension and diabetes are the strongest independent predictors of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease among HIV-infected population.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:163418. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the agreement between the Framingham, Framingham with aggravating factors, PROCAM, and DAD equations in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient centre in Brazil. 294 patients older than 19 years were enrolled. Estimates of 10-year cardiovascular risk were calculated. The agreement between the CVD risk equations was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The participants' mean age was 36.8 years (SD = 10.3), 76.9% were men, and 66.3% were on antiretroviral therapy. 47.8% of the participants had abdominal obesity, 23.1% were current smokers, 20.0% had hypertension, and 2.0% had diabetes. At least one lipid abnormality was detected in 72.8%, and a low HDL-C level was the most common. The majority were classified as having low risk for CV events. The percentage of patients at high risk ranged from 0.4 to 5.7. The PROCAM score placed the lowest proportion of the patients into a high-risk group, and the Framingham equation with aggravating factors placed the highest proportion of patients into the high-risk group. Data concerning the comparability of different tools are informative for estimating the risk of CVD, but accuracy of the outcome predictions should also be considered.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:969281. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection among pregnant women from central-western Brazil.
Observational cross-sectional study.
A total of 54,139 pregnant women received antenatal HIV screening from a network of public healthcare centers in 2011. The incidence of confirmed HIV-1 infection was estimated using the Serological Testing Algorithms for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) methodology and BED-capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The yearly incidence was calculated, and adjusted incidence rates were estimated. For a subgroup of patients, protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after performing a nested polymerase chain reaction.
Of the participants, 20% had a pregnancy before the age of 18 and approximately 40% were experiencing their first pregnancy. Of the 54,139 pregnant women screened, 86 had a confirmed HIV-1 diagnosis, yielding an overall prevalence of 1.59 cases per 1000 women (95% CI 1.27-1.96). A higher prevalence was detected in the older age groups, reflecting cumulative exposure to the virus over time. Among the infected pregnant women, 20% were considered recently infected according to the BED-CEIA. The estimated incidence of HIV infection was 0.61 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.33-0.89); the corrected incidence was 0.47 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.26-0.68). In a subgroup of patients, HIV-1 subtype C (16.7%) was the second most prevalent form after subtype B (66.7%); BF1 recombinants (11.1%) and one case of subtype F1 (5.5%) were also detected.
This study highlights the potential for deriving incidence estimates from a large antenatal screening program for HIV. The rate of recent HIV-1 infection among women in their early reproductive years is a public health warning to implement preventive measures.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79189. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the excess length of stay, extra expenditures, and attributable mortality to healthcare-associated S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) at a teaching hospital in central Brazil. The study design was a matched (1:1) case-control. Cases were defined as patients >13 years old, with a healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI. Controls included patients without an S. aureus BSI, who were matched to cases by gender, age (± 7 years), morbidity, and underlying disease. Data were collected from medical records and from the Brazilian National Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SIH/SUS). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare length of stay and costs between cases and controls. Differences in mortality between cases and controls were compared using McNemar's tests. The Mantel-Haenzel stratified analysis was performed to compare invasive device utilization. Data analyses were conducted using Epi Info 6.0 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0). 84 case-control pairs matched by gender, age, admission period, morbidity, and underlying disease were analyzed. The mean lengths of hospital stay were 48.3 and 16.2 days for cases and controls, respectively (p<0.01), yielding an excess hospital stay among cases of 32.1 days. The excess mortality among cases compared to controls that was attributable to S. aureus bloodstream infection was 45.2%. Cases had a higher risk of dying compared to controls (OR 7.3, 95% CI 3.1-21.1). Overall costs of hospitalization (SIH/SUS) reached US$ 123,065 for cases versus US$ 40,247 for controls (p<0.01). The cost of antimicrobial therapy was 6.7 fold higher for cases compared to controls. Healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI was associated with statistically significant increases in length of hospitalization, attributable mortality, and economic burden. Implementation of measures to minimize the risk of healthcare-associated bacterial infections is essential.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 11/2012; · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peristomal infection is a main complication of PEG. The pull technique appears to be associated with higher infection rates compared with the introducer technique, although published results are controversial.
To determine which technique is associated with a higher risk of infection.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Studies reporting rates of peristomal infection after PEG performed by either the pull or introducer technique.
This study involved 2336 patients from 6 comparative and 10 observational studies.
Public MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine journal articles database), Excerpta Medica Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information databases and proceedings of two meetings, Digestive Disease Week and United European Gastroenterology Week, were searched. Both comparative and observational studies were included and analyzed separately.
Effect measures from each comparative study were reported as the odds ratio (OR). The pooled effect was then calculated. The infection rate in each observational study was also calculated, and a summary effect was then determined.
In comparative studies, the risk of infection was significantly higher with the pull technique (OR 13.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-36.8; P < .0001). Similarly, observational studies also reported higher infection rates with the pull technique (10.7%; 95% CI, 4.9-21.8 with the pull technique vs 0.9%; 95% CI, 0.2-4.5 with the introducer technique).
Few studies were available for inclusion, and there was a high risk of bias among the comparative studies.
The pull technique appears to be associated with a significantly higher risk of infection compared with the introducer technique.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) performed using the Pull technique is associated with a high rate of surgical infections. When PEG is performed using the Introducer technique, a lower rate of infection is seen. However, this technique can pose technical difficulties during gastropexy. Gastropexy using two straight needles, our initial method, causes the snare to be in contact with the sterile suture. We have recently used an original gastropexy technique performed with a long curved needle in which there is no contamination of the sterile suture. The aim of this study is to compare the rates of infection observed with these two methods of gastropexy.
The Introducer technique was performed in all patients with two different gastropexy techniques used during two separate, consecutive periods. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not used during either procedure. Any surgical infections were treated with local wound care and/or antibiotic therapy with treatment based on the severity of the infection. The surgical infection rates in each group were compared.
Group I consisted of 142 patients who underwent gastropexy with two straight needles, and group II consisted of 435 patients on whom gastropexy was performed with a curved needle. The infection rates found in groups I and II were 2.8% and 0.2%, respectively (P = 0.03).
Gastropexy performed with a curved needle was associated with a lower rate of infection when compared to gastropexy performed with two straight needles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to measure the quality of life (QoL) during a dengue episode. We conducted a facility-based survey in central Brazil in 2005 and recruited 372 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients greater than 12 years of age in hospital and ambulatory settings. We administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument approximately 15 days after the onset of symptoms. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to identify domains related to QoL. The median age of interviewees was 36 years. Most (85%) reported their general health status as very good or good before the dengue episode. Although ambulatory patients were mainly classified as having dengue fever, 44.8% of hospitalized patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever or intermediate dengue. Principal component analysis identified five principal components related to cognition, sleep and energy, mobility, self-care, pain, and discomfort, which explained 73% of the variability of the data matrix. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower mean scores for dimensions cognition, self-care, and pain than ambulatory patients. This investigation documented the generally poor QoL during a dengue episode caused by the large number of domains affected and significant differences between health care settings.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2011; 85(4):732-8. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, however it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities. This study estimated the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and related factors among patients on HAART. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, in central Brazil. Patients were interviewed, and blood obtained for lipids measurement. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC) > 240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) > 160 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) > 200 and/or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 40 mg/dL. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (SPSS 13.0). One hundred and thirteen patients were recruited. Mean age was 39.3 years; 68.1% were males; 50.4% were on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) in combination with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), while 42.5% were on NRTI in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs). The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.7%. Low HDL was the most frequent abnormality (53.5%), followed by high TG (36.1%). Patients on a PI regimen had a 5.2-fold higher risk (95% CI: 1.8-14.8) of dyslipidemia, even after adjusting for sex, age, and duration of HIV infection/AIDS. The study discloses a high prevalence rate of dyslipidemia and points out a need for intervention programs to reduce future cardiovascular events in patients, on HAART.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 15(2):151-5. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for nutrition support is increasing worldwide, but few studies have evaluated the durability of and complications related to the different materials used to manufacture gastrostomy tubes. Latex PEG tubes are widely used in our clinical setting, but no studies have compared their durability with silicone PEG tubes. The aim of the present study was to compare the durability of latex tubes with the durability of silicone tubes.
A randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients with head and neck cancer with indications for PEG. Sixty patients were randomized to receive either latex or silicone PEG tubes and followed up for 90 days. The analyzed outcomes were duration, peristomal infection, granulated tissue formation, and leakage around the tube.
The durability of silicone PEG tubes was significantly greater than the durability of latex PEG tubes. The survival curves showed that silicone PEG tubes lasted twice as long (hazard ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.7, P = 0.01). No differences were found with regard to rate of peristomal infection, granulated tissue formation, or leakage.
Silicone PEG tubes are associated with a reduced need for replacement (attributable to higher durability) compared with latex PEG tubes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A population-based survey to provide information on the prevalence of hepatitis viral infection and the pattern of risk factors was carried out in the urban population of all Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, between 2005 and 2009. This paper describes the design and methodology of the study which involved a population aged 5 to 19 for hepatitis A and 10 to 69 for hepatitis B and C. Interviews and blood samples were obtained through household visits. The sample was selected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling and was drawn with equal probability from each domain of study (region and age-group). Nationwide, 19,280 households and ~31,000 residents were selected. The study is large enough to detect prevalence of viral infection around 0.1% and risk factor assessments within each region. The methodology seems to be a viable way of differentiating between distinct epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A, B and C. These data will be of value for the evaluation of vaccination policies and for the design of control program strategies.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 09/2010; 26(9):1693-704. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multicentric population-based study in Brazil is the first national effort to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and risk factors in the capital cities of the Northeast, Central-West, and Federal Districts (2004-2005). Random multistage cluster sampling was used to select persons 13-69 years of age. Markers for HBV were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HBV genotypes were determined by sequencing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Multivariate analyses and simple catalytic model were performed. Overall, 7,881 persons were included; < 70% were not vaccinated. Positivity for HBsAg was less than 1% among non-vaccinated persons and genotypes A, D, and F co-circulated. The incidence of infection increased with age with similar force of infection in all regions. Males and persons having initiated sexual activity were associated with HBV infection in the two settings; healthcare jobs and prior hospitalization were risk factors in the Federal District. Our survey classified these regions as areas with HBV endemicity and highlighted the risk factors differences among the settings.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/2009; 81(2):240-7. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) performed through the Introducer Technique is associated with lower risk of surgical infection when compared to the Pull Technique. Its use is less widespread as the fixation of the stomach to the abdominal wall is a stage of the procedure that is difficult to be performed. We present a new technical variant of gastropexy which is fast and easy to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new technical variant of gastropexy in patients submitted to gastrostomy performed through the Introducer Technique.
All the patients submitted to PEG through the Introducer Technique were evaluated using a new technical variant of gastropexy, which consists of two parallel stitches of trasfixation sutures involving the abdominal wall and the gastric wall, performed with a long curved needle. Prophylactic antibiotics were not used. Demographic aspects, initial diagnosis, indication, sedation doses, morbidity and surgical mortality were all analyzed.
Four hundred and thirty-five consecutive PEGs performed between June 2004 and May 2007 were studied. Nearly all the cases consisted of patients presenting malignant neoplasia, 79.5% of which sited in the head and neck. The main indication of PEG was dysphagia, found in 346 patients (79.5%). There were 12 complications (2.8%) in 11 patients, from which only one patient had peristomal infection (0.2%). There was one death related to the procedure.
Gastropexy with the technical variant described here is easy to be performed and was feasible and safe in the present study. PEG performed by the Introducer Technique with this type of gastropexy was associated with low rates of wound infection even without the use of prophylactic antibiotics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil.
Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004-2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method.
A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%-0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of anti-HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%-0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42-16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928.
The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate marker of socio-economic condition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among children and adolescents from the Northeast and Midwest regions and the Federal District of Brazil and to identify individual-, household- and area-levels factors associated with hepatitis A infection.
This population-based survey was conducted in 2004-2005 and covered individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. A stratified multistage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used to select 1937 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years living in the Federal capital and in the State capitals of 12 states in the study regions. The sample was stratified according to age (5-9 and 10- to 19-years-old) and capital within each region. Individual- and household-level data were collected by interview at the home of the individual. Variables related to the area were retrieved from census tract data. The outcome was total antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected using commercial EIA. The age distribution of the susceptible population was estimated using a simple catalytic model. The associations between HAV infection and independent variables were assessed using the odds ratio and corrected for the random design effect and sampling weight. Multilevel analysis was performed by GLLAMM using Stata 9.2.
The prevalence of hepatitis A infection in the 5-9 and 10-19 age-group was 41.5 and 57.4%, respectively for the Northeast, 32.3 and 56.0%, respectively for the Midwest and 33.8 and 65.1% for the Federal District. A trend for the prevalence of HAV infection to increase according to age was detected in all sites. By the age of 5, 31.5% of the children had already been infected with HAV in the Northeast region compared with 20.0% in the other sites. By the age of 19 years, seropositivity was approximately 70% in all areas. The curves of susceptible populations differed from one area to another. Multilevel modeling showed that variables relating to different levels of education were associated with HAV infection in all sites.
The study sites were classified as areas with intermediate endemicity area for hepatitis A infection. Differences in age trends of infection were detected among settings. This multilevel model allowed for quantification of contextual predictors of hepatitis A infection in urban areas.
International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2008; 37(4):852-61. · 6.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical manifestations of dengue vary in different areas of endemicity and between specific age groups, whereas predictors of outcome have remained controversial. In Brazil, the disease burden predominantly affects adults, with an increasing trend toward progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) noted.
A cohort of adults with confirmed cases of dengue was recruited in central Brazil in 2005. Patients were classified according to the severity of their disease. Associations of antibody responses, viremia levels (as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), and serotypes (as determined by multiplex PCR) with disease severity were evaluated.
Of the 185 symptomatic patients >14 years of age who had a confirmed case of dengue, 26.5% and 23.2% were classified as having intermediate dengue fever (DF)/DHF (defined as internal hemorrhage, plasma leakage, manifested signs of shock, and/or thrombocytopenia [platelet count, < or =50,000 platelets/mm3]) and DHF, respectively. The onset of intermediate DF/DHF and DHF occurred at a late stage of disease, around the period of defervescence. Patients with DHF had abnormal liver enzyme levels, with a >3-fold increase in aspartate aminotransferase level, compared with the range of values considered to be normal. Overall, 65% of patients presented with secondary infections with dengue virus, with such infection occurring in similar proportions of patients in each of the 3 disease category groups. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DV3) was the predominant serotype, and viremia was detected during and after defervescence among patients with DHF or intermediate DF/DHF.
Viremia was detected after defervescence in adult patients classified as having DHF or intermediate DF/DHF. Secondary infection was not a predictor of severe clinical manifestation in adults with infected with the DV3 serotype.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2008; 197(6):817-24. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past 2 decades, dengue has reemerged in Brazil as a significant public health problem. Clinicians demand a diagnostic test with high sensitivity that is applicable during the early symptomatic phase. We aimed to test two distinct molecular methods on samples from suspected dengue cases during an outbreak in Central Brazil. Acute-phase serum specimens from 254 patients suspected of having dengue were collected during 2005 in the city of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Samples were blindly evaluated by real-time and multiplex PCR in addition to routine immunoglobulin M serology and virus culture. Overall, acute dengue was confirmed by serology, multiplex PCR, or virus isolation for 80% of patients (203/254). Another four patients presented real-time PCR-positive results as the unique marker of dengue. Higher real-time PCR positivity levels and viral loads were observed in the early symptomatic phase of disease (< or =5 days) than after this period. Multiplex and real-time PCR assays presented a high kappa agreement (0.85). According to multiplex PCR, 60 samples harbored dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3), 4 samples harbored DEN-2, and 1 sample displayed a pattern compatible with a double infection with DEN-2 and -3. The dengue virus real-time kit was found to be practical and adjustable for high throughput, to display the best performance in the early symptomatic phase of dengue cases, and to be valuable for confirming dengue diagnosis in a timely manner.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2007; 45(6):1893-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor