[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enables metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and the Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of Dechloromonas spp. was highly abundant, suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2 O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that uranium reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO amendment. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique as a monitoring tool and for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Transposases, enzymes that catalyze the movement of mobile genetic elements, are the most abundant genes in nature. While many bacteria encode an abundance of transposases in their genomes, the current paradigm is that the expression of transposase genes is tightly regulated and generally low due to its severe mutagenic effects. In the current study, we detected the highest number of transposase proteins ever reported in bacteria, in symbionts of the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis with metaproteomics. At least 26 different transposases from 12 different families were detected, and genomic and proteomic analyses suggest that many of these are active. This high expression of transposases indicates that the mechanisms for their tight regulation have been disabled or no longer exist. IMPORTANCE The expansion of transposable elements (TE) within the genomes of host-restricted symbionts and pathogens plays an important role in their emergence and evolution and might be a key mechanism for adaptation to the host environment. However, little is known so far about the underlying causes and evolutionary mechanisms of this TE expansion. The current model of genome evolution in host-restricted bacteria explains TE expansion within the confines of the paradigm that transposase expression is always low. However, recent work failed to verify this model. Based on our data, we hypothesize that increased transposase expression, which has not previously been described, may play a role in TE expansion, and could be one explanation for the sometimes very rapid emergence and evolution of new obligate symbionts and pathogens from facultative ones.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Archaea are widely distributed and yet are most often not the most abundant members of microbial communities. Here, we document a transition from Bacteria- to Archaea-dominated communities in microbial biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine acid mine drainage (AMD) system (∼pH 1.0, ∼38°C) and in laboratory-cultivated biofilms. This transition occurs when chemoautotrophic microbial communities that develop at the air-solution interface sink to the sediment-solution interface and degrade under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. The archaea identified in these sunken biofilms are from the class Thermoplasmata, and in some cases, the highly divergent ARMAN nanoarchaeal lineage. In several of the sunken biofilms, nanoarchaea comprise 10 to 25% of the community, based on fluorescent in situ hybridization and metagenomic analyses. Comparative community proteomic analyses show a persistence of bacterial proteins in sunken biofilms, but there is clear evidence for amino acid modifications due to acid hydrolysis. Given the low representation of bacterial cells in sunken biofilms based on microscopy, we infer that hydrolysis reflects proteins derived from lysed cells. For archaea, we detected ∼2,400 distinct proteins, including a subset involved in proteolysis and peptide uptake. Laboratory cultivation experiments using complex carbon substrates demonstrated anaerobic enrichment of Ferroplasma and Aplasma coupled to the reduction of ferric iron. These findings indicate dominance of acidophilic archaea in degrading biofilms and suggest that they play roles in anaerobic nutrient cycling at low pH.
Applied and environmental microbiology 12/2012; 78(23):8321-30. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four different detergent clean-up methods (Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Chloroform/Methanol/Water (CMW) extraction, commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation(FASP)) with respect to varying amounts of protein biomass in the samples, and provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications for each method. Our results show that for protein limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three clean-up methods, while at high protein amount all the methods are comparable. This information was used in a dual strategy of comparing molecular weight based fractionated and unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples (Escherichia coli, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), which were all lysed with SDS and cleaned up using FASP. The two approaches complemented each other by enhancing the number of protein identifications by 8%-25% across the three samples and provided broad pathway coverage.
Journal of Proteome Research 11/2012; · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low nutrient and energy availability has led to the evolution of numerous strategies for overcoming these limitations, of which symbiotic associations represent a key mechanism. Particularly striking are the associations between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine animals that thrive in nutrient-poor environments such as the deep sea because the symbionts allow their hosts to grow on inorganic energy and carbon sources such as sulfide and CO(2). Remarkably little is known about the physiological strategies that enable chemosynthetic symbioses to colonize oligotrophic environments. In this study, we used metaproteomics and metabolomics to investigate the intricate network of metabolic interactions in the chemosynthetic association between Olavius algarvensis, a gutless marine worm, and its bacterial symbionts. We propose previously undescribed pathways for coping with energy and nutrient limitation, some of which may be widespread in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria. These pathways include (i) a pathway for symbiont assimilation of the host waste products acetate, propionate, succinate and malate; (ii) the potential use of carbon monoxide as an energy source, a substrate previously not known to play a role in marine invertebrate symbioses; (iii) the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source; (iv) the strong expression of high-affinity uptake transporters; and (v) as yet undescribed energy-efficient steps in CO(2) fixation and sulfate reduction. The high expression of proteins involved in pathways for energy and carbon uptake and conservation in the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicates that the oligotrophic nature of its environment exerted a strong selective pressure in shaping these associations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 109(19):E1173-82. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Economically viable production of solvents through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology 03/2012; 39(6):949-55. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRISPR/Cas system, comprised of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats along with their associated (Cas) proteins, protects bacteria and archaea from viral predation and invading nucleic acids. While the mechanism of action for this acquired immunity is currently under investigation, the response of Cas protein expression to phage infection has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we employed shotgun proteomics to measure the global proteome expression in a model system for studying the CRISPR/Cas response in S. thermophilus DGCC7710 infected with phage 2972. Host and viral proteins were simultaneously measured following inoculation at two different multiplicities of infection and across various time points using two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-seven out of forty predicted viral proteins were detected, including all proteins of the structural virome and viral effector proteins. In total, 1,013 of 2,079 predicted S. thermophilus proteins were detected, facilitating the monitoring of host protein synthesis changes in response to virus infection. Importantly, Cas proteins from all four CRISPR loci in the S. thermophilus DGCC7710 genome were detected, including loci previously thought to be inactive. Many Cas proteins were found to be constitutively expressed, but several demonstrated increased abundance following infection, including the signature Cas9 proteins from the CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 loci, which are key players in the interference phase of the CRISPR/Cas response. Altogether, these results provide novel insights into the proteomic response of S. thermophilus, specifically CRISPR-associated proteins, upon phage 2972 infection.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e38077. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e49138. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current state-of-the-art experimental and computational proteomic approaches were integrated to obtain a comprehensive protein profile of Populus vascular tissue. This featured: (1) a large sample set consisting of two genotypes grown under normal and tension stress conditions, (2) bioinformatics clustering to effectively handle gene duplication, and (3) an informatics approach to track and identify single amino acid polymorphisms (SAAPs). By applying a clustering algorithm to the Populus database, the number of protein entries decreased from 64,689 proteins to a total of 43,069 protein groups, thereby reducing 7505 identified proteins to a total of 4226 protein groups, in which 2016 were singletons. This reduction implies that ∼50% of the measured proteins shared extensive sequence homology. Using conservative search criteria, we were able to identify 1354 peptides containing a SAAP and 201 peptides that become tryptic due to a K or R substitution. These newly identified peptides correspond to 502 proteins, including 97 previously unidentified proteins. In total, the integration of deep proteome measurements on an extensive sample set with protein clustering and peptide sequence variants provided an exceptional level of proteome characterization for Populus, allowing us to spatially resolve the vascular tissue proteome.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2012; 11(1):449-60. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems-level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing cells of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL), as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially upregulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and is implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly upregulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally downregulated in response to FNL, and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition, while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number of genes coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status.
Applied and environmental microbiology 12/2011; 78(5):1424-36. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In microbial communities, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), also called the extracellular matrix, provide the spatial organization and structural stability during biofilm development. One of the major components of EPS is protein, but it is not clear what specific functions these proteins contribute to the extracellular matrix or to microbial physiology. To investigate this in biofilms from an extremely acidic environment, we used shotgun proteomics analyses to identify proteins associated with EPS in biofilms at two developmental stages, designated DS1 and DS2. The proteome composition of the EPS was significantly different from that of the cell fraction, with more than 80% of the cellular proteins underrepresented or undetectable in EPS. In contrast, predicted periplasmic, outer membrane, and extracellular proteins were overrepresented by 3- to 7-fold in EPS. Also, EPS proteins were more basic by ∼2 pH units on average and about half the length. When categorized by predicted function, proteins involved in motility, defense, cell envelope, and unknown functions were enriched in EPS. Chaperones, such as histone-like DNA binding protein and cold shock protein, were overrepresented in EPS. Enzymes, such as protein peptidases, disulfide-isomerases, and those associated with cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism, were also detected. Two of these enzymes, identified as β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and cellulase, were confirmed in the EPS fraction by enzymatic activity assays. Compared to the differences between EPS and cellular fractions, the relative differences in the EPS proteomes between DS1 and DS2 were smaller and consistent with expected physiological changes during biofilm development.
Applied and environmental microbiology 06/2011; 77(15):5230-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2011; 108(11):4352-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate protein identification in large-scale proteomics experiments relies upon a detailed, accurate protein catalogue, which is derived from predictions of open reading frames based on genome sequence data. Integration of mass spectrometry-based proteomics data with computational proteome predictions from environmental metagenomic sequences has been challenging because of the variable overlap between proteomic datasets and corresponding short-read nucleotide sequence data. In this study, we have benchmarked several strategies for increasing microbial peptide spectral matching in metaproteomic datasets using protein predictions generated from matched metagenomic sequences from the same human fecal samples. Additionally, we investigated the impact of mass spectrometry-based filters (high mass accuracy, delta correlation), and de novo peptide sequencing on the number and robustness of peptide-spectrum assignments in these complex datasets. In summary, we find that high mass accuracy peptide measurements searched against non-assembled reads from DNA sequencing of the same samples significantly increased identifiable proteins without sacrificing accuracy.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27173. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT:
Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. This paper focuses on shotgun proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation using glucose and xylose to understand the functional mechanisms of C. acetobutylicum proteins involved in butanol production.
We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates.
Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metaproteomics is one of a suite of new approaches providing insights into the activities of microorganisms in natural environments. Proteins, the final products of gene expression, indicate cellular priorities, taking into account both transcriptional and posttranscriptional control mechanisms that control adaptive responses. Here, we report the proteomic composition of the < 1.2 μm fraction of a microbial community from Oregon coast summer surface waters, detected with two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Spectra corresponding to proteins involved in protein folding and biosynthesis, transport, and viral capsid structure were the most frequently detected. A total of 36% of all the detected proteins were best matches to the SAR11 clade, and other abundant coastal microbial clades were also well represented, including the Roseobacter clade (17%), oligotrophic marine gammaproteobacteria group (6%), OM43 clade (1%). Viral origins were attributed to 2.5% of proteins. In contrast to oligotrophic waters, phosphate transporters were not highly detected in this nutrient-rich system. However, transporters for amino acids, taurine, polyamines and glutamine synthetase were among the most highly detected proteins, supporting predictions that carbon and nitrogen are more limiting than phosphate in this environment. Intriguingly, one of the highly detected proteins was methanol dehydrogenase originating from the OM43 clade, providing further support for recent reports that the metabolism of one-carbon compounds by these streamlined methylotrophs might be an important feature of coastal ocean biogeochemistry.
The ISME Journal 11/2010; 5(5):856-65. · 8.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.
Journal of Proteome Research 10/2010; 9(12):6615-22. · 5.06 Impact Factor